This report explores how countries can strengthen the resilience of their agricultural sectors to multiple risks. A shifting risk landscape in agriculture – due to increasing weather variability, natural hazards, pests and diseases, and market shocks – will require public and private actors to consider the risk landscape over the long term, place a greater emphasis on what can be done ex ante to reduce risk exposure and increase preparedness, and prioritise investments that build resilience capacities both on-farm and for the sector as a whole.
Resilience and the Lost Art of Agricultural Inventiveness
Author: Michael Foley
Publisher: Chelsea Green Publishing
Category: Social Science
It's all but certain that the next fifty years will bring enormous, not to say cataclysmic, disruptions to our present way of life. World oil reserves will be exhausted within that time frame, as will the lithium that powers today's most sophisticated batteries, suggesting that transportation is equally imperiled. And there's another, even more dire limitation that is looming: at current rates of erosion, the world's topsoil will be gone in sixty years. Fresh water sources are in jeopardy, too. In short, the large-scale agricultural and food delivery system as we know it has at most a few decades before it exhausts itself and the planet with it. Farming for the Long Haul is about building a viable small farm economy that can withstand the economic, political, and climatic shock waves that the twenty-first century portends. It draws on the innovative work of contemporary farmers, but more than that, it shares the experiences of farming societies around the world that have maintained resilient agricultural systems over centuries of often-turbulent change. Indigenous agriculturalists, peasants, and traditional farmers have all created broad strategies for survival through good times and bad, and many of them prospered. They also developed particular techniques for managing soil, water, and other resources sustainably. Some of these techniques have been taken up by organic agriculture and permaculture, but many more of them are virtually unknown, even among alternative farmers. This book lays out some of these strategies and presents techniques and tools that might prove most useful to farmers today and in the uncertain future.
This book provides essential insights into methods and practices of ‘Climate-smart Agriculture,’ which is driven by the principles of climate resilience and smart resource use in agricultural production. Climate-smart agriculture is a key policy instrument for achieving poverty eradication and a hunger-free world, as well as mitigating the effects of climate change. This book discusses in detail climate-smart agricultural technologies and practices that can reduce the vulnerability of agricultural systems, improve the livelihoods of farmers and other stakeholders, and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from crop production and livestock husbandry. The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector produces roughly 10–12 gigatons of CO2-equivalent per year; therefore, sustainable practices for agriculture and related land use hold immense potential to mitigate climate change. The potential impacts of climate variability and climate change on agriculture are extensively documented and articulated, especially with regard to global and national environmental agendas that call for innovation, transformation and climate-resilient advances in agriculture. As the book demonstrates, climate-smart agriculture offers an excellent tool for boosting agricultural output to feed the growing global population; for reducing greenhouse gases emissions from agriculture and other land use; and for protecting agricultural production systems from the impending dangers of climate change.
An Investigation of Farmer Perceptions of Climate Change, Risk, and Adaptation
Author: Rachel Erin Schattman
Climate change forecasts tell of significant challenges ahead for agrifood systems at all scales, from global to highly local. Farmers are often at the forefront of these challenges. How farmers perceive climate related risks, and the actions they take to protect or adapt their lives and livelihoods are therefore a critical area of inquiry. The purpose of this dissertation is to describe how farmers in Vermont, in the Northeastern U.S., think about climate change, and how their experiences and perceptions influence engagement with adaptation or mitigation activities. To this end, my research questions included: (1) what are farmers already doing to address climate impacts on their farms? (2) Do farmers perceive climate change to be a risk, and if so what are they doing to address it? (3) Are farmers and agricultural technical service providers in agreement about the current performance of climate change adaptation strategies? (4) Can a qualitative typology of farmers describe the degree to which they are resilient in the face of climate change? I conducted this research in the context of a larger, collaborative effort called the Vermont Agricultural Resilience in a Changing Climate Initiative (VAR), based at the University of Vermont. VAR served as an umbrella for transdisciplinary, participatory action research activities that capitalized on a diversity of perspectives and expertise, including the embedded knowledge of farmers and agricultural technical service providers. The VAR team as a whole and in sub-teams utilized a selection of research approaches including preliminary research activities that contributed to the development of research questions addressed in this dissertation, and primary research approaches used to answer those questions. This dissertation report consists of the following chapters: Chapters 1-2 present and introduction and background information related to climate change and agriculture, including a review of national, regional and site conditions as well as an overview of research purpose, approaches, methods, and theoretical frameworks applicable to the exploration of the questions and interpretation of findings. Chapters 3-6 address the following topics: (1) a case study in transdisciplinary participatory action research applied to climate change and agriculture in Vermont, (2) an analysis of farmer perceptions of climate related risk and associated on-farm adaptation strategies, (3) a report of farmer perceptions of climate change and comparison of farmer and technical service provider evaluations of potential climate change best management practices, and (4) a qualitative typology of farmer resilience. This research is some of the first to address these topics from the perspective of farmers in the Northeastern U.S. Through these chapters, an important story is told about role that climate change plays in farm management today. The broader application of these findings is in the design of thoughtful programming and policies that support agrifood system resilience. I argue that social programs and policies that address agriculture and climate change should be informed by the experiences of farmers. When we weave together the knowledge of agricultural practitioners and our best scientific knowledge, we can better prepare for the changes in agrifood systems that a changing climate will require of us.
This book is open access under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license. The book uses an economic lens to identify the main features of climate-smart agriculture (CSA), its likely impact, and the challenges associated with its implementation. Drawing upon theory and concepts from agricultural development, institutional, and resource economics, this book expands and formalizes the conceptual foundations of CSA. Focusing on the adaptation/resilience dimension of CSA, the text embraces a mixture of conceptual analyses, including theory, empirical and policy analysis, and case studies, to look at adaptation and resilience through three possible avenues: ex-ante reduction of vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity, and ex-post risk coping. The book is divided into three sections. The first section provides conceptual framing, giving an overview of the CSA concept and grounding it in core economic principles. The second section is devoted to a set of case studies illustrating the economic basis of CSA in terms of reducing vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity and ex-post risk coping. The final section addresses policy issues related to climate change. Providing information on this new and important field in an approachable way, this book helps make sense of CSA and fills intellectual and policy gaps by defining the concept and placing it within an economic decision-making framework. This book will be of interest to agricultural, environmental, and natural resource economists, development economists, and scholars of development studies, climate change, and agriculture. It will also appeal to policy-makers, development practitioners, and members of governmental and non-governmental organizations interested in agriculture, food security and climate change.
This brief explores several adaptive agricultural practices from around the world to fulfill current and future agricultural demands for food security due to the challenges posed by climate change and growing global population. Readers will discover how farmers adapt to environmental changes by adopting various agronomic practices at crop, farm and landscape levels. Particular attention is given to systemic and transformational adaptation strategies employed by farmers such as mulching, organic farming and crop diversification. This is a highly informative and carefully presented book that provides insights on how crops can build up resilience against periods of drought, high salinity, disasters such as floods, and diseases. The policy implications and future prospects of these adaptation strategies are also addressed. Environmental and plant scientists, agronomists and researchers in climate sciences will find this book interesting.
Shares the adaptation stories of award-winning sustainable farmers and ranchers to explore practical steps to a climate-resilient food future Climate change presents an unprecedented challenge to the productivity and profitability of agriculture in North America. Drought and flooding rains create the most obvious damage, but hot summer nights, warmer winters, changing pest pressures, and other changes have more subtle but far-reaching effects on the production of crops and livestock. This updated second edition of Resilient Agriculture takes you beyond the headlines and the hype to examine the complexities of climate change, resilience, and the future of food through the adaptation stories of some of North America's best sustainable farmers and ranchers. Updated content includes: 4th National Climate Assessment Current and projected climate change impacts by region New interviews with award-winning farmers and ranchers and updates on the producers featured in the first edition New chapters exploring agricultural climate solutions, the regional roots of resilience, and emerging policies and programs designed to enhance the climate resilience of agriculture and food systems. To enjoy the sustained production of food, fiber, and fuel well into the 21st century, we must begin now to make changes to enhance the adaptive capacity and resilience of agriculture and food systems. Whether you're an educator, farmer, researcher, policy maker, or simply an interested eater, Resilient Agriculture will take you on a journey into the power of sustainable agriculture as a solution to climate change.
Food Security, Climate Change and the Future Resilience of Global Agriculture
Author: Reider Almas
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
Category: Technology & Engineering
Through international case studies, this book evaluates how various policy challenges are having an impact on specific agricultural policy regimes, and what future lessons might be learnt from key policy experiments around neoliberalism and multifunctionality.
This volume discusses emerging contexts of agricultural and ecosystem resilience in Sub Saharan Africa, as well as contemporary technological advances that have influenced African livelihoods. In six sections, the book addresses the sustainable development goals to mitigate the negative impacts on agricultural productivity brought about by climate change in Africa. Some of the challenges assessed include soil degradation, land use changes, natural resource mismanagement, declining crop productivity, and economic stagnation. This book will be of interest to researchers, NGOs, and development organizations. Section 1 focuses on climate risk management in tropical Africa. Section 2 addresses the water-ecosystem-agriculture nexus, and identifies the best strategies for sustainable water use. Section 3 introduces Information Communication Technology (ICT), and how it can be used for ecosystem and human resilience to improve quality of life in communities. Section 4 discusses the science and policies of transformative agriculture, including challenges facing crop production and management. Section 5 addresses landscape processes, human security, and governance of agro-ecosystems. Section 6 concludes the book with chapters uniquely covering the gender dynamics of agricultural, ecosystem, and livelihood resilience.
A proper understanding of the risks faced by the agricultural sector and effective strategies to manage those risks is vital to creating a diversified and resilient economy for sustained growth and economic transformation. Increasing Agricultural Resilience through Better Risk Management in Zambia provides a rigorous analysis of the production, marketing, and enabling environment risks faced by Zambia's agricultural sector and prioritizes solutions to manage the risks. In terms of the severity and frequency of adverse impacts, the analysis shows that droughts, floods, price volatilities, and trade restrictions are the principal risks affecting agriculture in the country. Exposure to the consequences of these and other risks can be effectively limited through risk management systems tailored to the country's context. Three areas of risk management are found to warrant priority, with significant potential for synergizing actions undertaken across them: Strengthen early warning system to detect threats to food security; Develop climate-smart agriculture and increase resilience to climate-related shocks through diversification; and Develop the Zambian Commodity Exchange (ZAMACE) and build a shock-responsive safety net.
A comprehensive, edited volume pulling together research on manipulation of the crop microbiome for climate resilient agriculture Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture provides a unique collection of data and a holistic view of the subject with quantitative assessment of how agricultural systems will be transformed in coming decades using hidden treasure of microbes. Authored by leaders in the field and edited to ensure conciseness and clarity, it covers a broad range of agriculturally important crops, discusses the impact of climate change on crops, and examines biotechnologically and environmentally relevant microbes. The book encapsulates the understanding of microbial mediated stress management at field level, and will serve as a springboard for novel research findings and new applications in the field. Chapter coverage includes: the role of the phytomicrobiome in maintaining biofuel crop production in a changing climate; the impact of agriculture on soil microbial community composition and diversity in southeast Asia; climate change impact on plant diseases; microalgae; photosynthetic microorganisms and bioenergy prospects; amelioration of abiotic stresses in plants through multi-faceted beneficial microorganisms; role of methylotrophic bacteria in climate change mitigation; conservation agriculture for climate change resilience; archaeal community structure; mycorrhiza-helping plants to navigate environmental stresses; endophytic microorganisms; bacillus thuringiensis; and microbial nanotechnology for climate resilient agriculture. Clear and succinct chapters contributed and edited by leaders in the field Covers microbes' beneficial and detrimental roles in the microbiome, as well as the functions they perform under stress Discusses the crop microbiome, nutrient cycling microbes, endophytes, mycorrhizae, and various pests and diseases, and their roles in sustainable farming Places research in larger context of climate change's effect on global agriculture Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture is an important text for scientists and researchers studying microbiology, biotechnology, environmental biology, agronomy, plant physiology, and plant protection.
This book collects wide-ranging contributions such as case studies, reviews, reports on technological developments, outputs of research/studies, and examples of successful projects, presenting current knowledge and raising awareness to help the agriculture and forestry sectors find solutions for mitigating climate variability and adapting to change. It brings the topic of ecosystem services closer to education and learning, as targeted by the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Climate change and its impacts on agriculture and agroforestry have been observed across the world during the last 50 years. Increasing temperatures, droughts, biotic stresses and the impacts of extreme events have continuously decreased agroforestry systems’ resilience to the effects of climate change. As such, there is a need to adapt farming and agroforestry systems so as to make them better able to handle ever-changing climate conditions, and to preserve habitats and ecosystems services.
Resilient Agriculture, Second Edition explores the latest science on climate risk and resilience through the adaptation stories of award-winning farmers and ranchers to explore the powerful solutions offered by agriculture and food systems designed to restore the natural, human, and social resources that sustain us.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FAO Agricultural Development Economics Working Paper 19-01
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Category: Social Science
Despite significant recent improvements in measuring resilience, there are still relevant gaps in the analysis. One of the relatively unexplored aspects of resilience is whether a genderspecific analysis of resilience capacity can become relevant for policy use. This paper contributes to the literature on resilience by analysing a data set with one of the most adopted resilience indicators and highlighting the emerging gaps.
Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Author: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Publisher: IWA Publishing
This report analyses the adaptive capacity in agricultural water management, adaptation in agriculture to water variability and extreme events, (floods and droughts), mitigation, (water and energy) and uncertainty about further climate change.
Improving Resilience through Climate Smart Agriculture, Agroecology and Conservation
Author: Udaya Sekhar Nagothu
Category: Technology & Engineering
Two of the greatest current challenges are climate change (and variability) and food security. Feeding nine billion people by 2050 will require major efforts aimed at climate change adaptation and mitigation. One approach to agriculture has recently been captured by the widely adopted term of "Climate Smart Agriculture" (CSA). This book not only explains what this entails, but also presents practical on-the-ground studies of practices and innovations in agriculture across a broader spectrum, including agroecology and conservation agriculture, in less developed countries. It is shown that CSA is not a completely new science and a number of its recommended technologies have been used for some time by local farmers all over the world. What is relevant and new is ‘the approach’ to exploit their adaptation and mitigation potential. However, a major limitation is the lack of evidence-based knowledge that is necessary for policy makers to prepare strategies for adaptation and mitigation. This book assembles knowledge of CSA, agroecology and conservation agriculture, and perspectives from different regions of the world, to build resilient food systems. The first part analyzes the concept, opportunities and challenges, and provides a global perspective, drawing particularly on studies from Africa and Asia. The second part of the book showcases results from various studies linked to soil, water and crop management measures from an ongoing program in India as well as experiences from other regions. The third section assesses the needs for an enabling policy environment, mainstreaming gender and sime final recommendations for up-scaling and/or out-scaling innovations.
Building Resilient Farming Systems in a Changing Climate
Author: Amir H Kassam
Tillage agriculture has led to widespread soil and ecosystem degradation globally. This is especially so in Africa where traditional and modern tillage-based agricultural practices have become unsustainable due to severe disturbance and exploitation of natural resources, with negative impacts on the environment and rural livelihoods. In addition, agriculture in Africa today faces major challenges including increased costs of production and energy, the effects of climate change, and the lack of an effective paradigm for sustainable intensification, especially for small- and medium-size holdings. Africa is facing a serious challenge to food security and as a continent has not advanced towards eradicating hunger. In addition, the population is still growing much faster than on most other continents. This pressure has led to the emergence of no-till conservation agriculture as a serious alternative sustainable agriculture paradigm. In Africa, in recent years, conservation agriculture techniques and methods have spread to many countries, as greater development, education and research effort are directed towards its extension and uptake. This book is aimed at agricultural researchers and scientists, educationalists, and agricultural service providers, institutional leaders and policy makers working in the fields of sustainable agriculture and international development, and also at agroecologists, conservation scientists, and those working on ecosystem services.
This book examines the mechanisms and strategies farmers in North Australia adopt to manage the setbacks and challenges they face. This social research is based on farmers’ experiences, but also draws on the author’s own experience after his tropical fruit farm was destroyed by two Category 5 cyclones in five years. Through historical analysis, the book compares historic and contemporary aspirations for northern development, and discusses the influence of the built environment on individuals as well as access to health and other social services. Exploring the implications of individual resilience strategies for policy development within the broader context of northern development and evolving environmental governance, the book also highlights the fact that this is occurring in a new geological epoch – the Anthropocene. The book will provide a unique perspective and understanding to government, individuals and industries interested in northern Australia and its relationship to the world