With near-comprehensive coverage of new advances in crop breeding for drought and salinity stress tolerance, this timely work seeks to integrate the most recent findings about key biological determinants of plant stress tolerance with modern crop improvement strategies. This volume is unique because is provides exceptionally wide coverage of current knowledge and expertise being applied in drought and salt tolerance research.
The basic concept of this book is to examine the use of innovative methods augmenting traditional plant breeding towards the development of new crop varieties under different environmental conditions to achieve sustainable food production. This book consists of two volumes: Volume 1 subtitled Breeding, Biotechnology and Molecular Tools and Volume 2 subtitled Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits. This is volume 2 which contains 18 chapters highlighting breeding strategies for specific plant traits including improved nutritional and pharmaceutical properties as well as enhanced tolerance to insects, diseases, drought, salinity and temperature extremes expected under predicted global climate change.
Growing scarcity of freshwater worldwide brings to light the need for sound water resource modeling and policy analysis. While a solid foundation has been established for many specific water management problems, combining those methods and principles in a unified framework remains an ongoing challenge. This Handbook aims to expand the scope of efficient water use to include allocation of sources and quantities across uses and time, as well as integrating demand-management with supply-side substitutes. Socially efficient water use does not generally coincide with private decisions in the real world, however. Examples of mechanisms designed to incentivize efficient behavior are drawn from agricultural water use, municipal water regulation, and externalities linked to water resources. Water management is further complicated when information is costly and/or imperfect. Standard optimization frameworks are extended to allow for coordination costs, games and cooperation, and risk allocation. When operating efficiently, water markets are often viewed as a desirable means of allocation because a market price incentivizes users to move resources from low to high value activities. However, early attempts at water trading have run into many obstacles. Case studies from the United States, Australia, Europe, and Canada highlight the successes and remaining challenges of establishing efficient water markets.
Plant Signaling Molecule: Role and Regulation under Stressful Environments explores tolerance mechanisms mediated by signaling molecules in plants for achieving sustainability under changing environmental conditions. Including a wide range of potential molecules, from primary to secondary metabolites, the book presents the status and future prospects of the role and regulation of signaling molecules at physiological, biochemical, molecular and structural level under abiotic stress tolerance. This book is designed to enhance the mechanistic understanding of signaling molecules and will be an important resource for plant biologists in developing stress tolerant crops to achieve sustainability under changing environmental conditions. Focuses on plant biology under stress conditions Provides a compendium of knowledge related to plant adaptation, physiology, biochemistry and molecular responses Identifies treatments that enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses Illustrates specific physiological pathways that are considered key points for plant adaptation or tolerance to abiotic stresses
This book examines the development of innovative modern methodologies towards augmenting conventional plant breeding, in individual crops, for the production of new crop varieties under the increasingly limiting environmental and cultivation factors to achieve sustainable agricultural production, enhanced food security, in addition to providing raw materials for innovative industrial products and pharmaceuticals. This Volume 5, subtitled Cereals, focuses on advances in breeding strategies using both traditional and modern approaches for the improvement of individual crops. It addresses important staple food crops including barley, fonio, finger millet, foxtail millet, pearl millet, proso millet, quinoa, rice, rye, tef, triticale and spelt wheat. The volume is contributed by 53 internationally reputable scientists from 14 countries. Each chapter comprehensively reviews the modern literature on the subject and reflects the authors own experience.
During the past 15 years, cellular and molecular approaches have emerged as valuable adjuncts to supplement and complement conventional breeding methods for a wide variety of crop plants. Biotechnology increasingly plays a role in the creation, conservation, characterization and utilization of genetic variability for germplasm enhancement. For instance, anther/microspore culture, somaclonal variation, embryo culture and somatic hybridization are being exploited for obtaining incremental improvement in the existing cultivars. In addition, genes that confer insect- and disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, herbicide tolerance and quality traits have been isolated and re-introduced into otherwise sensitive or susceptible species by a variety of transgenic techniques. Together these transformative methodologies grant access to a greater repertoire of genetic diversity as the gene(s) may come from viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects, animals, human beings, unrelated plants or even be artificially derived. Remarkable achievements have been made in the production, characterization, field evaluation and commercialization of transgenic crop varieties worldwide. Likewise, significant advances have been made towards increasing crop yields, improving nutritional quality, enabling crops to be raised under adverse conditions and developing resistance to pests and diseases for sustaining global food and nutritional security. The overarching purpose of this 3-volume work is to summarize the history of crop improvement from a technological perspective but to do so with a forward outlook on further advancement and adaptability to a changing world. Our carefully chosen “case studies of important plant crops” intend to serve a diverse spectrum of audience looking for the right tools to tackle complicated local and global issues.
Characterization and Genetic Approaches for Crop Improvement
Author: Mohamed A. El-Esawi
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Maize is an important staple food crop worldwide. It is the third most important cereal crop after wheat and rice and is economically used for both livestock feeds and human consumption. The latest maize research has opened up new opportunities for crop improvement. This book brings together recent work and advances that have recently been made in the dynamic fields of genetic characterization, molecular breeding, genetic engineering technologies, and mapping of agronomic traits of global maize germplasm. It also provides new insights into and sheds new light regarding the current research trends and future research directions in maize. This book will provoke interest in many readers, researchers, and scientists, who can find this information useful for the advancement of their research works toward maize improvement.
Due to the advent of state-of-the-art technologies in the field of biotechnology, much progress has been achieved since the last decade. OMICS technologies are being extensively used to address various issues pertaining to agriculture. Recent advances in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics techniques have revolutionized the understanding of genetic response of plants to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Strategic application of this revolutionary technology will eventually lead towards attaining sustainability in agriculture. This new book, Plant OMICS and Crop Breeding, addresses this important issue.
Vol 2: Agriculture and forestry under marginal soil water conditions
Author: Helmut Lieth
The Symposium on high salinity tolerant plants, held at the University of Al Ain in December 1990, dealt primarily with plants tolerating salinity levels exceeding that of ocean water and which at the same time are promising for utilization in agriculture or forestry. These plants could be very useful for a country like the UAE where fresh water resources are very scarce and the groundwater available at some places is already very salty. More than 60 million woody trees/shrubs have been planted so far and more are planned for the inland plains underlain with brackish groundwater. These species were no solution for the widely barren shoreline of the UAE. Here mangrove species were of potential use, and one species, Avicennia Marina, occurs widely and has been successfully planted for about a decade. Converting the tree plantations into economically useful cropping systems is still a problem requiring much research and development. The book deals in several sections with conventional irrigation systems using marginal water. The species used in these systems are mostly hybrids of conventional crops. The irrigation systems, however, have similar problems as may be expected for irrigation with seawater. Papers show the participants' experiments in this area. The volume serves as a link between scientists working for the improvement of classical irrigation systems and those interested in the application of a new dimension of salinity levels for irrigation water.
Crops experience an assortment of environmental stresses which include abiotic viz., drought, water logging, salinity, extremes of temperature, high variability in radiation, subtle but perceptible changes in atmospheric gases and biotic viz., insects, birds, other pests, weeds, pathogens (viruses and other microbes). The ability to tolerate or adapt and overwinter by effectively countering these stresses is a very multifaceted phenomenon. In addition, the inability to do so which renders the crops susceptible is again the result of various exogenous and endogenous interactions in the ecosystem. Both biotic and abiotic stresses occur at various stages of plant development and frequently more than one stress concurrently affects the crop. Stresses result in both universal and definite effects on plant growth and development. One of the imposing tasks for the crop researchers globally is to distinguish and to diminish effects of these stress factors on the performance of crop plants, especially with respect to yield and quality of harvested products. This is of special significance in view of the impending climate change, with complex consequences for economically profitable and ecologically and environmentally sound global agriculture. The challenge at the hands of the crop scientist in such a scenario is to promote a competitive and multifunctional agriculture, leading to the production of highly nourishing, healthy and secure food and animal feed as well as raw materials for a wide variety of industrial applications. In order to successfully meet this challenge researchers have to understand the various aspects of these stresses in view of the current development from molecules to ecosystems. The book will focus on broad research areas in relation to these stresses which are in the forefront in contemporary crop stress research.