Between 1939 and 1942, one of America's leading universities recruited 268 of its healthiest and most promising undergraduates to participate in a revolutionary new study of the human life cycle. George Vaillant, director of this study, took the measure of the Grant Study men. The result was the compelling, provocative classic, Adaptation to Life, which poses fundamental questions about the individual differences in confronting life's stresses.
Salt is an essential requirement of life. Already from ancient times (e. g. , see the books of the Bible) its importance in human life has been known. For example, salt symbolizes destruction (as in Sodom and Gomorra), but on the other hand it has been an ingredient of every sacrifice during the Holy Temple periods. Microbial life in concentrated salt solutions has fascinated scientists since its discovery. Recently there have been several international meetings and books devoted entirely to halophiles. This book includes the proceedings of the “Halophiles 2004” conference held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in September 2004 (www. u- lj. si/~bfbhaloph/index. html). This meeting was attended by 120 participants from 25 countries. The editors have selected presentations given at the meeting for this volume, and have also invited a number of contributions from experts who had not been present in Ljubljana. This book complements “Halophilic Microorganisms”, edited by A. Ventosa and published by Springer-Verlag (2004), “Halophilic Microorganism and their Environments” by A. Oren (2002), published by Kluwer Academic Publishers as volume 5 of “Cellular Origins, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology” (COLE), and “Microbiology and Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Environments” edited by A. Oren, and published by CRC Press, Boca Raton (1999). Salt-loving (halophilic) microorganisms grow in salt solutions above seawater salinity (~3. 5% salt) up to saturation ranges (i. e. , around 35% salt). High concentrations of salt occur in natural environments (e. g.
Where and what is the Arctic? What animals live there, and how are they distributed? How do they cope with cold in their austere environment, and how can Arctic mammals survive birth when it is 40 degrees below freezing. How can seals dive to a depth of 1000 metres and stay submerged for more than an hour, and how does complete darkness in winter affect the inhabitants of the high Arctic? This book answers these questions and also gives an introduction to the Arctic. It is based on the author's 40 years of experience in the Arctic, its environment and animal life. As this book contains almost 200 illustrations and deals with the entire Arctic animal kingdom, it will be suitable as a textbook for courses in Arctic biology, and also serve specialists in the field. It is a reference book and a source of information about published original literature.
An American Woman's (Mal)Adaptation to Life in the People's Republic of China
Author: Desi Downey
Author Desi Downey had never been out of the States and rarely out of the Midwest when her husband's job was transferred to China. Without a clue-and virtually overnight-Downey was thrust into a new and bewildering existence. Ni Howdy! is Downey's nitty-gritty, down-to-earth, and hilarious account of how she triumphed over the trials and tribulations of becoming accustomed to daily life in a foreign country. From the horror of her first encounter with the primitive "squatty potty" to the difficulties of grocery shopping, Downey paints a vivid and humorous picture of her experiences. With no-holds-barred candid wit, Downey writes frankly about herself, her fellow expatriates, and the Chinese people, zeroing in on both the differences and similarities of two vastly different cultures. Dispelling all those old stereotypical myths about East vs. West, Ni Howdy! brings two incredibly diverse cultures together with laughter and heartwarming anecdotes. [email protected] www.nihowdy.net
The antenatal role of carbohydrates and energy metabolism
Author: R. de Meyer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
th th st . On December 19 ,20 and 21 1979, we had the opportunlty to organize a Workshop on "Antenatal factors affecting meta bolic adaptation to extrauterine life - Role of carbohydra tes and energy metabolism". This meeting was made possible thanks to grants from the Committee of Medical Research and Public Health (CRM) of the Commission of European Communi ties. We want to express our warmst gratitude for the effort that has been made and we hope that the exchange of information between the participants will allow better understanding of the mechanism of adaptation to extrauterine life and that the conclusions drawn will contribute to a better care of the newborn. Adaptation to extrauterine life is one of the most impor tant steps in life. At the moment of birth, numerous conditions are drastically changed and in order to survive the newborn has to rely upon new sources of energy and of substrates. This switch over has to occur smoothly and any adaptation failure will result in the disturbance of impor tant metabolic functions. Mortality and morbidity in neo natal period remain still very high in comparison with the figures observed later in life; the reduction of mortality has been much more important in child and adult than in neonates.
The widespread interest in "stressful" aspects of contemporary society which contribute to its burden of illness and diseases (e.g. gastro intestinal, cardiovascular) has led to a large number of state ments and reports which relate the manifestations to a maladaptation of the individual. Furthermore, recent research suggests that under some condi tions stress may have a more generalized effect of decreasing the body's ability to combat destructive forces and expose it to a variety of diseases. Breakdown in adaptation occurs when an individual cannot cope with demands inherent in his environment. These may be due to an excessive mental or physical load, including factors of a social or psychological nature and task performance requirements ranging from those which are monotonous, simple and repetitive to complex, fast, decision-taking ones. Experience shows however that not all people placed under the same condi tions suffer similarly, and it follows that to the social and psychological environment should be added a genetic factor influencing, through the brain, the responses of individuals. It is clear that, besides human suffering, this "breakdown in adaptation" causes massive losses of revenue to industry and national health authorities. Thus a reduction in "stress", before "breakdown" occurs, or an improvement in coping with it would be very valuable.
Adaptation to Environment: Essays on the Physiology of Marine Animals contains a series of essays that is intended as a review of the special adaptations of marine organisms to the particular environmental conditions they are likely to encounter in the natural habitat. This book emphasizes developments in physiology of marine animals and on approaches to the study of the adaptations of marine organisms. This compilation also interprets the term “Physiology in its widest sense to include all aspects of the functioning of the organism from the behavior of animals to the mode of function of enzymes. For this reason, structural adaptations have been reviewed in detail only where their functional role is understood and where they constitute a specific adaptation to defined environmental conditions. This publication benefits students and individuals conducting research on the physiology of marine animals.
The NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Behavioural Adaptation to Intertidal Life" held in Castiglioncello, Italy (May, 1987) was attended by 50 participants, most of whom presented requested lectures. It was perhaps the first time that specialists of various animal groups, from cnidarians to birds, were able to meet and discuss the importance of behavioural adaptation to this peculiar, sometimes very harsh environment. But the taxonomic barrier is not the only one which the meeting attemped to over come. Lately, the research on intertidal biology has spread from pure taxonomy and static analysis of community structure to such dynamic aspects as intra- and interspecific relationships, and physiological mechanisms aimed at avoiding stress and exploitation of limited-resources. This increasing interest stems not only from an inclination for this particular ecological system and some of its typical inhabitants, but also from the realization that rocky and sandy shore communities are suitable models for testing and improving some global theories of evolutionary biology, behavioural ecology and sociobiology. The number of eco-physiological and eco-ethological problems emerging from the study of intertidal animals is fascinatingly large and a complete understanding of this environment cannot be reached using a strictly "reductionistic" or a pure "holistic" approach.
James Henry JAMES (Barrister, of the Middle Temple.)