Ecosystem Dynamics focuses on long-term terrestrial ecosystems and their changing relationships with human societies. The unique aspect of this text is the long-time scale under consideration as data and insights from the last 10,000 years are used to place present-day ecosystem status into a temporal perspective and to test models that generate forecasts of future conditions. Descriptions and assessments of some of the current modelling tools that are used, along with their uncertainties and assumptions, are an important feature of this book. An overarching theme explores the dynamic interactions between human societies and ecosystem functioning and services. This book is authoritative but accessible and provides a useful background for all students, practitioners, and researchers interested in the subject.
This Handbook is the first major volume to examine the conservation of Asia’s culture and nature in relation to the wider social, political and economic forces shaping the region today. Throughout Asia rapid economic and social change means the region’s heritage is at once under threat and undergoing a revival as never before. As societies look forward, competing forces ensure they re-visit the past and the inherited, with the conservation of nature and culture now driven by the broader agendas of identity politics, tradition, revival, rapid development, environmentalism and sustainability. In response to these new and important trends, the twenty three accessible chapters here go beyond sector specific analyses to examine heritage in inter-disciplinary and critically engaged terms, encompassing the natural and the cultural, the tangible and intangible. Emerging environmentalisms, urban planning, identity politics, conflict memorialization, tourism and biodiversity are among the topics covered here. This path-breaking volume will be of particular interest to students and scholars working in the fields of heritage, tourism, archaeology, Asian studies, geography, anthropology, development, sociology, and cultural and postcolonial studies.
Foundlings and Child Welfare in Nineteenth-Century France
Author: Rachel G. Fuchs
Publisher: SUNY Press
Category: Social Science
In nineteenth-century France, parents abandoned their children in overwhelming numbers--up to 20 percent of live births in the Parisian area. The infants were left at state-run homes and were then transferred to rural wet nurses and foster parents. Their chances of survival were slim, but with alterations in state policy, economic and medical development, and changing attitudes toward children and the family, their chances had significantly improved by the end of the century. Rachel Fuchs has drawn on newly discovered archival sources and previously untapped documents of the Paris foundling home in order to depict the actual conditions of abandoned children and to reveal the bureaucratic and political response. This study traces the evolution of French social policy from early attempts to limit welfare to later efforts to increase social programs and influence family life. Abandoned Children illuminates in detail the family life of nineteenth-century French poor. It shows how French social policy with respect to abandoned children sought to create an economically useful and politically neutral underclass out of a segment of the population that might otherwise have been an economic drain and a potential political threat.
Nurses and nannies in theories of infant development
Author: Prophecy Coles
The Shadow of the "Second Mother" explores why has there been such little interest, in psychology, social history and biography, in the important contribution that ‘second mothers’, such as wet nurses and nannies, have had upon the emotional life of the children they have nursed. For the last three thousand years and throughout most civilisations they have nurtured the children of the privileged, and kept alive the abandoned and unwanted child, and yet there has been a profound silence surrounding the influence they may have had. The author explores the lives of several well-known people who have been wet nursed, such as Michelangelo, Rousseau, Jack London, Nabokov and Klein. She speculates that they all were affected emotionally by their ‘second mother’, and concludes that a universal feature of such delegated mothering seems to be that the bond between mother and child is broken, and the child may be left with a life-long distrust of close relationships. In The Shadow of the "Second Mother", Coles combines an exploration of attachment theory with neurology, making it possible to give an explanation as to why these important figures have lain unnamed and ignored in our social and psychological consciousness. This intriguing new approach to an ancient practice will be fascinating reading for psychotherapists, psychoanalysts, sociologist and students of social history.
SINGAPORE AND EAST ASIA----CELEBRATING GLOBALIZATION AND EMERGENCE OF A POST-MODERN ASIAN CIVILIZATION The economic achievements of peoples bear a close relationship with their cultures and level of development of their civilization. Until the 16th century, the major world civilizations were similar in stage of development in being feudalistic, authoritarian and religious. Since then with the Enlightenment, the age of Reason and the control of nature through mastery of science, Western civilization has taken a quantum leap in creating the modern industrial world and achieved wealth through colonization and globalization. In stagnating for centuries, Asians paid dearly at the feet of Western hegemony. Nevertheless, through the embrace of techno-science whilst retaining traditional values, Asians are now catching up fast. East Asians have happily discovered that practicing their cultural heritage of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism has been to their advantage. This thesis has been reinforced by Communist Chinas phenomenal success in the global economy. At the same time East Asia has found cultural consonance with the philosophy of Constructive post-modernism. This has been a movement in the West which questions the precepts of modernism, its materialism and lack of spirituality, its failure to achieve harmony in society and amongst nations, and its excessive exploitation of Mother Nature. Constructive post-modernism movement has placed its biggest hope in the harmonious rise of Marxist China. An East Asian champion of globalization has been Singapore. Initially thought too small to exist as a country, Singapore has surprised in reaching the ranks of a global city well within a life span. SINGAPORE----Celebrating globalization and fusion of civilizations Singapore is currently ranked 7th in position as a global city, joining in wealth and influence New York, London and Tokyo. Caux Round Table, a global index of social capital in 2009 ranked Singapore 14th among 200 countries. Singapore was top in Asia and ahead of the United States and Britain. Singapores exciting fusion of Western and Asian civilizations started in 1819 when the British East India Company set up a trading post at the sparsely populated island off the Southern tip of Malaya at the strategic Straits of Malacca. When colonial initiatives made Malaya into the worlds biggest producer of rubber and tin, the port city grew into the New York of Malaya. Following the usual rhetoric of newly independent countries against colonial exploitation, the Republic of Singapore was pragmatic in remaining closely aligned to the Western world. The elevation of English to be the first language of instruction in all schools not only helped unify multi-lingual Singapore, but also facilitated linkage with the global economy and progress in techno-science. English speaking workers together with other positive factors such as hard work ethics, freedom from labor strikes and corruption attracted MNC investment. Since the 1960s Singapore has become the biggest MNC hub in the world. In 2007, over 7000 foreign companies account for $15 billion or 85% of fixed asset investment and 44.5% of the GDP. Besides MNCs, Western talents in top level management, finance, academia and research have all been recruited. International Advisory Panels (IAP) continue to assist Government and statutory bodies. Unlike much of Asia, a key element in Singapores success has been winning the war against corruption through political will, tough anti-corruption laws and paying ministers and civil servants well. Transparency International has consistently ranked island-State as one of the least corrupt countries in the world. The livability of Singapore has for past decades been significantly improved by clearance of slumps, clean tree-lined and crime-free streets, decent housing, and access to high quality education and healthcare. Architectural legacy