F. Babinger, biographer of Isaak Jakob Schmidt (1779-1847), the founder of Mongolian Studies, lists "Two Little Christian Tracts" among his early publications in Mongolian; no later Mongolist apparently ever saw or described this booklet published in 1818. A probably unique copy came to light in the Library of the German Oriental Society and was transcribed and translated by Charles Bawden who is known for his careful studies of Christian missions among the Mongols. The printed text is given in facsimile. A detailed commentary analyzes the text and traces the inconsistent Christian terminology which was apparently still in an experimental stage. Schmidt's Mongolian assistants, Badma and Nomtu, were probably mainly responsible for the translation. A preface informs about the versatile printer N. Grec while an appendix gives mission reports and a related Mongolian correspondence in contemporary German paraphrase.
Including I. J. Schmidt's Recentlly Identified Kalmuck Originals
Author: Charles R. Bawden
Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz
Christian mission among the Mongols and the beginning of Mongolian Studies were closely affiliated. Europe's first Mongolist, Isaak Jakob Schmidt (1779-1847), rose from the humble position of a clerk at the Moravian Mission settlement at Sarepta (Russia) to a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Author of a Mongolian dictionary, a Mongolian grammar and translator of the Geser epic and the chronicle Erdeni-yin tobci, he was also the translator of the New Testament into Mongolian. So far it was assumed that Schmidt had mainly translated into Kalmuck, and two Mongolian nobles had then continued with the further translation into Eastern Mongol. A few years ago Charles Bawden edited and translated a new document found in the library of the German Oriental Society at Halle, the first Christian tract printed in Mongol in St. Petersburg in 1818. The present study focuses on a second tract (probably also 1818) by Schmidt, so far unknown, from the collections of Vilnius University, and includes two of the original versions in Kalmuck which were also tracked down. These tracts allow a closer look at the difficult work of the translator, a glimpse at his workshop, in his efforts to find a congenial rendering for Christian terms. In the light of the results of this study the roles of the translators may have to be reevaluated. There is also an essay to investigate the creation of Kalmuck and Mongolian fonts and the part that the publisher and printer Grec and the Orientalist printing pioneer Schilling von Canstadt (1786-1837) played in it. Transliteration and reproduction of the (Mongol and Kalmuck) tracts and an annotated translation of the second Tract for the Buryats are given as well.
This fourth edition of Historical Dictionary of Mongolia covers the people and organizations that brought Mongolia from revolution and oppression to independence and democracy, and its current unprecedented level of national wealth and international growth. This is done through a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1,200 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, politics, economy, foreign relations, religion, and culture. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Mongolia.
"Soviet Russia and Tibet" surveys for the first time the entire history of religious and political relations between Russia and Tibet, from the 17th to the late 20th century, focusing on Soviet attempts to win Lhasa over in the 1920s.
The most comprehensive collection of Tibetan works in a Western language, this volume illuminates the complex historical, intellectual, and social development of Tibetan civilization from its earliest beginnings to the modern period. Including more than 180 representative writings, Sources of Tibetan Tradition spans Tibet's vast geography and long history, presenting for the first time a diversity of works by religious and political leaders; scholastic philosophers and contemplative hermits; monks and nuns; poets and artists; and aristocrats and commoners. The selected readings reflect the profound role of Buddhist sources in shaping Tibetan culture while illustrating other major areas of knowledge. Thematically varied, they address history and historiography; political and social theory; law; medicine; divination; rhetoric; aesthetic theory; narrative; travel and geography; folksong; and philosophical and religious learning, all in relation to the unique trajectories of Tibetan civil and scholarly discourse. The editors begin each chapter with a survey of broader social and cultural contexts and introduce each translated text with a concise explanation. Concluding with writings that extend into the early twentieth century, this volume offers an expansive encounter with Tibet's exceptional intellectual heritage.
A Journey Down the Amur River Between Russia and China
Author: Dominic Ziegler
Black Dragon River is a personal journey down one of Asia’s great rivers that reveals the region’s essential history and culture. The world’s ninth largest river, the Amur serves as a large part of the border between Russia and China. As a crossroads for the great empires of Asia, this area offers journalist Dominic Ziegler a lens with which to examine the societies at Europe's only borderland with east Asia. He follows a journey from the river's top to bottom, and weaves the history, ecology and peoples to show a region obsessed with the past—and to show how this region holds a key to the complex and critical relationship between Russia and China today. One of Asia’s mightiest rivers, the Amur is also the most elusive. The terrain it crosses is legendarily difficult to traverse. Near the river’s source, Ziegler travels on horseback from the Mongolian steppe into the taiga, and later he is forced by the river’s impassability to take the Trans-Siberian Railway through the four-hundred-mile valley of water meadows inland. As he voyages deeper into the Amur wilderness, Ziegler also journeys into the history of the peoples and cultures the river’s path has transformed. The known history of the river begins with Genghis Khan and the rise of the Mongolian empire a millennium ago, and the story of the region has been one of aggression and conquest ever since. The modern history of the river is the story of Russia's push across the Eurasian landmass to China. For China, the Amur is a symbol of national humiliation and Western imperial land seizure; to Russia it is a symbol of national regeneration, its New World dreams and eastern prospects. The quest to take the Amur was to be Russia’s route to greatness, replacing an oppressive European identity with a vibrant one that faced the Pacific. Russia launched a grab in 1854 and took from China a chunk of territory equal in size nearly to France and Germany combined. Later, the region was the site for atrocities meted out on the Russian far east in the twentieth century during the Russian civil war and under Stalin. The long shared history on the Amur has conditioned the way China and Russia behave toward each other—and toward the outside world. To understand Putin’s imperial dreams, we must comprehend Russia’s relationship to its far east and how it still shapes the Russian mind. Not only is the Amur a key to Putinism, its history is also embedded in an ongoing clash of empires with the West.
This is the gripping story of a forgotten Russia in turmoil, when the line between government and organized crime blurred into a chaotic continuum of kleptocracy, vengeance and sadism. It tells the tale of how, in the last days of 1917, a fugitive Cossack captain brashly led seven cohorts into a mutinous garrison at Manchuli, a squalid bordertown on Russia's frontier with Manchuria. The garrison had gone Red, revolted against its officers, and become a dangerous, ill-disciplined mob. Nevertheless, Cossack Captain Grigori Semionov cleverly harangued the garrison into laying down its arms and boarding a train that carried it back into the Bolsheviks' tenuous territory. Through such bold action, Semionov and a handful of young Cossack brethren established themselves as the warlords of Eastern Siberia and Russia's Pacific maritime provinces during the next bloody year. Like inland pirates, they menaced the Trans-Siberian Railroad with fleets of armoured trains, Cossack cavalry, mercenaries and pressgang cannon fodder. They undermined Admiral Kolchak's White armies, ruthlessly liquidated all Reds, terrorized the population, sold out to the Japanese, and antagonized the American Expeditionary Force and Czech Legion in a frenzied orchestration of the Russian Empire's gotterdammerung. Historians have long recognized that Ataman Semionov and Company were a nasty lot. This book details precisely how nasty they were.
Knowledge and Practice at the Russian, Chinese and Mongolian Border
Author: Franck Billé
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Category: Social Science
China and Russia are rising economic and political powers that share thousands of miles of border. Despite their proximity, their interactions with each other - and with their third neighbour Mongolia - are rarely discussed. Although the three countries share a boundary, their traditions, languages and worldviews are remarkably different. Frontier Encounters presents a wide range of views on how the borders between these unique countries are enacted, produced, and crossed. It sheds light on global uncertainties: China's search for energy resources and the employment of its huge population, Russia's fear of Chinese migration, and the precarious independence of Mongolia as its neighbours negotiate to extract its plentiful resources. Bringing together anthropologists, sociologists and economists, this timely collection of essays offers new perspectives on an area that is currently of enormous economic, strategic and geo-political relevance.
Sinceits founding by Jacques Waardenburg in 1971, Religion and Reason has been a leading forum for contributions on theories, theoretical issues and agendas related to the phenomenon and the study of religion. Topics include (among others) category formation, comparison, ethnophilosophy, hermeneutics, methodology, myth, phenomenology, philosophy of science, scientific atheism, structuralism, and theories of religion. From time to time the series publishes volumes that map the state of the art and the history of the discipline.
Provisionment of the Okhotsk Seaboard and the Kamchatka Peninsula, 1639–1856
Author: James R. Gibson
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Pres
James R. Gibson offers a detailed study that is both an account of this chapter of Russian history and a full examination of the changing geography of the Okhotsk Seaboard and the Kamchatka Peninsula over the course of two centuries.
This book explores how a modern English literary identity was forged by its notions of other traditions and histories, in particular those of China. The theorizing and writing of English literary modernity took place in the midst of the famous quarrel between the Ancients and the Moderns. Eun Kyung Min argues that this quarrel was in part a debate about the value of Chinese culture and that a complex cultural awareness of China shaped the development of a 'national' literature in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century England by pushing to new limits questions of comparative cultural value and identity. Writers including Defoe, Addison, Goldsmith, and Percy wrote China into genres such as the novel, the periodical paper, the pseudo-letter in the newspaper, and anthologized collections of 'antique' English poetry, inventing new formal strategies to engage in this wide-ranging debate about what defined modern English identity.