This popular course book gives students of English and linguistics a systematic account of the rules of English syntax, and acquaints them with the general methodology of syntactic description. It teaches them how to formulate syntactic arguments, and how to apply the tests in the analysis of sentences.
Announcing an innovative, new, practical reference grammar, combining traditional and function-based grammar in a single volume. It is the ideal reference grammar at advanced secondary level and above.
Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, HAMMER'S GERMAN GRAMMAR AND USAGEprovides you with a complete guide to German as it is written and spoken today. This new edition includes: -concise descriptions of the main grammatical phenomena of German and their use -examples of grammar taken from contemporary German, helping you to understand the underlying grammatical principles more quickly -invaluable guidance on pronunciation and the German accent -discussion of new words from English roots such as 'zertweeten' ('to tweet'), helping you to communicate in German as used by Germans today -clarification on the spelling reform and current spellings of German, thus increasing your confidence while writing and reading in German. Praised for its clear layout and lucid explanations, this new edition distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal, and offers you a combination of reference grammar and manual of current usage that you will find invaluable, whether a student or a teacher, at intermediate or advanced level.
This award-winning grammar course book provides the basis for linguistic courses and projects on translation, contrastive linguistics, stylistics, reading and discourse studies. Accessible and reader-friendly throughout, key features include: chapters divided into modules of class-length materials each new concept clearly explained and highlighted authentic texts from a wide range of sources, both spoken and written, to illustrate grammatical usage clear chapter and module summaries enabling efficient class preparation and student revision.
Since its first publication in 1991 Liliane Haegeman's Introduction to Government and Binding Theory has become established as the most authoritative introduction to the Principles and Parameters approach to syntactic theory. This new edition has been extensively updated throughout. Major structural changes include new chapters on Functional Heads and Head Movement and on Relativized Minimality. Discussions of a number of topics missing from or not paid due attention in the first edition have been integrated or expanded, for example: the structure of small clauses (in chaprer 2), chain formation (in chapter 6), and reconstruction, multiple movement, wh-absorption, Full Interpretation, and expletive replacement (in chapter 9). The copious exercises have been revised to increase potential for creativty and flexibility of approach. New exericases highlight further controversial issues. In short, this book offers a complete, updated introduction to the current state of Government and Binding Theory, suitable for readers with some basic knowledge of generative linguistics.
The study The Non-verbal Type of Small Clauses in English and Lithuanian is one of the first attempts to apply the methods of generative grammar to the analysis of a fragment of Lithuanian grammar, i.e., constructions with secondary predicates of the type V [NP1 NP2] and V [NP1 AP], the sub-strings [NP1 NP2] and [NP1 AP] of which in generative works are usually called small clauses. The investigation is contrastive; the evidence of Lithuanian is compared with that of English. Whereas the syntactic study of secondary predicates in English has a certain tradition, traditional Lithuanian grammar does not have a single notion to what is known elsewhere as secondary predicates. In Lithuanian traditional grammar secondary predicates are usually referred to as a part of compound nominal predicates, predicative attributes, a part of complex objects and are not singled out as a distinct category but are given different, often contradictory treatments. Thus the research can be considered pioneering work as far as Lithuanian is concerned. It not only contributes to the theoretical discussion about the adequate way of dealing with secondary predicates in Government and Binding framework, but can also be considered instrumental in propagating modern methods of syntactic analysis in tradition-ridden Lithuanian grammar. The present work addresses an important problem whether the Lithuanian and English constructions under investigation express a subject-predicate relationship and form a constituent and can be described as having the syntactic function of a clause. For this purpose, the syntactic and semantic as well as clausal properties of the sequences [NP1 NP2] and [NP1 AP] in the two languages under consideration are discussed. The clausal properties of the sub-strings [NP1 NP2] and [NP1 AP] are investigated on the basis of the presence of agreement features, sentence negation, the resemblance to full clauses, theta-role assignment, word order, and applying sentence constituency tests.
Coordination is a syntactic construction which occurs in most languages. In the past, it has been a fruitful area of research, but also a controversial one. Arguments from coordination have been used in support of transformations, and against phrase-structure rules, but also in support of phrase-structure rules and against transformations. This
A guide for developing successful speakers, this book proposes a pedagogical approach to the prepositions of the English language. Designed for all levels of students for easy comprehension and quick learning, over 2000 examples of simple and complex (phrasal) prepositions and prepositional idioms help readers understand and create the intended message. By learning how to correctly link words to their specific meanings, students will be able to build fluency and accuracy while working with creativity and autonomy. Organized by function and subject, with over 400 prepositions, including more than 100 illustrations, this book helps students identify and use context cues through a variety of examples of real-world situations. Whether you are in the English classroom or out in the professional world, Prepositions: The Ultimate Book is an indispensable and comprehensive reference tool for all international learners seeking to communicate more effectively and naturally in the English language.
This practical coursebook introduces all the basics of modern syntactic analysis in a simple step-by-step fashion. Each unit is constructed so that the reader discovers new ideas, formulates hypotheses and practises fundamentals. The reader is presented with short sections of explanation with examples, followed by practice exercises. Feedback and comment sections follow to enable students to monitor their progress. No previous background in syntax is assumed. Students move through all the key topics in the field including features, rules of combination and displacement, empty categories, and subcategorization. The theoretical perspective in this work is unique, drawing together the best ideas from three major syntactic frameworks (minimalism, HPSG and LFG). Students using this book will learn fundamentals in such a way that they can easily go on to pursue further study in any of these frameworks.
An Introduction to English Grammar provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of English grammar. The first part of the book (‘The Grammar’) provides a step-by-step introduction to the key topics in English grammar. The second part (‘The Applications’) shows how a grasp of these topics can be helpful in resolving usage problems, in developing a clear writing style, and in mastering punctuation and spelling. A whole chapter, ‘English in Use’, is devoted to illustrating the grammatical features of a wide range of modern text types, including emails, Facebook pages, and ‘tweets’. It also looks at the special grammatical features of English in everyday conversation. Each chapter is followed by two sets of exercises. The first set can be used in self-study or in the classroom. The second set deals with more advanced topics, and can be used for classroom discussion or essay writing. This fourth edition has been fully revised and updated and includes: clearer descriptions and improved presentation new material on word structure and word formation new exercises, examples and extracts updated further reading Assuming no prior knowledge of English grammar, this book is ideal for beginning students on a one-semester course and provides everything a student needs on the theory and practice of English usage. A comprehensive Glossary of grammatical terms is included and a website provides invaluable additional exercises.