A general formal theory of causal reasoning as a logical study of causal models, reasoning, and inference. In this book, Alexander Bochman presents a general formal theory of causal reasoning as a logical study of causal models, reasoning, and inference, basing it on a supposition that causal reasoning is not a competitor of logical reasoning but its complement for situations lacking logically sufficient data or knowledge. Bochman also explores the relationship of this theory with the popular structural equation approach to causality proposed by Judea Pearl and explores several applications ranging from artificial intelligence to legal theory, including abduction, counterfactuals, actual and proximate causality, dynamic causal models, and reasoning about action and change in artificial intelligence. As logical preparation, before introducing causal concepts, Bochman describes an alternative, situation-based semantics for classical logic that provides a better understanding of what can be captured by purely logical means. He then presents another prerequisite, outlining those parts of a general theory of nonmonotonic reasoning that are relevant to his own theory. These two components provide a logical background for the main, two-tier formalism of the causal calculus that serves as the formal basis of his theory. He presents the main causal formalism of the book as a natural generalization of classical logic that allows for causal reasoning. This provides a formal background for subsequent chapters. Finally, Bochman presents a generalization of causal reasoning to dynamic domains.
Despite the resurgence of interest in the philosophy of John Dewey, his work on logical theory has received relatively little attention. Ironically, Dewey's logic was his "first and last love." The essays in this collection pay tribute to that love by addressing Dewey's philosophy of logic, from his work at the beginning of the twentieth century to the culmination of his logical thought in the 1938 volume, Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. All the essays are original to this volume and are written by leading Dewey scholars. Ranging from discussions of propositional theory to logic's social and ethical implications, these essays clarify often misunderstood or misrepresented aspects of Dewey's work, while emphasizing the seminal role of logic to Dewey's philosophical endeavors. This collection breaks new ground in its relevance to contemporary philosophy of logic and epistemology and pays special attention to applications in ethics and moral philosophy.
Scientific Study from the year 2014 in the subject Organisation and Administration, grade: 100, , language: English, abstract: Starting from the idea that public administration is a complex phenomenon, in order to be understood, it is necessary to use an interdisciplinary approach. Due to the complexity of this phenomenon, the science of administration has relations with several branches of science and with many scientific disciplines, among which an important role manifest: administrative law, management (in this sense emerging public management), economics (in the form of public economics), sociology (outlining a sociology of administration), psychology, theory of decision, logic (being able to discuss about a logic of the administration’s action, a logic of the administrative norms) demographics, informatics etc. Logical analysis, in the concept of Gheorghe Enescu, “represents the analysis of the logical structure of a given process of thought (expressed in a text or discourse), for the purpose of verifying the correctness of the logic. Logical analysis presupposes the following steps” : 1) analysis of language clarity and accuracy (manner in which the terms are defined and the sentences are formed); 2) analysis of the manner in which classifications and/or divisions are performed (if any); 3) analysis of arguments and, in general, of the logical coherence of thought; 4) analysis of consistence of thought (of non-contradiction). “The main condition of a process of thought is argumentation (reasoning); where there is no reasoning, there is no thought, in the exact sense of the word, but mere expression of opinion or known information. An important place in the logical analysis is played by “logical formalization”. The work paper is structured on two chapters and conclusions and aims to analyze the level of applicability of the science of logic, in general, and of the logic of norms and actions (as branches thereof) in the sciences of administration, as well as the contributions brought through the science of logic to the analysis of the public decisions and of the administrative phenomenon. In the first chapter of the paper there were presented aspects of theoretical order connected to the logic of action, modal logic, logic of norms, decision, public decision and the method of the decisional trees. In the second chapter there are emphasized by example: the advantages of using the method of decisional trees in the analysis of and of using the three indexes referring to the power of an actor to decide through vote.
---------- Volume 2 (August 21th, 2010) ---------- : This highly original book gives an exact insight into the philosophical, logical, mathematical and physical foundations of causality.Causality is designed to provide both, the new methodology for making causal inferences on the basis of (non-) experimental data and the underlying theory. The new mathematical tools for evaluating causal relationships from (non-) experimental data are presented in the simplest and most intelligible form.Causality is thus an excellent book for self study and a pragmatic help for researchers. Anyone who wishes to elucidate cause effect relationships from (non-) experimental data will find this book invaluable. The reader will enjoy to read and use this book. Finally, a unified mathematical and statistical model of causation is available.