Shortly after I had returned from a foreign trip some years ago, an old friend saw me and quickly noticed that I had gone partially bald. He was startled. So, he spontaneously yelled a seemingly tough question at me: What happened to the hairs on your head? Spontaneously too, I yelled an answer back at him: Nature took them in place of the wisdom that I couldnt pay for! And we teased and laughed. My friend thought I had joked, but I knew I hadnt. However, Ill leave the judgment to you. By the time youre done digesting the substance of this more than compelling masterpiece, Id like to know your stand. Had I joked or had I not?
Includes new material on orthophotography, soft photogrammetry, and digital image capture and interpretation. * Introduces the latest non-photographic and space-based imaging platforms and sensors (Landsat, LIDAR, thermal, multispectral). * Provides new information on elementary sampling techniques and statistics.
Antenna Fundamentals Introduction, Radiation mechanism - Single wire, 2 wire, Dipoles, Current distribution on a thin wire antenna. Antenna parameters - Radiation patterns, Patterns in principal planes, Main lobe and side lobes, Beamwidths, Beam area, Radiation intensity, Beam efficiency, Directivity, Gain and resolution, Antenna apertures, Aperture efficiency, Effective height related problems.Thin Linear Wire AntennasRetarded potentials, Radiation from small electric dipole, Quarterwave monopole and halfwave dipole - Current distributions, Evaluation of field components, Power radiated, Radiation resistance, Beamwidths, Directivity, Effective area and effective height. Natural current distributions, Fields and patterns of thin linear center-fed antennas of different lengths, Radiation resistance at a point which is not current maximum. Antenna theorems - Applicability and proofs for equivalence of directional characteristics, Loop antennas : Small loops - Field components, Comparison of far fields of small loop and short dipole, Concept of short magnetic dipole, D and R relations for small loops.Antenna Arrays2 element arrays - Different cases, Principle of pattern multiplication, N element uniform linear arrays - Broadside, Endfire arrays, EFA with increased directivity, Derivation of their characteristics and comparison; Concept of scanning arrays, Directivity relations (no derivations), Related problems, Binomial arrays, Effects of uniform and non-uniform amplitude distributions, Design relations.Non-Resonant RadiatorsIntroduction, Travelling wave radiators - Basic concepts, Longwire antennas - Field strength calculations and patterns, V-antennas, Rhombic antennas and design relations, Broadband antennas : Helical antennas - Significance, Geometry, Basic properties; Design considerations for monofilar helical antennas in axial mode and normal modes (Qualitative treatment).VHF, UHF and Microwave Antennas - IArrays with parasitic elements, Yagi-Uda arrays, Folded dipoles and their characteristics.Reflector antennas Flat sheet and corner reflectors, Paraboloidal reflectors - Geometry, Characteristics, Types of feeds, F/D ratio, Spill over, Back lobes, Aperture blocking, Off-set feeds, Cassegrainian feeds.VHF, UHF and Microwave Antennas - IIHorn antennas - Types, Optimum horns, Design characteristics of pyramidal horns; Lens antennas - Geometry, Features, Dielectric lenses and zoning, Applications.Antenna measurements - Patterns required, setup, Distance criterion, Directivity and gain measurements (Comparison, Absolute and 3-Antenna methods).Wave Propagation - IConcepts of propagation, Frequency ranges and types of propagations. Ground wave propagation - Characteristics, Parameters, Wave tilt, Flat and spherical earth considerations. Sky wave propagation - Formation of ionospheric layers and their characteristics, Mechanism of reflection and refraction, Critical frequency, MUF and skip distance - Calculations for flat and spherical earth cases, Optimum frequency, LUHF, Virtual height, Ionospheric abnormalities, Ionospheric absorption.Wave Propagation - IIFundamental equation for free-space propagation, Basic transmission loss calculations. Space wave propagation - Mechanism, LOS and radio horizon. Tropospheric wave propagation - Radius of curvature of path, Effective earth's radius, Effect of earth's curvature, Field strength calculations, M-curves and Duct propagation, Tropospheric scattering.
ought¿s A-7 Corsair II served the U.S. Navy for over over two decades, and flew with distinction during the Vietnam conflict. The subsonic A-7 was based on Chance Vought¿s supersonic F-8 Crusader. It boasted a heads-up display, an inertial navigation system, and other innovations. The plane entered service in 1966, and served in Vietnam in late 1967. Its performance was impressive. The USS Ranger¿s VA-147 flew over 1,400 sorties with the loss of only one aircraft. The Air Force purchased an advanced version, the A-7D, equipped with a more powerful engine. The plane later flew missions over Lebanon, Libya, Grenada, Panama, and Iraq. The last planes in U.S inventory were retired in 1991. Originally printed by the U.S. Navy and Vought, this handbook for the A-7 provides a fascinating glimpse inside the cockpit of this famous aircraft. Originally classified ¿restricted¿, the manual was recently declassified and is here reprinted in book form.
This revised and updated edition of Rudolf Geiger's classic text provides a clear and vivid description of the surface microclimate, its physical basis, and its interactions with the biosphere. The book explains the principles of microclimatology and illustrates how they apply to a wide array of subfields. Those new to the field will find it especially valuable as a guide to understanding and quantifying the vast and ever-increasing literature on the subject. Designed as an introductory text for students in environmental science, this book will also be an essential reference for scientists seeking a clear understanding of the nature and physical basis of the climate near the ground, and its interactions with the biosphere.
Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems "Henry Ott has literally 'written the book' on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others." —EE Times Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction¿and their practical applications to the design of analog and digital circuits in computer, home entertainment, medical, telecom, industrial process control, and automotive equipment, as well as military and aerospace systems. While maintaining and updating the core information—such as cabling, grounding, filtering, shielding, digital circuit grounding and layout, and ESD—that made the previous book such a wide success, this new book includes additional coverage of: Equipment/systems grounding Switching power supplies and variable-speed motor drives Digital circuit power distribution and decoupling PCB layout and stack-up Mixed-signal PCB layout RF and transient immunity Power line disturbances Precompliance EMC measurements New appendices on dipole antennae, the theory of partial inductance, and the ten most common EMC problems The concepts presented are applicable to analog and digital circuits operating from below audio frequencies to those in the GHz range. Throughout the book, an emphasis is placed on cost-effective EMC designs, with the amount and complexity of mathematics kept to the strictest minimum. Complemented with over 250 problems with answers, Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering equips readers with the knowledge needed to design electronic equipment that is compatible with the electromagnetic environment and compliant with national and international EMC regulations. It is an essential resource for practicing engineers who face EMC and regulatory compliance issues and an ideal textbook for EE courses at the advanced undergraduate and graduate levels.
This book is dedicated to the memory of a distinguished Russian engineer, Rostislav E. Alexeyev, who was the first in the world to develop the largest ground effect machine - Ekranoplan. One of Alexeyev's design concepts with the aerodynamic configuration of a jlying wing can be seen on the front page. The book presents a description of a mathematical model of flow past a lifting system, performing steady and unsteady motions in close proximity to the underlying solid surface (ground). This case is interesting for practical purposes because both the aerodynamic and the economic efficiency of the system near the ground are most pronounced. Use of the method of matched asymptotic expansions enables closed form solutions for the aerodynamic characteristics of the wings-in-ground effect. These can be used for design, identification, and processing of experimental data in the course of developing ground effect vehicles. The term extreme ground effect, widely used through out the book, is associated with very small relative ground clearances of the order of 10% or less. The theory of a lifting surface, moving in immediate proximity to the ground, represents one of the few limiting cases that can be treated analytically. The author would like to acknowledge that this work has been influenced by the ideas of Professor Sheila E. Widnall, who was the first to apply the matched asymptotics techniques to treat lifting flows with the ground effect. Saint Petersburg, Russia February 2000 Kirill V. Rozhdestvensky Contents 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maps poised at the intersection of art, architecture, activism, and geography trace a profound shift in our understanding and experience of space. The maps in this book are drawn with satellites, assembled with pixels radioed from outer space, and constructed from statistics; they record situations of intense conflict and express fundamental transformations in our ways of seeing and of experiencing space. These maps are built with Global Positioning Systems (GPS), remote sensing satellites, or Geographic Information Systems (GIS): digital spatial hardware and software designed for such military and governmental uses as reconnaissance, secrecy, monitoring, ballistics, the census, and national security. Rather than shying away from the politics and complexities of their intended uses, in Close Up at a Distance Laura Kurgan attempts to illuminate them. Poised at the intersection of art, architecture, activism, and geography, her analysis uncovers the implicit biases of the new views, the means of recording information they present, and the new spaces they have opened up. Her presentation of these maps reclaims, repurposes, and discovers new and even inadvertent uses for them, including documentary, memorial, preservation, interpretation, political, or simply aesthetic. GPS has been available to both civilians and the military since 1991; the World Wide Web democratized the distribution of data in 1992; Google Earth has captured global bird's-eye views since 2005. Technology has brought about a revolutionary shift in our ability to navigate, inhabit, and define the spatial realm. The traces of interactions, both physical and virtual, charted by the maps in Close Up at a Distance define this shift.
The accelerated, and often uncontrolled, growth of the cities has contributed to the ecological transformation of their immediate surroundings. Factors contributing to the urban vulnerability include: lowering or rising of the water table, subsidence, loss of bearing capacity of soil foundations and instability of slopes. Recent catastrophic earthquakes highlight the poor understanding by decision makers of seismic related risk, as well as the tendency of some builders to use the cheapest designs and construction materials to increase short-term economic returns on their investment. Losses from earthquakes will continue to increase if we do not shift towards proactive solution. Disaster reduction is both an issue for consideration in the sustainable development agenda and a cross-cutting issue relating to the social, economic, environmental and humanitarian sectors. As location is the key factor, which determines the level of risk associated with a hazard, land-use plans and mapping should be used as tools to identify the most suitable usage for vulnerable areas.
The Story of the Brotherhood of Workers who Took on a Job Like No Other
Author: Glenn Stout
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Offers a compelling and uplifting narrative about the construction workers who toiled tirelessly on the site of Ground Zero following the attack on the World Trade Center to clear away the massive piles of debris and helped recover lost victims, all the while dealing with the emotional fallout of their experiences. 75,000 first printing.
Physical concept of radiation in single wire, Two wire and dipole, Current distribution on a thin wire antenna.Fundamental Parameters of AntennaRadiation pattern, Radiation power density, Radiation intensity, Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth, Bandwidth, Polarization, Antenna input impedance, Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance, Radiation efficiency, Effective aperture, Antenna temperature.Linear Wire AntennasRetarded potential, Infinitesimal dipole, Current distribution of short dipole and half wave dipole, Far-field, Radiating near-field and reactive near-field region, Monopole and half wave dipole.Antenna ArraysArray of two point sources, Array factor, n-element linear array with uniform amplitude and spacing, Analysis of broadside array, Ordinary end-fire array, Hansen-Woodyard end fire array, n-element linear array with non-uniform spacing, Analysis of binomial and Dolph-Tchebyscheff array, Scanning array, Superdirective array.Aperture AntennasField equivalence principle, Rectangular and circular aperture antennas, Horn antenna, Babinet's principle, Slot antenna, Reflector antenna.Ground Wave PropagationFriis free space equation, Reflection from earth's surface, Surface and space wave propagation for vertical and horizontal dipole, Field strength of space wave, Range of space wave propagation, Effective earth's radius, Effect of earth imperfections and atmosphere on space wave propagation, Modified refractive index, Duct propagation, Tropospheric propagation.Ionospheric PropagationStructure of ionosphere, Propagation of radio waves through ionosphere, Refractive index of ionosphere, Reflection and refraction of waves by ionosphere, Critical frequency, Maximum usable frequency, Optimum working frequency, Lowest usable high frequency, Virtual height, Skip distance, Effect of earth's magnetic field.