How do we recognize that the number . 93371663 . . . is actually 2 IoglQ(e + 7r)/2 ? Gauss observed that the number 1. 85407467 . . . is (essentially) a rational value of an elliptic integral-an observation that was critical in the development of nineteenth century analysis. How do we decide that such a number is actually a special value of a familiar function without the tools Gauss had at his disposal, which were, presumably, phenomenal insight and a prodigious memory? Part of the answer, we hope, lies in this volume. This book is structured like a reverse telephone book, or more accurately, like a reverse handbook of special function values. It is a list of just over 100,000 eight-digit real numbers in the interval [0,1) that arise as the first eight digits of special values of familiar functions. It is designed for people, like ourselves, who encounter various numbers computationally and want to know if these numbers have some simple form. This is not a particularly well-defined endeavor-every eight-digit number is rational and this is not interesting. However, the chances of an eight digit number agreeing with a small rational, say with numerator and denominator less than twenty-five, is small. Thus the list is comprised primarily of special function evaluations at various algebraic and simple transcendental values. The exact numbers included are described below. Each entry consists of the first eight digits after the decimal point of the number in question.
Previously named A Dictionary of Computing, this bestselling dictionary has been renamed A Dictionary of Computer Science, and fully revised by a team of computer specialists, making it the most up-to-date and authoritative guide to computing available. Containing over 6,500 entries and with expanded coverage of multimedia, computer applications, networking, and personal computer science, it is a comprehensive reference work encompassing all aspects of the subject and is as valuable for home and office users as it is indispensable for students of computer science. Terms are defined in a jargon-free and concise manner with helpful examples where relevant. The dictionary contains approximately 150 new entries including cloud computing, cross-site scripting, iPad, semantic attack, smartphone, and virtual learning environment. Recommended web links for many entries, accessible via the Dictionary of Computer Science companion website, provide valuable further information and the appendices include useful resources such as generic domain names, file extensions, and the Greek alphabet. This dictionary is suitable for anyone who uses computers, and is ideal for students of computer science and the related fields of IT, maths, physics, media communications, electronic engineering, and natural sciences.
This wide-ranging, jargon-free dictionary contains over 2,300 entries on all aspects of statistics, including terms used in computing, mathematics, and probability. It also includes biographical information on over 200 key figures in the field and coverage of statistical journals and societies. While embracing the whole multi-disciplinary spectrum of this complex subject, information is presented in a clear and practical manner. This edition features recommended web links for many entries, accessible via the Dictionary of Statistics website, which provide valuable extra information. This edition features expanded coverage of applied statistics. Entries are generously illustrated with 130 useful figures and diagrams, and include worked examples where applicable. Appendices include a historical calendar of important statistical events, lists of statistical and mathematical notation, and statistical tables. It is an invaluable dictionary for statistics students and professionals from a wide range of disciplines, including economics, politics, market research, medicine, psychology, pharmaceuticals, and mathematics, and provides a clear introduction to the subject for the general reader.
Authoritative and reliable, this is the ideal reference guide for students of mathematics at school or at university. Many entries have been added for this new edition and the dictionary covers both pure and applied mathematics as well as statistics.
Authoritative and reliable, this A-Z provides jargon-free definitions for even the most technical mathematical terms. With 3,000 entries ranging from Achilles paradox to zero matrix, it covers all commonly encountered terms and concepts from pure and applied mathematics and statistics, for example, linear algebra, optimisation, nonlinear equations, and differential equations. In addition, there are entries on major mathematicians and on topics of more general interest, such as fractals, game theory, and chaos. Using graphs, diagrams, and charts to render definitions as comprehensible as possible, entries are clear and accessible and offer an ideal introduction to the subject. Useful appendices follow the A-Z dictionary and include lists of Nobel Prize winners and Fields' medallists, Greek letters, formulae, and - new to this edition - tables of inequalities, moments of inertia, Roman numerals, and more. This edition contains recommended web links at entry level, which are accessible and kept up to date via the Dictionary of Mathematics companion website. Fully revised and updated in line with curriculum and degree requirements this dictionary is indispensable for students and teachers of mathematics, and for anyone encountering mathematics in the workplace.
Containing more than 1,000 entries, the Dictionary of Classical and Theoretical Mathematics focuses on mathematical terms and definitions of critical importance to practicing mathematicians and scientists. This single-source reference provides working definitions, meanings of terms, related references, and a list of alternative terms and definitions. The dictionary is one of five constituent works that make up the casebound CRC Comprehensive Dictionary of Mathematics.
The literature on inequalities is vast-in recent years the number of papers as well as the number of journals devoted to the subject have increased dramatically. At best, locating a particular inequality within the literature can be a cumbersome task. A Dictionary of Inequalities ends the dilemma of where to turn to find a result, a related inequality, or the references to the information you need. It provides a concise, alphabetical listing of each inequality-by its common name or its subject-with a short statement of the result, some comments, references to related inequalities, and a list of sources for further information. The author uses only the most elementary of mathematical terminology and does not offer proofs, thus making an interest in inequalities the only prerequisite for using the text. The author focuses on intuitive, physical forms of inequalities rather than their most general versions, and retains the beauty and importance of original versions rather than listing their later, abstract forms. He presents each in its simplest form with other renditions, such as for complex numbers and vectors, as extensions or under different headings. He has kept the book to a more manageable size by omitting inequalities in areas-such as elementary geometric and trigonometric inequalities-rarely used outside their fields. The end result is a current, concise, reference that puts the essential results on inequalities within easy reach. A Dictionary of Inequalities carries the beauty and attraction of the best and most successful dictionaries: on looking up a given item, the reader is likely to be intrigued and led by interest to others.
In which the Words are Deduced from Their Originals, and Illustrated in Their Different Significations, by Examples from the Best Writers, to which are Prefixed a History of the Language, and an English Grammar