War of Nerves

Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda

Author: Jonathan Tucker

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0307430103

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 9307

In this important and revelatory book, Jonathan Tucker, a leading expert on chemical and biological weapons, chronicles the lethal history of chemical warfare from World War I to the present. At the turn of the twentieth century, the rise of synthetic chemistry made the large-scale use of toxic chemicals on the battlefield both feasible and cheap. Tucker explores the long debate over the military utility and morality of chemical warfare, from the first chlorine gas attack at Ypres in 1915 to Hitler’s reluctance to use nerve agents (he believed, incorrectly, that the U.S. could retaliate in kind) to Saddam Hussein’s gassing of his own people, and concludes with the emergent threat of chemical terrorism. Moving beyond history to the twenty-first century, War of Nerves makes clear that we are at a crossroads that could lead either to the further spread of these weapons or to their ultimate abolition.

War of Nerves

Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda

Author: Jonathan B. Tucker

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 1400032334

Category: Science

Page: 479

View: 963

Traces the military applications of toxic weaponry from World War I to the present day, the development of potent nerve agents during the Cold War, and the efforts of such terrorist groups as Al-Qaeda to acquire deadly nerve agents.

War of Nerves

Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda

Author: Jonathan B. Tucker

Publisher: Pantheon

ISBN: 0375422293

Category: History

Page: 479

View: 1611

Traces the military applications of toxic weaponry from World War I to the present day, the development of potent nerve agents during the Cold War, and the efforts of such terrorist groups as Al-Qaeda to acquire deadly nerve agents.

The Chemical Weapons Taboo

Author: Richard M. Price

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501729543

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 8384

Richard M. Price asks why, among all the ominous technologies of weaponry throughout the history of warfare, chemical weapons carry a special moral stigma. Something more seems to be at work than the predictable resistance people have expressed to any new weaponry, from the crossbow to nuclear bombs. Perceptions of chemical warfare as particularly abhorrent have been successfully institutionalized in international proscriptions and, Price suggests, understanding the sources of this success might shed light on other efforts at arms control.To explore the origins and meaning of the chemical weapons taboo, Price presents a series of case studies from World War I through the Gulf War of 1990-1991. He traces the moral arguments against gas warfare from the Hague Conferences at the turn of the century through negotiations for the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. From the Italian invasion of Ethiopia to the war between Iran and Iraq, chemical weapons have been condemned as the "poor man's bomb." Drawing upon insights from Michel Foucault to explain the role of moral norms in an international arena rarely sensitive to such pressures, he focuses on the construction of and mutations in the refusal to condone chemical weapons.

Toxic Terror

Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons

Author: Jonathan B. Tucker

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262700719

Category: Political Science

Page: 303

View: 940

In-depth case studies of twelve terrorist groups and individuals who, from 1946 to 1998, allegedly acquired or employed CBW agents.

Dew of Death

The Story of Lewisite, America's World War I Weapon of Mass Destruction

Author: Joel A. Vilensky

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253111528

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 2509

"Dr. Vilensky raises important concerns regarding the threats posed by lewisite and other weapons of mass destruction. As he describes, non-proliferation programs are a vital component in the War on Terror." -- Richard G. Lugar, United States Senator "Joel Vilensky's book is a detailed and immensely useful account of the development and history of one of the major chemical weapons.... We will always know how to make lewisite, the 'Dew of Death,' but that does not mean that we should, or be compelled to accept such weapons in our lives." -- from the Foreword by Richard Butler, former head of UN Special Commission to Disarm Iraq In 1919, when the Great War was over, the New York Times reported on a new chemical weapon with "the fragrance of geranium blossoms," a poison gas that was "the climax of this country's achievements in the lethal arts." The name of this substance was lewisite and this is its story -- the story of an American weapon of mass destruction. Discovered by accident by a graduate student and priest in a chemistry laboratory at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., lewisite was developed into a weapon by Winford Lewis, who became its namesake, working with a team led by James Conant, later president of Harvard and head of government oversight for the U.S.'s atomic bomb program, the Manhattan Project. After a powerful German counterattack in the spring of 1918, the government began frantic production of lewisite in hopes of delivering 3,000 tons of the stuff to be ready for use in Europe the following year. The end of war came just as the first shipment was being prepared. It was dumped into the sea, but not forgotten. Joel A. Vilensky tells the intriguing story of the discovery and development of lewisite and its curious history. During World War II, the United States produced more than 20,000 tons of lewisite, testing it on soldiers and secretly dropping it from airplanes. In the end, the substance was abandoned as a weapon because it was too unstable under most combat conditions. But a weapon once discovered never disappears. It was used by Japan in Manchuria and by Iraq in its war with Iran. The Soviet Union was once a major manufacturer. Strangely enough, although it was developed for lethal purposes, lewisite led to an effective treatment for a rare neurological disease.

Compendium of Chemical Warfare Agents

Author: Steven L. Hoenig

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387692606

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 2336

Highly lethal chemicals may be the new weapons of choice among terrorist groups throughout the world. This is a grave concern for all First Responders and Emergency Management personnel. This book furnishes the critical information to deal with this threat and provides all the necessary information that First Responders, Hospitals, HazMat Teams, Fire and Rescue Services, and other First Responders need to know when dealing with dangerous chemical agents.

Innovation, Dual Use, and Security

Managing the Risks of Emerging Biological and Chemical Technologies

Author: Jonathan B. Tucker

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262017172

Category: Political Science

Page: 356

View: 2265

Recent advances in disciplines such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and neuropharmacology entail a "dual-use dilemma" because they promise benefits for human health and welfare yet pose the risk of misuse for hostile purposes. The emerging field of synthetic genomics, for example, can produce custom DNA molecules for life-saving drugs but also makes possible the creation of deadly viral agents for biological warfare or terrorism. The challenge for policymakers is to prevent the misuse of these new technologies without forgoing their benefits . Innovation, Dual Use, and Security offers a systematic approach for managing the dual-use dilemma. The book presents a "decision framework" for assessing the security risks of emerging technologies and fashioning governance strategies to manage those risks. This framework is applied to fourteen contemporary case studies, including synthetic genomics, DNA shuffling and directed evolution, combinatorial chemistry, protein engineering, immunological modulation, and aerosol vaccines. The book also draws useful lessons from two historical cases: the development of the V-series nerve agents in Britain and the use and misuse of LSD by the U.S. Army and the CIA. Innovation, Dual Use, and Security offers a comprehensive, multifaceted introduction to the challenges of governing dual-use technologies in an era of rapid innovation. The book will be of interest to government officials and other practitioners as well as to students and scholars in security studies, science and technology studies, biology, and chemistry.

Jihadists and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Author: Gary Ackerman,Jeremy Tamsett

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420069679

Category: Social Science

Page: 494

View: 1972

Explores the Nexus Formed When Malevolent Actors Access Malignant Means Written for professionals, academics, and policymakers working at the forefront of counterterrorism efforts, Jihadists and Weapons of Mass Destruction is an authoritative and comprehensive work addressing the threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in the hands of jihadists, both historically and looking toward the future threat environment. Providing insight on one of the foremost security issues of the 21st century, this seminal resource effectively: Documents current trends in the ideology, strategy, and tactics of jihadists as these relate to WMD Includes a section devoted to jihadist involvement with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons Explores the role of intelligence, law enforcement, and policymakers in anticipating, deterring, and mitigating WMD attacks Provides an overview of nonproliferation policies designed to keep WMD out of the hands of jihadists Conducts a groundbreaking quantitative empirical analysis of jihadist behavior Elicits leading experts’ estimates of the future WMD threat from jihadists Leading international experts clearly differentiate between peaceful Muslims and jihadists, exploring how jihadists translate their extreme and violent ideology into strategy. They also focus on WMD target selection and the spread of WMD knowledge in jihadist communities. Devoid of sensationalism, this multidimensional evaluation adds a heightened level of sophistication to our understanding of the prospects for and nature of jihadist WMD terrorism. About the Editors Gary Ackerman is Research Director of the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), a Department of Homeland Security National Center of Excellence based at the University of Maryland. His research work focuses on threat assessment and terrorism involving unconventional weapons. Jeremy Tamsett is a consultant for Henley-Putnam University and an analyst at the Center for Terrorism and Intelligence Studies (CETIS), a research center dedicated to identifying, better comprehending, and accurately assessing the present and future security threats stemming from a variety of violence-prone extremists and their enablers. He has served as Project Manager for the U.S. Government funded Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Attack database and Global Terrorism Database (GTD).

State Secrets

An Insider's Chronicle of the Russian Chemical Weapons Program

Author: Vil S. Mirzayanov

Publisher: Outskirts Press

ISBN: 9781432725662

Category: History

Page: 604

View: 1043

"The Mirzayanov case is an immediate legal litmus test of emerging Russian democracy. He is an individual in the true tradition of Andrei Sakharov, a man persecuted under the former regime for telling the truth, but now, rightfully, universally honored."--Dan Ellsberg, author.

A Poisonous Affair

America, Iraq, and the Gassing of Halabja

Author: Joost R. Hiltermann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521876869

Category: History

Page: 314

View: 3431

In March 1988, during the Iran-Iraq war, thousands were killed in a chemical attack on a town in Iraqi Kurdistan. Both sides accused the other. Gradually it emerged that Saddam Hussein, with the tacit support of his western allies, was responsible. This book tells the story of the gassing of Halabja, and how Iraq amassed chemical weapons to target Iranian soldiers and Kurdish villagers as America looked the other way. Today, as the Middle East sinks further into turmoil, these policies are coming back to haunt the West.

Biological Weapons

From the Invention of State-sponsored Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism

Author: Jeanne Guillemin

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231129432

Category: History

Page: 258

View: 4538

A timely account of how resources for biological weapons programs were mobilized and why such weapons have never been deployed in major conflicts offers an understanding of the relevance of the historical restraints placed on the use of biological weapons and looks at what can to done to prevent their proliferation in the post-September 11th world.

Germs

Biological Weapons and America's Secret War

Author: Judith Miller,William J Broad,Stephen Engelberg

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439128154

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 2029

In the wake of the anthrax letters following the attacks on the World Trade Center, Americans have begun to grapple with two difficult truths: that there is no terrorist threat more horrifying -- and less understood -- than germ warfare, and that it would take very little to mount a devastating attack on American soil. In Germs, three veteran reporters draw on top sources inside and outside the U.S. government to lay bare Washington's secret strategies for combating this deadly threat. Featuring an inside look at how germ warfare has been waged throughout history and what form its future might take (and in whose hands), Germs reads like a gripping detective story told by fascinating key figures: American and Soviet medical specialists who once made germ weapons but now fight their spread, FBI agents who track Islamic radicals, the Iraqis who built Saddam Hussein's secret arsenal, spies who travel the world collecting lethal microbes, and scientists who see ominous developments on the horizon. With clear scientific explanations and harrowing insights, Germs is a masterfully written -- and timely -- work of investigative journalism.

World War I Gas Warfare Tactics and Equipment

Author: Simon Jones

Publisher: C. HURST & CO. PUBLISHERS

ISBN: 9781846031519

Category: History

Page: 64

View: 5851

Osprey's study of gas warfare tactics that were employed during World War I (1914-1918). Battlefield Gas was first employed in April 1915 at the village of Langemarck near Ypres. At 1700 hours the Germans released a five mile-wide cloud of 168 tons of chlorine gas from 520 cylinders, causing panic and death in the French and Algerian trenches. Despite initial widespread condemnation and disgust, its use rapidly spread with all the armies entering into the race to produce gases, new ways to use them, and protective measures including masks and warning systems. For the first time in detail, this book charts the development of gas as a battlefield weapon and the steps taken to counter it. Delivery methods, including the use of artillery, the consequences of changing wind direction, and infantry advancing into an area just gassed, are all covered alongside key milestones in its introduction and usage. With an abundant array of artwork and photographs illustrating the gas masks, insignia, and protective clothing of the protagonists, this book conveys the horror of the gas attack and reveals the practical challenges for soldiers struggling to cope with this new form of warfare. Conveying the reality behind the iconic Sargent painting of a column of blindfolded gas casualties, it is a fascinating survey of one of the darkest facets of 20th century warfare.

Six-Legged Soldiers

Using Insects as Weapons of War

Author: Jeffrey A. Lockwood

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199733538

Category: History

Page: 378

View: 9796

Examines how insects have been used as weapons in wartime conflicts throughout history, presenting as examples how scorpions were used in Roman times and hornets nests were used during the MIddle Ages in siege warfare and how insects have been used in Vietnam, China, and Korea.

Hellfire Boys

The Birth of the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service and the Race for the World¿s Deadliest Weapons

Author: Theo Emery

Publisher: Little, Brown

ISBN: 0316264113

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 2023

An explosive look into the dawn of chemical warfare during World War I "A terrifying piece of history that almost no one knows." - Hampton Sides In 1915, when German forces executed the first successful gas attack of World War I, the world watched in horror as the boundaries of warfare were forever changed. Cries of barbarianism rang throughout Europe, yet Allied nations immediately jumped into the fray, kickstarting an arms race that would redefine a war already steeped in unimaginable horror. Largely forgotten in the confines of history, the development of the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service in 1917 left an indelible imprint on World War I. This small yet powerful division, along with the burgeoning Bureau of Mines, assembled research and military unites devoted solely to chemical weaponry, outfitting regiments with hastily made gas-resistant uniforms and recruiting scientists and engineers from around the world into the fight. As the threat of new gases and more destructive chemicals grew stronger, the chemists' secret work in the laboratories transformed into an explosive fusion of steel, science, and gas on the battlefield. Drawing from years of research, Theo Emery brilliantly shows how World War I quickly spiraled into a chemists' war, one led by the companies of young American engineers-turned-soldiers who would soon become known as the "Hellfire Boys." As gas attacks began to mark the heaviest and most devastating battles, these brave and brilliant men were on the front lines, racing against the clock-and the Germans-to protect, develop, and unleash the latest weapons of mass destruction.

The Soviet Biological Weapons Program

a history

Author: Milton Leitenberg,Raymond A Zilinskas,Jens H Kuhn

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674065263

Category: History

Page: 800

View: 9665

This is the first attempt to understand the full scope of the USSR’s offensive biological weapons research, from inception in the 1920s. Gorbachev tried to end the program, but the U.S. and U.K. never obtained clear evidence that he succeeded, raising the question whether the means for waging biological warfare could be present in Russia today.

Beyond the Arab Cold War

The International History of the Yemen Civil War, 1962-68

Author: Asher Orkaby

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190618442

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 9041

Beyond the Arab Cold War brings the Yemen Civil War, 1962-68, to the forefront of modern Middle East History. During the 1960s, in the wake of a coup against Imam Muhammad al-Badr and the formation of the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR), Yemen was transformed into an arena of global conflict. Believing al-Badr to be dead, Egypt, the Soviet Union, and most countries recognized the YAR. But when al-Badr unexpectedly turned up alive, Saudi Arabia and Britain offered support to the deposed Imam, drawing Yemen into an internationally-sponsored civil war. Throughout six years of major conflict, Yemen sat at the crossroads of regional and international conflict as dozens of countries, international organizations, and individuals intervened in the local South Arabian civil war. Yemen was a showcase for a new era of UN and Red Cross peacekeeping, clandestine activity, Egyptian counterinsurgency, and one of the first largescale uses of poison gas since WWI. Events in Yemen were not dominated by a single power, nor were they sole products of US-Soviet or Saudi-Egyptian Arab Cold War rivalry. Britain, Canada, Israel, the UN, the US, and the USSR joined Egypt and Saudi Arabia in assuming varying roles in fighting, mediating, and supplying the belligerent forces. Despite Cold War tensions, Americans and Soviets appeared on the same side of the Yemeni conflict and acted mutually to confine Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser to the borders of South Arabia. The end of the Yemen Civil War marked the end of both Nasser's Arab Nationalist colonial expansion and the British Empire in the Middle East, two of the most dominant regional forces. This internationalized conflict was a pivotal event in Middle East history, overseeing the formation of a modern Yemeni state, the fall of Egyptian and British regional influence, another Arab-Israeli war, Saudi dominance of the Arabian Peninsula, and shifting power alliances in the Middle East that continue to lie at the core of modern-day conflicts in South Arabia.

Cobra II

The Inside Story of the Invasion And Occupation of Iraq

Author: Michael R. Gordon,Bernard E. Trainor

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 1400075394

Category: History

Page: 727

View: 9690

Draws on interviews with General Tommy Franks, Condoleezza Rice, and other officials and military personnel to provide a behind-the-scenes look at the decision-making process that determined the nature of American involvement in Iraq.