War in European History

Author: Michael Howard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199546193

Category: History

Page: 171

View: 2058

A new edition of this brilliantly written survey of the changing ways that war has been waged in Europe, from the Norse invasions to the present day, Michael Howard illuminates the way in which warfare has shaped the history of the Continent, its effect on social and political institutions, and the ways in which technological and social change have in turn shaped the way in which wars are fought. This new edition includes a fully updated further reading and a newchapter bringing the story into the twenty-first century, including the invasion of Iraq and the so-called 'War against Terror'.

War in European History

Author: Michael Howard

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191500933

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 4737

First published over thirty years ago, War in European History is a brilliantly written survey of the changing ways that war has been waged in Europe, from the Norse invasions to the present day. Far more than a simple military history, the book serves as a succinct and enlightening overview of the development of European society as a whole over the last millennium. From the Norsemen and the world of the medieval knights, through to the industrialized mass warfare of the twentieth century, Michael Howard illuminates the way in which warfare has shaped the history of the Continent, its effect on social and political institutions, and the ways in which technological and social change have in turn shaped the way in which wars are fought. This new edition includes a fully updated further reading and a new final chapter bringing the story into the twenty-first century, including the invasion of Iraq and the so-called 'War against Terror'.

War in European History

Author: Michael Howard

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780192802088

Category: History

Page: 165

View: 5186

A brilliantly written survey of the changing ways war has been made from the Norse invasions to the present day; its effects on the history of the Continent, and on social and political institutions; and the effect of technological and social change of war itself. 'Though he surveys a thousand years of history, he does so without sinking in a slough of facts and draws a broad outline of developments which will delight the general reader.' A. J. P. Taylor, (Observer)

War in European History, 1660-1792

Author: Jeremy Black

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 161234397X

Category: History

Page: 122

View: 8535

The books in the Essential Bibliographies series include an essay by a noted scholar on the important historiographical issues and a pertinent bibliography for a particular period or theme in military history. They serve as research tools for librarians, researchers, and readers with a professional interest and as a starting point for pursuing further studies. This title, the second in the series by Jeremy Black (War in European History, 1494-1660), fills the relative neglect of the time period between the age of military revolution and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. In Europe, both Austria and Russia had driven back the Ottoman Turks, and the fate of their empire--the "Eastern Question"--became an important issue in European power politics. Within Europe, no power in Western or Central Europe, despite major efforts by France and Austria, respectively, could match Russia's rise to dominance in Eastern Europe. By contrast, Britain won the struggle for European maritime superiority, decisively so in 1759, and that led to its success over France in the battle over transoceanic colonies. The War of American Independence (1775-83) eventually ranged around the world as well. Although the British lost the struggle to control the thirteen colonies, which became the independent United States of America, the British survived what, from 1778, also became a war with France, Spain, the Dutch, and leading Indian powers with most of their empire retained. War in European History, 1660-1792, covers it all.

Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning

The Great War in European Cultural History

Author: Jay Winter

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110766165X

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 688

Jay Winter's powerful study of the 'collective remembrance' of the Great War offers a major reassessment of one of the critical episodes in the cultural history of the twentieth century. Dr Winter looks anew at the culture of commemoration and the ways in which communities endeavoured to find collective solace after 1918. Taking issue with the prevailing 'modernist' interpretation of the European reaction to the appalling events of 1914-18, Dr Winter instead argues that what characterised that reaction was, rather, the attempt to interpret the Great War within traditional frames of reference. Tensions arose inevitably. Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning is a profound and moving book of seminal importance for the attempt to understand the course of European history during the first half of the twentieth century.

War in European History, 1494-1660

Author: Jeremy Black

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1574889710

Category: History

Page: 118

View: 9684

Provides the latest scholarship in military history; includes essays written by top scholars in their fields; Supplies an indispensable introduction to the field and a guide for further research for students and seasoned researchers alike.

War in Europe

1450 to the Present

Author: Jeremy Black

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1474235018

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 7737

Presents the online supplement "War in Europe," a February 22, 2000 report about the war over Kosovo that aired on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) news program "Frontline." Offers access to the transcripts of interviews and discussions about the fighting, ethnic cleansing, and more.

Visions of the End of the Cold War in Europe, 1945-1990

Author: Frédéric Bozo

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857452886

Category: History

Page: 358

View: 9433

Exploring the visions of the end of the Cold War that have been put forth since its inception until its actual ending, this volume brings to the fore the reflections, programmes, and strategies that were intended to call into question the bipolar system and replace it with alternative approaches or concepts. These visions were associated not only with prominent individuals, organized groups and civil societies, but were also connected to specific historical processes or events. They ranged from actual, thoroughly conceived programmes, to more blurred, utopian aspirations - or simply the belief that the Cold War had already, in effect, come to an end. Such visions reveal much about the contexts in which they were developed and shed light on crucial moments and phases of the Cold War.

Imagined Battles

Reflections of War in European Art

Author: Peter Paret

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 9780807823569

Category: Art

Page: 128

View: 7452

For thousands of years, art has interpreted the experience of war_its methods, human costs, and moral ambiguities_and has offered historians a wealth of testimony that is only beginning to be systematically explored. In this wide-ranging study, Peter Paret discusses forty-seven paintings and prints as complex documents of war in Europe since the Renaissance and as examples of the artist's use of war as a metaphor for the human condition. The images include works by such major artists as Uccello, Géricault, and Dix as well as academic history paintings and popular prints. By setting each in its historical environment and analyzing it from the perspective of the wars of its time, illuminates the place of war in Western consciousness and expands our understanding of works that are too often approached with little concern for the reality they depict or symbolically transform. Perhaps the most significant of the themes he traces over five centuries is the gradual change from the prince or general to the common soldier and civilian victim as central figures in the interpretation of war in art.

War in Peace

Paramilitary Violence in Europe After the Great War

Author: Robert Gerwarth,John Horne

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 019968605X

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 3844

The First World War did not end in November 1918. In Russia and Eastern Europe it finished up to a year earlier, and both there and elsewhere in Europe it triggered conflicts that lasted down to 1923. Paramilitary formations were prominent in this continuation of the war. They had some features of formal military organizations, but were used in opposition to the regular military as an instrument of revolution or as an adjunct or substitute for military forces when these were unable by themselves to put down a revolution (whether class or national). Paramilitary violence thus arose in different contexts. It was an important aspect of the violence unleashed by class revolution in Russia. It structured the counter-revolution in central and Eastern Europe, including Finland and Italy, which reacted against a mythic version of Bolshevik class violence in the name of order and authority. It also shaped the struggles over borders and ethnicity in the new states that replaced the multi-national empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey. It was prominent on all sides in the wars for Irish independence. In many cases, paramilitary violence was charged with political significance and acquired a long-lasting symbolism and influence. War in Peace explores the differences and similarities between these various kinds of paramilitary violence within one volume for the first time. It thereby contributes to our understanding of the difficult transitions from war to peace. It also helps to re-situate the Great War in a longer-term context and to explain its enduring impact.

Furies

War in Europe, 1450–1700

Author: Lauro Martines

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1608196194

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 3110

During the European Renaissance, an age marked equally by revolutionary thought and constant warfare, it was armies, rather than philosophers, who shaped the modern European nation state. "Mobile cities" of mercenaries and other paid soldiers-made up of astonishingly diverse aggregations of ethnicities and nationalities-marched across the land, looting and savaging enemy territories. In the 15th century, Poland hired German, Spanish, Bohemian, Hungarian, and Scottish soldiers. Later, Sweden fought in Muscovy with Irish, English, Scottish, French and German troops. Units of Croats, Germans, Walloons, Albanians, and especially Swiss served in French armies. In the Netherlands, Italians and Spaniards fought beside Irishmen, Germans, Dalmatians, and Walloons. Regiments of Swiss pikemen fought for Spain, France, and Venice, as well as for German and Italian princes. Companies of Poles, Hungarians, and Croatians fought in German regiments. Growing national economies, unable to pay or feed massed armies for any length of time, thus became war states, an early nationalism which would later consume modern Europe. Furies: War in Europe 1450-1700 by acclaimed historian of the Renaissance Lauro Martines compellingly and simply delivers the story of modern Europe's martial roots, capturing the brutality of early modern war and how it shaped the history of a continent

War, Peace and World Orders in European History

Author: Anja V. Hartmann,Beatrice Heuser

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134541988

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 6214

This book explores a new way for students of International Relations to look at war, peace and world orders throughout European history. The contributors argue that the predominant 'realist' paradigm that focuses on states and their self-interest is not applicable to the largest period of European history, because states either did not exist or were only in the making. Instead, they argue, we have to look through the eyes of historical entities to see how they understood the world in which they lived, The authors use a wide range of case-studies, focusing on subjects as diverse as the ancient Greek concept of honour and persecution under Communist regimes during the Cold War to explore the ways in which people in different societies at different times perceived and felt about war and peace in the world around them.

War and Society in Europe of the Old Regime, 1618-1789

Author: M. S. Anderson

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 9780773517592

Category: History

Page: 239

View: 5457

In the decades leading up to the French Revolution, the armed forces in Europe changed radically. Armies and navies became larger and more expensive and the role of the state in raising, organizing, and paying them grew enormously as the military entrepreneur disappeared. Increasing state control led to a gradual improvement in discipline, and plunder and wanton destruction declined. War, however, had a limited effect on economic progress and growth. In much of central and eastern Europe the harsh imperatives of the quest for military strength were supremely important in moulding society as a whole and giving it a distinctive character. War and Society in Europe of the Old Regime provides a detailed account of how the rise of nationalism and people's armies prepared the way for the dawning of a new age.

Crusade in Europe

Author: Dwight D. Eisenhower

Publisher: Doubleday

ISBN: 0307816575

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 559

View: 5503

Dedicated to the Allied Soldier, Sailor and Airman of WWII.

Gender and War in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe

Author: Nancy M. Wingfield,Maria Bucur

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253111937

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 3475

This volume explores the role of gender on both the home and fighting fronts in eastern Europe during World Wars I and II. By using gender as a category of analysis, the authors seek to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of the subjective nature of wartime experience and its representations. While historians have long equated the fighting front with the masculine and the home front with the feminine, the contributors challenge these dichotomies, demonstrating that they are based on culturally embedded assumptions about heroism and sacrifice. Major themes include the ways in which wartime experiences challenge traditional gender roles; postwar restoration of gender order; collaboration and resistance; the body; and memory and commemoration.

Histories of the Aftermath

The Legacies of the Second World War in Europe

Author: Frank Biess,Robert G. Moeller

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1845459989

Category: History

Page: 326

View: 5275

In 1945, Europeans confronted a legacy of mass destruction and death: millions of families had lost their homes and livelihoods; millions of men in uniform had lost their lives; and millions more had been displaced by the war's destruction, and the genocidal policies of the Nazi regime. From a range of methodological historical perspectives-military, cultural, and social, to film and gender and sexuality studies-this volume explores how Europeans came to terms with these multiple pasts. With a focus on distinctive national experiences in both Eastern and Western Europe, it illuminates how postwar stabilization coexisted with persistent insecurities, injuries, and trauma.

Europe's Tragedy

A New History of the Thirty Years War

Author: Peter H. Wilson

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141937807

Category: History

Page: 1024

View: 4588

The horrific series of conflicts known as the Thirty Years War (1618-48) tore the heart out of Europe, killing perhaps a quarter of all Germans and laying waste to whole areas of Central Europe to such a degree that many towns and regions never recovered. All the major European powers apart from Russia were heavily involved and, while each country started out with rational war aims, the fighting rapidly spiralled out of control, with great battles giving way to marauding bands of starving soldiers spreading plague and murder. The war was both a religious and a political one and it was this tangle of motives that made it impossible to stop. Whether motivated by idealism or cynicism, everyone drawn into the conflict was destroyed by it. At its end a recognizably modern Europe had been created but at a terrible price. Peter Wilson's book is a major work, the first new history of the war in a generation, and a fascinating, brilliantly written attempt to explain a compelling series of events. Wilson's great strength is in allowing the reader to understand the tragedy of mixed motives that allowed rulers to gamble their countries' future with such horrifying results. The principal actors in the drama (Wallenstein, Ferdinand II, Gustavus Adolphus, Richelieu) are all here, but so is the experience of the ordinary soldiers and civilians, desperately trying to stay alive under impossible circumstances. The extraordinary narrative of the war haunted Europe's leaders into the twentieth century (comparisons with 1939-45 were entirely appropriate) and modern Europe cannot be understood without reference to this dreadful conflict.

Helmuth Von Moltke and the Origins of the First World War

Author: Annika Mombauer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521791014

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 325

View: 2034

A study of the influence of German Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke, 1906-1914.

Europe's Last Summer

Who Started the Great War in 1914?

Author: David Fromkin

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307425789

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 5196

When war broke out in Europe in 1914, it surprised a European population enjoying the most beautiful summer in memory. For nearly a century since, historians have debated the causes of the war. Some have cited the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand; others have concluded it was unavoidable. In Europe’s Last Summer, David Fromkin provides a different answer: hostilities were commenced deliberately. In a riveting re-creation of the run-up to war, Fromkin shows how German generals, seeing war as inevitable, manipulated events to precipitate a conflict waged on their own terms. Moving deftly between diplomats, generals, and rulers across Europe, he makes the complex diplomatic negotiations accessible and immediate. Examining the actions of individuals amid larger historical forces, this is a gripping historical narrative and a dramatic reassessment of a key moment in the twentieth-century. From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Oxford Handbook of European History, 1914-1945

Author: Nicholas Doumanis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191017760

Category: History

Page: 672

View: 2156

The period spanning the two World Wars was unquestionably the most catastrophic in Europe's history. Despite such undeniably progressive developments as the radical expansion of women's suffrage and rising health standards, the era was dominated by political violence and chronic instability. Its symbols were Verdun, Guernica, and Auschwitz. By the end of this dark period, tens of millions of Europeans had been killed and more still had been displaced and permanently traumatized. If the nineteenth century gave Europeans cause to regard the future with a sense of optimism, the early twentieth century had them anticipating the destruction of civilization. The fact that so many revolutions, regime changes, dictatorships, mass killings, and civil wars took place within such a compressed time frame suggests that Europe experienced a general crisis. Indeed in the early 1940s both Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill referred to a 'thirty years war'. Why did so many crises rage across the continent from 1914 until the end of the Second World War? Why did the winds of destruction affect some regions more than others? The Oxford Handbook of European History, 1914-1945 reconsiders the most significant features of this calamitous age from a transnational perspective. It demonstrates the degree to which national experiences were intertwined with those of other nations, and how each crisis was implicated in wider regional, continental, and global developments. Readers will find innovative and stimulating chapters on various political, social, and economic subjects by some of the leading scholars working on modern European history today.