A new edition of this brilliantly written survey of the changing ways that war has been waged in Europe, from the Norse invasions to the present day, Michael Howard illuminates the way in which warfare has shaped the history of the Continent, its effect on social and political institutions, and the ways in which technological and social change have in turn shaped the way in which wars are fought. This new edition includes a fully updated further reading and a newchapter bringing the story into the twenty-first century, including the invasion of Iraq and the so-called 'War against Terror'.
This volume traces Europe's military revolution, beginning with the onset of modern warfare in the 15th century Italian Wars and ending with the restoration of the House of Stuart to the English throne. It provides a complete bibliography for this time.
The books in the Essential Bibliographies series include an essay by a noted scholar on the important historiographical issues and a pertinent bibliography for a particular period or theme in military history. They serve as research tools for librarians, researchers, and readers with a professional interest and as a starting point for pursuing further studies. This title, the second in the series by Jeremy Black (War in European History, 1494-1660), fills the relative neglect of the time period between the age of military revolution and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. In Europe, both Austria and Russia had driven back the Ottoman Turks, and the fate of their empire--the "Eastern Question"--became an important issue in European power politics. Within Europe, no power in Western or Central Europe, despite major efforts by France and Austria, respectively, could match Russia's rise to dominance in Eastern Europe. By contrast, Britain won the struggle for European maritime superiority, decisively so in 1759, and that led to its success over France in the battle over transoceanic colonies. The War of American Independence (1775-83) eventually ranged around the world as well. Although the British lost the struggle to control the thirteen colonies, which became the independent United States of America, the British survived what, from 1778, also became a war with France, Spain, the Dutch, and leading Indian powers with most of their empire retained. War in European History, 1660-1792, covers it all.
Although ostensibly a time of peace, one of the richest and most fascinating periods in military history falls between the two world wars. With good reason, even today military theorists look to these years for relevant lessons. The articles and papers collected together in this volume highlight the major themes and developments of interwar military affairs in Europe, including the new doctrines of tank warfare, air power, German "Blitzkrieg", and Soviet operational art. They also demonstrate the important place of the major armed conflicts of the period, such as the Russian and Spanish Civil Wars, in European history.
War in Europe is an overview of war and military development in Europe since 1450, bringing together the work of a renowned historian of modern European and military history in a single authoritative volume. Beginning with the impact of the Reformation and continuing up to the present day, Jeremy Black discusses the following key themes: long-term military developments, notably in the way war is waged and battle conducted the relationship between war and transformations in the European international system the linkage between military requirements and state developments the consequences of these requirements, and of the experience of war, for the nature of society Adopting a clear chronological approach, Black weaves a rich and detailed narrative of the development of war in relation to transformations in the European international system, demonstrating the links between its causes and consequences in the military, political and social spheres. Assimilating decades of important research as well as bringing new perspectives to the topic, War in Europe is a key text for students taking courses in European history, international relations and war studies.
Paramilitary Violence in Europe After the Great War
Author: Robert Gerwarth,John Horne
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
The First World War did not end in November 1918. In Russia and Eastern Europe it finished up to a year earlier, and both there and elsewhere in Europe it triggered conflicts that lasted down to 1923. Paramilitary formations were prominent in this continuation of the war. They had some features of formal military organizations, but were used in opposition to the regular military as an instrument of revolution or as an adjunct or substitute for military forces when these were unable by themselves to put down a revolution (whether class or national). Paramilitary violence thus arose in different contexts. It was an important aspect of the violence unleashed by class revolution in Russia. It structured the counter-revolution in central and Eastern Europe, including Finland and Italy, which reacted against a mythic version of Bolshevik class violence in the name of order and authority. It also shaped the struggles over borders and ethnicity in the new states that replaced the multi-national empires of Russia, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey. It was prominent on all sides in the wars for Irish independence. In many cases, paramilitary violence was charged with political significance and acquired a long-lasting symbolism and influence. War in Peace explores the differences and similarities between these various kinds of paramilitary violence within one volume for the first time. It thereby contributes to our understanding of the difficult transitions from war to peace. It also helps to re-situate the Great War in a longer-term context and to explain its enduring impact.
Modern military history, inspired by social and cultural historical approaches, increasingly puts the national histories of the Second World War to the test. New questions and methods are focusing on aspects of war and violence that have long been neglected. What shaped people's experiences and memories? What differences and what similarities existed in Eastern and Western Europe? How did the political framework influence the individual and the collective interpretations of the war? Finally, what are the benefits of Europeanizing the history of the Second World War? Experts from Belgium, Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, and Russia discuss these and other questions in this comprehensive volume.
Scholars have tended to underrate the importance of war in the period 1650–1792, as there is a feeling that periods before and after were more consequential for military development. This collection of essays sets out to address this problem, probing the nature of warfare throughout Europe from the middle of the seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth.
Jay Winter's powerful study of the 'collective remembrance' of the Great War offers a major reassessment of one of the critical episodes in the cultural history of the twentieth century. Dr Winter looks anew at the culture of commemoration and the ways in which communities endeavoured to find collective solace after 1918. Taking issue with the prevailing 'modernist' interpretation of the European reaction to the appalling events of 1914-18, Dr Winter instead argues that what characterised that reaction was, rather, the attempt to interpret the Great War within traditional frames of reference. Tensions arose inevitably. Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning is a profound and moving book of seminal importance for the attempt to understand the course of European history during the first half of the twentieth century.
Drawing on recently opened archives from the former Soviet Union as well as on existing research largely unavailable in English, distinguished authorities from eight countries provide new insight into the origins of the Cold War and into the Europe that has been molded by it. David Reynolds and his fellow essayists have made a truly valuable contribution toward the reinterpretation of Cold War origins that is sure to follow the opening of documents in Europe and the former Soviet Union. Viewing the Cold War as international history does make a difference, and this volume is one of the first to show why.-John Lewis Gaddis, Professor of History, Ohio University An outstanding collection of essays.-Jacob Heilbrunn, The New Republic A welcome addition to the still-burgeoning literature on the origins of the Cold War.-Foreign Affairs Students of American affairs will find the U.S. chapter in itself an excellent historiographical guide, but far more important for them is the opportunity provided by the rest of the book to place U.S. policies in a wider European context.-D.K. Adams, American Studies This is a valuable book.It reminds American, British, and Soviet historians that, as Wiebes and Zeeman write, the 'Cold War was not a bi- or even tri-lateral affair'. Indeed, this book might provoke historians to publish broader international histories of the Cold War in Europe.-Terry Anderson, The Journal of American History A contribution towards objectifying discussion of the cold war...To be appreciated.-Wilfried Loth, The International History Review A handy introduction to the historiography of Cold War origins in Europe. The book's usefulness as a reference work is enhanced by maps, a chronology of events and a table of key appointees in post-war governments.-John Wilson Young, English Historical Review
Religious warfare has been a recurrent feature of European history. Norman Housley's readable and intelligent new study examines the spectrum of conflicts waged in God's name in the period from the Later Crusades to the early Reformation, making an important contribution to both areas of research. Professor Housley explores the interaction between Crusade and religious war in the broader sense, and argues that the religious violence of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries sprang from deeply rooted proclivities within European society.
Bahnbrechende neue Erkenntnisse über den Weg in den Ersten Weltkrieg 1914 Lange Zeit galt es als ausgemacht, dass das deutsche Kaiserreich wegen seiner Großmachtträume die Hauptverantwortung am Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkriegs trug. In seinem bahnbrechenden neuen Werk kommt der renommierte Historiker und Bestsellerautor Christopher Clark (Preußen) zu einer anderen Einschätzung. Clark beschreibt minutiös die Interessen und Motivationen der wichtigsten politischen Akteure in den europäischen Metropolen und zeichnet das Bild einer komplexen Welt, in der gegenseitiges Misstrauen, Fehleinschätzungen, Überheblichkeit, Expansionspläne und nationalistische Bestrebungen zu einer Situation führten, in der ein Funke genügte, den Krieg auszulösen, dessen verheerende Folgen kaum jemand abzuschätzen vermochte. Schon jetzt zeigt sich, dass »Die Schlafwandler« eine der wichtigsten Neuerscheinungen zum 100. Jahrestag des Ausbruchs des Ersten Weltkriegs sein wird.
In this pioneering new work, based on a thorough re-reading of primary sources and new research in the Austrian State Archives, Franz Szabo presents a fascinating reassessment of the continental war. Professor Szabo challenges the well-established myth that the Seven Years War was won through the military skill and tenacity of the King of Prussia, often styled Frederick “the Great”. Instead he argues that Prussia did not win, but merely survived the Seven Years War and did so despite and not because of the actions and decisions of its king. With balanced attention to all the major participants and to all conflict zones on the European continent, the book describes the strategies and tactics of the military leaders on all sides, analyzes the major battles of the war and illuminates the diplomatic, political and financial aspects of the conflict.
Einzigartig und fesselnd erzählt der renommierte Oxford-Historiker Nicholas Stargardt in ›Der Deutsche Krieg‹ aus der Nahsicht, wie die Deutschen – Soldaten, Lehrer, Krankenschwestern, Nationalsozialisten, Christen und Juden – den Zweiten Weltkrieg durchlebten. Tag für Tag erleben wir mit, worauf sie hofften, was sie schockierte, worüber sie schwiegen und wie sich ihre Sicht auf den Krieg allmählich wandelte. Gestützt auf zahllose Tagebücher und Briefe, unter anderem von Heinrich Böll und Victor Klemperer, Wilm Hosenfeld und Konrad Jarausch, gelingt Nicholas Stargardt ein Blick in die Köpfe der Menschen, der deutlich macht, warum so viele Deutsche noch an die nationale Sache glaubten, als der Krieg längst verloren war und die Gewissheit wuchs, an einem Völkermord teilzuhaben. Ein verstörendes Kaleidoskop der Jahre 1939 bis 1945 im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland. »Ein Meisterwerk der Geschichtsschreibung, das die ›Vogelperspektive‹ nahtlos mit einer Mikrogeschichte dieser verhängnisvollen Periode des 20. Jahrhunderts verbindet.« Jan T. Gross »Erstmals wird die Chronologie der Stimmung, der Hoffnungen und Befürchtungen (...) der deutschen Bevölkerung während des Krieges wirklich sichtbar. Eine eindrucksvolle, fesselnde Darstellung.« Mark Roseman »Hervorragend geschrieben und in seiner Argumentation überzeugend, ist dieses Buch ein Muss.« Saul Friedländer
This is the first account in any language of the civil wars in Europe during the era of the world wars, from 1905 to 1949. It treats the initial confrontations in the decade before World War I, the confusing concept of 'European civil war,' the impact of the world wars, the relation between revolution and civil war and all the individual cases of civil war, with special attention to Russia and Spain. The civil wars of this era are compared and contrasted with earlier internal conflicts, with particular attention to the factors that made this era a time of unusually violent domestic contests, as well as those that brought it to an end. The major political, ideological and social influences are all treated, with a special focus on violence against civilians.
Author: Erica Michiko Charters,Eve Rosenhaft,Hannah Smith
Publisher: Liverpool University Press
Civilians and War in Europe 1618–1815 examines the relationship between civilians and warfare from the start of the Thirty Years War to the end of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. The volume interrogates received narratives of warfare that identify the development of modern 'total' war with the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and instead considers the continuities and transformations in warfare over the course of two hundred years. The contributors examine prisoners of war, the cultures of plunder, the tensions of billeting, and war-time atrocities throughout England, France, Spain, and the German territories. They also explore the legal practices surrounding the conduct and aftermath of war; representations of civilians, soldiers, and militias; and the philosophical underpinnings of warfare. They probe what it meant to be a civilian in territories beset by invasion and civil war or in times when ‘peace’ at home was accompanied by almost continuous military engagement abroad. Their accounts show us civilians not only as anguished sufferers, but also directly involved with war: fighting back with shocking violence, profiting from war-time needs, and negotiating for material and social redress. And they show us individuals and societies coming to terms with the moral and political challenges posed by the business of drawing lines between ‘civilians’ and ‘soldiers’.With contributors drawn from the fields of political and legal theory, literature and the visual arts, and military, political, social, and cultural history, this volume will appeal to all those with an interest in the history of warfare and the evolution of the idea of the civilian.
A brilliantly written survey of the changing ways war has been made from the Norse invasions to the present day; its effects on the history of the Continent, and on social and political institutions; and the effect of technological and social change of war itself. 'Though he surveys a thousand years of history, he does so without sinking in a slough of facts and draws a broad outline of developments which will delight the general reader.' A. J. P. Taylor, (Observer)
This book explores a new way for students of International Relations to look at war, peace and world orders throughout European history. The contributors argue that the predominant 'realist' paradigm that focuses on states and their self-interest is not applicable to the largest period of European history, because states either did not exist or were only in the making. Instead, they argue, we have to look through the eyes of historical entities to see how they understood the world in which they lived, The authors use a wide range of case-studies, focusing on subjects as diverse as the ancient Greek concept of honour and persecution under Communist regimes during the Cold War to explore the ways in which people in different societies at different times perceived and felt about war and peace in the world around them.
English summary: Stalin is more relevant than ever. He symbolises the Soviet Union's rise to a global superpower, a position that the current government in Moscow wishes to restore. This is demonstrated by the violent conflicts in the northern Caucasus which have some roots in the period of Stalin. This is additionally illustrated by the renaissance of the late Russian dictator, who is being stylised as moderniser without referring to the brutality and victims of his great industrialisation project. In this book, based on current research, the author offers a biographical perspective on Stalin's life. In contrast to many other biographical works the soviet dictator is equally presented as domestic as well as foreign politician and the history and ideology of Stalinism is laid out. German description: Stalin ist aktueller denn je. Er symbolisiert den Aufstieg der UdSSR zur Weltmacht, den die heutige politische Fuhrung in Moskau wieder zuruckerlangen mochte. Davon zeugen die anhaltenden gewaltsamen Konflikte in der Unruheregion Nordkaukasus, deren Wurzeln u.a. auch in der Zeit des Stalinismus liegen. Und davon zeugt die bemerkenswerte Renaissance, die der ehemalige sowjetische Diktator im heutigen Staate Medvedevs und Putins erfahrt. Er wird zum bedeutenden Modernisierer stilisiert, ohne dabei die Brutalitat und die immensen Opfer zu nennen, die sein grosses Industrialisierungsprojekt in den 1930er Jahren mit sich brachte.
Europa am Abgrund Das europäische zwanzigste Jahrhundert war geprägt von kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen. Europa erlebte gewaltige Turbulenzen, die Hölle zweier Weltkriege in der ersten Jahrhunderthälfte und tiefgreifende Veränderungen. Der britische Historiker Ian Kershaw erzählt in einem meisterhaften Panorama die Geschichte dieses Kontinents vom Vorabend des Ersten Weltkriegs bis in die Zeit des beginnenden Kalten Kriegs Ende der vierziger Jahre, nachdem die europäische Zivilisation an den Rand der Selbstzerstörung gelangt war. Ethnische Auseinandersetzungen, aggressiver Nationalismus und Gebietsstreitigkeiten, Klassenkonflikte und die tiefe Krise des Kapitalismus waren die treibenden Kräfte, die Kershaw dabei besonders in den Blick nimmt. Neben den großen Entwicklungslinien in Politik, Wirtschaft, Kultur und Gesellschaft schildert er auch immer wieder Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen einzelner, die einen Eindruck geben vom Leben im Europa der ersten Jahrhunderthälfte.