Viruses: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Dorothy H. Crawford

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192539728

Category: Medical

Page: 160

View: 8173

Viruses are big news. From pandemics such as HIV, to swine flu, and SARS, we are constantly being bombarded with information about new lethal infections. In this Very Short Introduction Dorothy Crawford demonstrates how clever these entities really are. From their discovery and the unravelling of their intricate structures, Crawford demonstrates how these tiny parasites are by far the most abundant life forms on the planet. With up to two billion of them in each litre of sea water, viruses play a vital role in controlling the marine environment, and are essential to the ocean's delicate ecosystem. In this fully updated edition, Crawford recounts stories of renowned killer viruses such as the recent Ebola and Zika epidemics, as well as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and considers the importance of air travel in facilitating the international spread of viruses in the twenty first century. Discussing the impact of global warming, which is increasing the range of vector-transmitted viruses such as dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus, she also considers the effect this will have on native populations in subtropical and temperate climates of the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. By examining our lifestyle in the 21st century, Crawford looks to the future to ask whether we can ever live in harmony with viruses, and considers the ways in which we may need to adapt to prevent emerging viruses with devastating consequences. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Microbiology

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Nicholas P. Money

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199681686

Category: Science

Page: 122

View: 8839

Describes the expansions of microbiology; it's methods, from traditional microscopy and laboratory culture to the latest genomic analysis.

Emotion

Eine sehr kurze Einführung

Author: Dylan Evans

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783456852959

Category:

Page: 176

View: 3207

Marine Biology: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Philip V. Mladenov

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199695059

Category: Science

Page: 156

View: 8327

In this Very Short Introduction, Philip Mladenov provides a fascinating overview of marine biology. Including a tour of marine life and marine processes that ranges from the polar oceans to tropical coral reefs, he outlines the principles of marine biology whilst demonstrating the fundamental impact humans have on the oceans and their ecology.

Networks: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Guido Caldarelli,Michele Catanzaro

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199588074

Category: Computers

Page: 122

View: 2497

Networks are involved in many aspects of everyday life, from food webs in ecology and the spread of pandemics to social networking and public transport. This Very Short Introduction explores the basics of network theory to understand the science of complexity and its importance, using examples from nature, technology, and society, and history.

Drugs

Author: Les Iversen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198745796

Category:

Page: 144

View: 6847

The twentieth century saw a remarkable upsurge of research on drugs, with major advances in the treatment of bacterial and viral infections, heart disease, stomach ulcers, cancer, and metal illnesses. These, along with the introduction of the oral contraceptive, have altered all of our lives. There has also been an increase in the recreational use and abuse of drugs in the Western world. This Very Short Introduction, in its second edition, gives a non-technical account of how drugs work in the body. Reviewing both legal (alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine) and illegal drugs, Les Iversen disscusses why some are addictive, and whether drug laws need reform. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Quantentheorie

eine Einführung

Author: John C. Polkinghorne

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150188613

Category:

Page: 176

View: 5988

Genomics

Author: John M. Archibald

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198786204

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 1496

Genomics has transformed the biological sciences. From epidemiology and medicine to evolution and forensics, the ability to determine an organism's complete genetic makeup has changed the way science is done and the questions that can be asked of it. Its most celebrated achievement was theHuman Genome Project, a technologically challenging endeavor that took thousands of scientists around the world 13 years and over 3 billion US dollars to complete. In this Very Short Introduction John Archibald explores the science of genomics and its rapidly expanding toolbox. Sequencing a human genome now takes only a few days and costs as little as $1,000. The genomes of simple bacteria and viruses can be sequenced in a matter of hours on a device that fitsin the palm of your hand. The resulting sequences can be used to better understand our biology in health and disease and to 'personalize' medicine. Archibald shows how the field of genomics is on the cusp of another quantum leap; the implications for science and society are profound.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Computer: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Darrel Ince

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199586594

Category: Computers

Page: 139

View: 7600

Discusses the basic components of computers; how increasingly miniature parts have led to products, applications, and networks that solve problems; the issues that increased connectivity has produced; and some of the emerging technologies in the field.

Mathematik

Author: Timothy Gowers

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783150187067

Category:

Page: 207

View: 1785

Kurze Antworten auf große Fragen

Author: Stephen Hawking

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 3608115102

Category: Political Science

Page: 160

View: 4757

Stephen Hawkings Vermächtnis In seinem letzten Buch gibt Stephen Hawking Antworten auf die drängendsten Fragen unserer Zeit und nimmt uns mit auf eine persönliche Reise durch das Universum seiner Weltanschauung. Seine Gedanken zu Ursprung und Zukunft der Menschheit sind zugleich eine Mahnung, unseren Heimatplaneten besser vor den Gefahren unserer Gegenwart zu schützen. Zugänglich und klar finden Sie in diesem Buch Hawkings Antworten auf die drängendsten Fragen unserer Zeit. - Warum gibt es uns Menschen überhaupt? - Und woher kommen wir? - Gibt es im Weltall andere intelligente Lebewesen? - Existiert Gott? - In welchem Zustand befindet sich unser Heimatplanet? - Werden wir auf der Erde überleben? - Retten oder zerstören uns Naturwissenschaften und Technik? - Hilft uns die künstliche Intelligenz, die Erde zu bewahren? - Können wir den Weltraum bevölkern? - Wie werden wir die Schwächsten – Kinder, Kranke, alte Menschen – schützen? - Wie werden wir unsere Kinder erziehen? Brillanter Physiker, revolutionärer Kosmologe, unerschütterlicher Optimist. Für Stephen Hawking bergen die Weiten des Universums nicht nur naturwissenschaftliche Geheimnisse. In seinem persönlichsten Buch beantwortet der Autor die großen Fragen des menschlichen Lebens und spricht die wichtigsten Themen unserer Zeit an. Zugänglich und klar erläutert er die Folgen des menschlichen Fortschritts – vom Klimawandel bis hin zu künstlicher Intelligenz – und diskutiert seine Gefahren. Hier finden Sie Hawkings Antworten auf die Urfragen der Menschheit. Ein großer Appell an politische Machthaber und jeden Einzelnen von uns, unseren bedrohten Heimatplaneten besser zu schützen.

Medizinische Statistik

Author: Hans J. Trampisch,Jürgen Windeler

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 364256996X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 376

View: 2258

"Statistiken sind merkwürdige Dinge ...", dies wird so mancher Mediziner denken, wenn er sich mit der Biometrie befaßt. Sei es im Rahmen seiner Ausbildung oder im Zuge wissenschaftlicher oder klinischer Studien, Kenntnisse der Statistik und Mathematik sind unentbehrlich für die tägliche Arbeit des Mediziners. Ziel dieses Lehrbuches ist es, den Mediziner systematisch an biometrische Terminologie und Arbeitsmethoden heranzuführen, um ihn schließlich mit den Grundlagen der Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechung vertraut zu machen. Nach der Lektüre dieses Buches hält der Leser ein Werkzeug in den Händen, das ihm bei der Lösung medizinscher Fragestellungen hilft ebenso wie bei der Beschreibung von Ergebnissen wissenschaftlicher Studien und natürlich bei der Doktorarbeit!

Epidemiology: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Rodolfo Saracci

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191609242

Category: Medical

Page: 160

View: 3025

What is epidemiology? What are the causes of a new disease? How can pandemics be prevented? Epidemiology is the study of the changing patterns of disease and its main aim is to improve the health of populations. It's a vital field, central to the health of society, to the identification of causes of disease, and to their management and prevention. Epidemiology has had an impact on many areas of medicine; from discovering the relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer, to the origin and spread of new epidemics. However, it is often poorly understood, largely due to misrepresentations in the media. In this Very Short Introduction Rodolfo Saracci dispels some of the myths surrounding the study of epidemiology. He provides a general explanation of the principles behind clinical trials, and explains the nature of basic statistics concerning disease. He also looks at the ethical and political issues related to obtaining and using information concerning patients, and trials involving placebos. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Complexity

A Very Short Introduction

Author: John H. Holland

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199662541

Category: History

Page: 95

View: 3138

In this Very Short Introduction, John Holland presents an introduction to the science of complexity. Using examples from biology and economics, he shows how complexity science models the behaviour of complex systems.

Der Mensch und das Meer

Warum der größte Lebensraum der Erde in Gefahr ist

Author: Callum Roberts

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641100062

Category: Social Science

Page: 592

View: 4449

Der Wandel eines faszinierenden, bedrohten Lebensraums Die Ozeane sind nicht nur der größte Lebensraum der Erde, sondern auch der am wenigsten erforschte. Die unermessliche Vielfalt dieses Ökosystems beginnen wir erst jetzt bis in die letzten Winkel zu begreifen – auch wie wichtig das Meer für unser Leben ist. Im letzten Jahrhundert hat jedoch die Herrschaft des Menschen über die Natur auch die Ozeane erreicht: Wir fischen die Meere leer und füllen sie stattdessen mit Umweltgiften. Tiefseebergbau droht den Lebensraum unzähliger Pflanzen und Tiere bis zur Unkenntlichkeit zu verändern. Die Klimaerwärmung ließ bereits ein Viertel aller Korallen zugrunde gehen. In seinem aufrüttelnden Buch beschreibt der Meeresbiologe und –schützer Callum Roberts den großen Reichtum der Ozeane und ihren Wandel, und er ruft dazu auf, der Zerstörung der Meere endlich Einhalt zu gebieten, denn noch ist es nicht zu spät.

The Immune System: a Very Short Introduction

Author: Paul Klenerman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019875390X

Category: Medical

Page: 144

View: 3735

The immune system is central to human health and the focus of much medical research. Growing understanding of the immune system, and especially the creation of immune memory (long lasting protection), which can be harnessed in the design of vaccines, have been major breakthroughs in medicine. In this Very Short Introduction, Paul Klenerman describes the immune system, and how it works in health and disease. In particular he focuses on the human immune system, considering how it evolved, the basic rules that govern its behavior, and the major health threats where it is important. The immune system comprises a series of organs, cells and chemical messengers which work together as a team to provide defence against infection. Klenerman discusses these components, the critical signals that trigger them and how they exert their protective effects, including so-called "innate" immune responses, which react very fast to infection, and "adaptive" immune responses, which have huge diversity and a capacity to recognize and defend against a massive array of micro-organisms. Klenerman also considers what happens when our immune systems fail to be activated effectively, leading to serious infections, problems with inherited diseases, and also HIV/AIDS. At the opposite extreme, as Klenerman shows, an over-exaggerated immune response leads to inflammatory diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis, as well as allergy and asthma. Finally he looks at the "Immune system v2.o" - how immune therapies and vaccines can be advanced to protect us against the major diseases of the 21st century. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Infectious Disease

A Very Short Introduction

Author: Marta Wayne,Benjamin M. Bolker

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199688931

Category: Medical

Page: 144

View: 2527

As doctors and biologists have learned, to their dismay, infectious disease is a moving target: new diseases emerge every year, old diseases evolve into new forms, and ecological and socioeconomic upheavals change the transmission pathways by which disease spread. By taking an approach focused on the general evolutionary and ecological dynamics of disease, this Very Short Introduction provides a general conceptual framework for thinking about disease. Ecology and evolution provide the keys to answering the "where", "why", "how", and "what" questions about any particular infectious disease: where did it come from? How is it transmitted from one person to another, and why are some individuals more susceptible than others? What biochemical, ecological, and evolutionary strategies can be used to combat the disease? Is it more effective to block transmission at the population level, or to block infection at the individual level? Through a series of case studies, Benjamin Bolker and Marta L. Wayne introduce the major ideas of infectious disease in a clear and thoughtful way, emphasizing the general principles of infection, the management of outbreaks, and the evolutionary and ecological approaches that are now central to much research about infectious disease. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Crystallography: A Very Short Introduction

Author: A. M. Glazer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191027111

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 2200

Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

HIV and AIDS

Author: Alan Whiteside

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198727496

Category: Medical

Page: 152

View: 7827

In 2008 it was believed that HIV/AIDS was without doubt the worst epidemic to hit humankind since the Black Death. The first case was identified in 1981; by 2004 it was estimated that about 40 million people were living with the disease, and about 20 million had died. Yet the outlook today is a little brighter. Although HIV/ AIDS continues to be a pressing public health issue the epidemic has stabilised globally, and it has become evident it is not, nor will it be, a global issue. The worst affected regions are southern and eastern Africa. Elsewhere, HIV is found in specific, usually, marginalised populations, for example intravenous drug users in Russia. Although there still remains no cure for HIV, there have been unprecedented breakthroughs in understanding the disease and developing drugs. Access to treatment over the last ten years has turned AIDS into a chronic disease, although it is still a challenge to make antiviral treatment available to all that require it. We also have new evidence that treatment greatly reduces infectivity, and this has led to the movement of 'Treatment as Prevention'. In this Very Short Introduction Alan Whiteside provides an introduction to AIDS, tackling the science, the international and local politics, the fascinating demographics, and the devastating consequences of the disease. He looks at the problems a developing international 'AIDS fatigue' poses to funding for sufferers, but also shows how domestic resources are increasingly being mobilised, despite the stabilisation of international funding. Finally Whiteside considers how the need to understand and change our behaviour has caused us to reassess what it means to be human and how we should operate in the globalizing world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.