Modeling Techniques, Analysis Methods, Case Studies
Author: Wolfgang Reisig
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
With their intuitive graphical approach and expressive analysis techniques, Petri nets are suitable for a wide range of applications and teaching scenarios, and they have gained wide acceptance as a modeling technique in areas such as software design and control engineering. The core theoretical principles have been studied for many decades and there is now a comprehensive research literature that complements the extensive implementation experience. In this book the author presents a clear, thorough introduction to the essentials of Petri nets. He explains the core modeling techniques and analysis methods and he illustrates their usefulness with examples and case studies. Part I describes how to use Petri nets for modeling; all concepts are explained with the help of examples, starting with a generic, powerful model which is also intuitive and realistic. Part II covers the essential analysis methods that are specific to Petri nets, introducing techniques used to formulate key properties of system nets and algorithms for proving their validity. Part III presents case studies, each introducing new concepts, properties and analysis techniques required for very different modeling tasks. The author offers different paths among the chapters and sections: the elementary strand for readers who wish to study only elementary nets; the modeling strand for those who wish to study the modeling but not the analysis of systems; and finally the elementary models of the modeling strand for those interested in technically simple, but challenging examples and case studies. The author achieves an excellent balance between consistency, comprehensibility and correctness in a book of distinctive design. Among its characteristics, formal arguments are reduced to a minimum in the main text with many of the theoretical formalisms moved to an appendix, the explanations are supported throughout with fully integrated graphical illustrations, and each chapter ends with exercises and recommendations for further reading. The book is suitable for students of computer science and related subjects such as engineering, and for a broad range of researchers and practitioners.
Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first informally introduced through examples and then followed by formal definitions (which may be skipped). The book is ideally suitable for a one-semester course at an advanced undergraduate or graduate level, and through its strong application examples can also serve for self-study. An accompanying website offers additional material such as slides, exercises and project proposals. Book website: http://www.cs.au.dk/CPnets/cpnbook/
An introduction to the modeling of business information systems, with processes formally modeled using Petri nets. This comprehensive introduction to modeling business-information systems focuses on business processes. It describes and demonstrates the formal modeling of processes in terms of Petri nets, using a well-established theory for capturing and analyzing models with concurrency. The precise semantics of this formal method offers a distinct advantage for modeling processes over the industrial modeling languages found in other books on the subject. Moreover, the simplicity and expressiveness of the Petri nets concept make it an ideal language for explaining foundational concepts and constructing exercises. After an overview of business information systems, the book introduces the modeling of processes in terms of classical Petri nets. This is then extended with data, time, and hierarchy to model all aspects of a process. Finally, the book explores analysis of Petri net models to detect design flaws and errors in the design process. The text, accessible to a broad audience of professionals and students, keeps technicalities to a minimum and offers numerous examples to illustrate the concepts covered. Exercises at different levels of difficulty make the book ideal for independent study or classroom use.
This monograph presents a well written and clearly organized introduction in the standard methods of discrete, continuous and hybrid Petri Nets. Starting from the basics of Petri Nets the book imparts an accurate understanding of continuous and hybrid Petri Nets. Preserving the consistency of basic concepts throughout the text it introduces a unified framework for all the models presented. The book is a scientific monograph as well as a didactic tutorial which is easy to understand due to many exercises with solutions, detailed figures and several case studies. It demonstrates that Petri nets are a deep, practical and alive field important for researchers, engineers and graduate students in engineering and computer science.
Written by a leading researcher this book presents an introduction to Stochastic Petri Nets covering the modeling power of the proposed SPN model, the stability conditions and the simulation methods. Its unique and well-written approach provides a timely and important addition to the literature. Appeals to a wide range of researchers in engineering, computer science, mathematics and OR.
Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use
Author: Kurt Jensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN). It shows how CP-nets have been de veloped - from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged lan guage for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and/or com puters communicate by means of some more or less formal rules). The book contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical theory behind their analysis methods. However, it has been the intention to write the book in such a way that it also becomes attractive to readers who are more interested in applications than the underlying mathematics. This means that a large part of the book is written in a style which is closer to an engineering textbook (or a users' manual) than it is to a typical textbook in theoretical computer science. The book consists of three separate volumes. The first volume defines the net model (i. e. , hierarchical CP-nets) and the basic concepts (e. g. , the different behavioural properties such as deadlocks, fair ness and home markings). It gives a detailed presentation of many smaIl exam ples and a brief overview of some industrial applications. It introduces the for mal analysis methods. FinaIly, it contains a description of a set of CPN tools which support the practical use of CP-nets.
A Guide to Modeling, Verification, and Applications
Author: Claude Girault,Rüdiger Valk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Using formal methods for the specification and verification of hardware and software systems is becoming increasingly important as systems increase in size and complexity. The aim of the book is to illustrate progress in formal methods based on Petri net formalisms. It presents both practical and theoretical foundations for the use of Petri nets in complex system engineering tasks. In doing so it bridges the gap between Petri nets and the systems modeling and implementation process. It contains a collection of examples arising from different fields, such as flexible manufacturing, telecommunication and workflow management systems.
Eric Badouel,Luca Bernardinello,Philippe Darondeau
Author: Eric Badouel,Luca Bernardinello,Philippe Darondeau
This book is a comprehensive, systematic survey of the synthesis problem, and of region theory which underlies its solution, covering the related theory, algorithms, and applications. The authors focus on safe Petri nets and place/transition nets (P/T-nets), treating synthesis as an automated process which, given behavioural specifications or partial specifications of a system to be realized, decides whether the specifications are feasible, and then produces a Petri net realizing them exactly, or if this is not possible produces a Petri net realizing an optimal approximation of the specifications. In Part I the authors introduce elementary net synthesis. In Part II they explain variations of elementary net synthesis and the unified theory of net synthesis. The first three chapters of Part III address the linear algebraic structure of regions, synthesis of P/T-nets from finite initialized transition systems, and the synthesis of unbounded P/T-nets. Finally, the last chapter in Part III and the chapters in Part IV cover more advanced topics and applications: P/T-net with the step firing rule, extracting concurrency from transition systems, process discovery, supervisory control, and the design of speed-independent circuits. Most chapters conclude with exercises, and the book is a valuable reference for both graduate students of computer science and electrical engineering and researchers and engineers in this domain.
At first glance the concepts of time and of Petri nets are quite contrary: while time determines the occurrences of events in a system, classic Petri nets consider their causal relationships and they represent events as concurrent systems. But if we take a closer look at how time and causality are intertwined we realize that there are many possible ways in which time and Petri nets interact. This book takes a closer look at three time-dependent Petri nets: Time Petri nets, Timed Petri nets, and Petri nets with time windows. The author first explains classic Petri nets and their fundamental properties. Then the pivotal contribution of the book is the introduction of different algorithms that allow us to analyze time-dependent Petri nets. For Time Petri nets, the author presents an algorithm that proves the behavioral equivalence of a net where time is designed once with real and once with natural numbers, so we can reduce the state space and consider the integer states exclusively. For Timed Petri nets, the author introduces two time-dependent state equations, providing a sufficient condition for the non-reachability of states, and she also defines a local transformation for converting these nets into Time Petri nets. Finally, she shows that Petri nets with time-windows have the ability to realize every transition sequence fired in the net omitting time restrictions. These classes of time-dependent Petri nets show that time alone does not change the power of a Petri net, in fact time may or may not be used to force firing. For Time Petri nets and Timed Petri nets we can say that they are Turing-powerful, and thus more powerful than classic Petri nets, because there is a compulsion to fire at some point in time. By contrast, Petri nets with time-windows have no compulsion to fire, their expressiveness power is less than that of Turing-machines. This book derives from advanced lectures, and the text is supported throughout with examples and exercises. It is suitable for graduate courses in computer science, mathematics, engineering, and related disciplines, and as a reference for researchers.
Evolving technologies in mass production have led to the development of advanced techniques in the field of manufacturing. These technologies can quickly and effectively respond to various market changes, necessitating processes that focus on small batches of multiple products rather than large, single-product lines. Formal Methods in Manufacturing Systems: Recent Advances explores this shifting paradigm through an investigation of contemporary manufacturing techniques and formal methodologies that strive to solve a variety of issues arising from a market environment that increasingly favors flexible systems over traditional ones. This book will be of particular use to industrial engineers and students of the field who require a detailed understanding of current trends and developments in manufacturing tools. This book is part of the Advances in Civil and Industrial Engineering series collection.
This book offers a comprehensive introduction to workflow management, the management of business processes with information technology. By defining, analyzing, and redesigning an organization's resources and operations, workflow management systems ensure that the right information reaches the right person or computer application at the right time. The book provides a basic overview of workflow terminology and organization, as well as detailed coverage of workflow modeling with Petri nets. Because Petri nets make definitions easier to understand for nonexperts, they facilitate communication between designers and users. The book includes a chapter of case studies, review exercises, and a glossary. A special Web site developed by the authors, www.workflowcourse.com, features animation, interactive examples, lecture materials, exercises and solutions, relevant links, and other valuable resources for the classroom.
High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable de scriptions than can be obtained by means of low-level Petri nets-while, on the other hand, they still offer a wide range of analysis methods and tools. The step from low-level nets to high-level nets can be compared to the step from assembly languages to modem programming languages with an elaborated type concept. In low-level nets there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean value). In high-level nets each token can carry complex information which, e. g. , may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical applications of Petri nets use one of the different kinds of high-level nets. A considerable body of knowledge exists about high-level Petri nets this includes theoretical foundations, analysis methods and many applications. Unfortunately, the papers on high-level Petri nets have been scattered throughout various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets.
Any engineer who is responsible for the design and development of discrete systems, such as embedded software for control or telecommunication systems, knows that the most important quality of the final product is that it be functionally correct. Once assured that the system behaves correctly, it is also important that it be efficient in that its running cost is minimal or is optimum in whatever quanititive measure is chosen. Stochastic Petri nets have been developes over the last decade with exactly these objectives in mind.This book is an introduction to Stochastic Petri nets and arose out of a desire by the authors to collect all one needs to understand Stochastic Petri net theory in one volume. The intention of this book is not to give an overview of several or all Stochastic Petri net models appearing in the literature, but to stress a combined view of functional and performance analysis in the context of some Stochastic Petri net models.The book contains a reference to several Stochastic Petri net tools which are available to help the reader apply the theory contained in this volume.USP: Für sicher funktionierende DV-Systeme
Models and simulations are an important first step in developing computer applications to solve real-world problems. However, in order to be truly effective, computer programmers must use formal modeling languages to evaluate these simulations. Formal Languages for Computer Simulation: Transdisciplinary Models and Applications investigates a variety of programming languages used in validating and verifying models in order to assist in their eventual implementation. This book will explore different methods of evaluating and formalizing simulation models, enabling computer and industrial engineers, mathematicians, and students working with computer simulations to thoroughly understand the progression from simulation to product, improving the overall effectiveness of modeling systems.
Do you need to know what technique to use to evaluate the reliability of an engineered system? This self-contained guide provides comprehensive coverage of all the analytical and modeling techniques currently in use, from classical non-state and state space approaches, to newer and more advanced methods such as binary decision diagrams, dynamic fault trees, Bayesian belief networks, stochastic Petri nets, non-homogeneous Markov chains, semi-Markov processes, and phase type expansions. Readers will quickly understand the relative pros and cons of each technique, as well as how to combine different models together to address complex, real-world modeling scenarios. Numerous examples, case studies and problems provided throughout help readers put knowledge into practice, and a solutions manual and Powerpoint slides for instructors accompany the book online. This is the ideal self-study guide for students, researchers and practitioners in engineering and computer science.
This is the second edition of Wil van der Aalst’s seminal book on process mining, which now discusses the field also in the broader context of data science and big data approaches. It includes several additions and updates, e.g. on inductive mining techniques, the notion of alignments, a considerably expanded section on software tools and a completely new chapter of process mining in the large. It is self-contained, while at the same time covering the entire process-mining spectrum from process discovery to predictive analytics. After a general introduction to data science and process mining in Part I, Part II provides the basics of business process modeling and data mining necessary to understand the remainder of the book. Next, Part III focuses on process discovery as the most important process mining task, while Part IV moves beyond discovering the control flow of processes, highlighting conformance checking, and organizational and time perspectives. Part V offers a guide to successfully applying process mining in practice, including an introduction to the widely used open-source tool ProM and several commercial products. Lastly, Part VI takes a step back, reflecting on the material presented and the key open challenges. Overall, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in process mining. It is intended for business process analysts, business consultants, process managers, graduate students, and BPM researchers.
Wojciech Zamojski,Jacek Mazurkiewicz,Jarosław Sugier,Tomasz Walkowiak,Janusz Kacprzyk
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3 2015, Brunów, Poland
Author: Wojciech Zamojski,Jacek Mazurkiewicz,Jarosław Sugier,Tomasz Walkowiak,Janusz Kacprzyk
Building upon a long tradition of scientifi c conferences dealing with problems of reliability in technical systems, in 2006 Department of Computer Engineering at Wrocław University of Technology established DepCoS-RELCOMEX series of events in order to promote a comprehensive approach to evaluation of system performability which is now commonly called dependability. Contemporary complex systems integrate variety of technical, information, soft ware and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Their complexity comes not only from involved technical and organizational structures but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in specific operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such a case traditional methods of reliability evaluation focused mainly on technical levels are insufficient and more innovative, multidisciplinary methods of dependability analysis must be applied. Selection of submissions for these proceedings exemplify diversity of topics that must be included in such analyses: tools, methodologies and standards for modelling, design and simulation of the systems, security and confidentiality in information processing, specific issues of heterogeneous, today often wireless, computer networks, or management of transportation networks. In addition, this edition of the conference hosted the 5th CrISS-DESSERT Workshop devoted to the problems of security and safety in critical information systems.
This book starts with an introduction to process modeling and process paradigms, then explains how to query and analyze process models, and how to analyze the process execution data. In this way, readers receive a comprehensive overview of what is needed to identify, understand and improve business processes. The book chiefly focuses on concepts, techniques and methods. It covers a large body of knowledge on process analytics – including process data querying, analysis, matching and correlating process data and models – to help practitioners and researchers understand the underlying concepts, problems, methods, tools and techniques involved in modern process analytics. Following an introduction to basic business process and process analytics concepts, it describes the state of the art in this area before examining different analytics techniques in detail. In this regard, the book covers analytics over different levels of process abstractions, from process execution data and methods for linking and correlating process execution data, to inferring process models, querying process execution data and process models, and scalable process data analytics methods. In addition, it provides a review of commercial process analytics tools and their practical applications. The book is intended for a broad readership interested in business process management and process analytics. It provides researchers with an introduction to these fields by comprehensively classifying the current state of research, by describing in-depth techniques and methods, and by highlighting future research directions. Lecturers will find a wealth of material to choose from for a variety of courses, ranging from undergraduate courses in business process management to graduate courses in business process analytics. Lastly, it offers professionals a reference guide to the state of the art in commercial tools and techniques, complemented by many real-world use case scenarios.