Author: David P. Farrington,Lloyd E. Ohlin,James Q. Wilson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In 1982 the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation created a small committee-the Justice Program Study Group (whose membership is listed at the end ofthis preface)-and posed to it what can hardly be regarded as an easy ques tion: "What ideas, what concepts, what basic intellectual frameworks are lack ing" to understand and to more effectively deal with crime in our society? Those who are acquainted with the work of the members of the Study Group will appreciate how many divergent views were expressed-divergent to the degree that some of us came to the conclusion that we were not a Study Group at all but rather a group being studied, an odd collection of ancient experimental animals serving some dark purpose of the Foundation. Eventually, however, a surprisingly strong concurrence emerged. We found we were impressed by the extent to which in our discussions we placed heavy reliance on the products of two types of research: first, those few longitudinal studies related to juvenile delinquency and crime that had been pursued in this country and, second, a few experimental studies that had sought to measure the consequences of different official interventions in criminal careers. These two research strategies had taught us much about crime and its control. Other strategies-case studies, cross-sectional surveys, participant observations, and similar techniques-had indeed been productive, but it was the longitudinal and experimental designs that firmed up the knowledge that the others helped to discover.
The Swedish Experience in an Anglo-American Comparative Perspective
Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Crime is largely an urban phenomenon, but the specifically urban and area dimen sions of the social processes that are connected with crime have been seriously understated in much recent criminological work ... Such a claim could not have been made forty years ago. (Baldwin & Bottoms, 1976, p. 1). The above statement by Baldwin and Bottoms about the neglect in crimi nology of the urban dimension of crime was made in the mid-1970s. However, in the last decade there has been a significant upswing in theory and research on crime in the urban environment. Also, new areas oftheory and research into urban crime have come into focus. (For overviews see Brantingham & Brantingham, 1984; Davidson, 1981.) One very good example of the increasing interest in urban crime is the recent volume of Crime and Justice entitled "Communities and Crime" (Reiss & Tonry, 1986), in which Reiss makes a strong argument for the importance of the study of crime in urban communities and for the linking of the ecological and individual traditions in theory and research on crime. A review of the literature on crime in urban environments shows, not unexpectedly, that Anglo-American research heavily dominates the scene (Wikstrom, 1982; 1987b). Hence, much of the experience we have on urban crime is based on North American and British research and theory.
Male Criminal Activity From Childhood Through Youth reports the results of a large longitudinal study from 1972 to 1985 on a sample of delinquents and a comparison sample of the population in Montreal. A clarification emerges from this extensive study: how to describe criminal activity in a comprehensive theory of crime which integrates the offense, offending, and patterns of offending. Using a developmental approach, Drs. Le Blanc and Fréchette observed a gradation of crimes with subjects progressing through five distinct stages of offending. In all, the research investigates the factors that sustain the development of offending and the mechanisms which accelerate, stabilize, and decelerate the commission of crimes. This book represents a significant advance in the understanding of the development of criminal activity.
Even more student-friendly and featuring new examples, topics, and references throughout, the Fifth Edition of Michael G. Maxfield and Earl Babbie's RESEARCH METHODS FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND CRIMINOLOGY effectively engages your students in applying the specific research methods used in criminal justice. Combining the accessibility and conversational tone of Babbie's bestseller, THE PRACTICE OF SOCIAL RESEARCH, with Maxfield's expertise in criminology and criminal justice, the new edition of this market-leader includes enhanced coverage of ethics, causation, validity, and research design, as well as new and expanded examples, especially in the discussion of field research. A new running case study on racial profiling that progresses and builds from chapter to chapter-further demonstrates the important role of research methods in our evolving understanding of crime and society. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Author: Paul E. Tracy,Marvin E. Wolfgang,Robert M. Figlio
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Social Science
Delinquency in a Birth Cohort, published in 1972, was the first criminologi cal birth cohort study in the United States. Nils Christie, in Unge norske lovorertredere, had done the first such study as his dissertation at the University of Oslo in 1960. Professor Thorsten Sellin was the inspiration for the U.S. study. He could read Norwegian, and I could a little because I studied at the University of Oslo in my graduate years. Our interest in pursuing a birth cohort study in the United States was fostered by the encouragement of Saleem Shah who awarded us a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to begin our birth cohort studies at the University of Pennsylvania by investigating the delinquency of the 1945 cohort. We studied this group of 9,945 boys extensively through official criminal history and school records of their juvenile years. Subsequently, we followed up the cohort as adults using both adult arrest histories and an interview of a sample of the cohort. Our follow-up study was published as From Boy to Man, From Delinquen cy to Crime in 1987.
The systematic application of behavioral psychology to crime and delinquency was begun only 20 years ago, yet it has already contributed significantly to our practical knowledge about prevention and correction and to our general under standing of a pressing social problem. In this handbook, we review and evalu ate what has been accomplished to date, as well as what is currently at the leading edge of the field. We do so in order to present a clear, comprehensive, and systematic view of the field and to promote and encourage still more effective action and social policy reform in the future. The chapters in this text have been written by professionals who were among the original innovators in applying behavioral psychology to crime and delinquency and who continue to make critical contributions to the field's progress, and by a new generation of energetic, young professionals who are taking the field in important and innovative directions. The contributors have attempted to review and evaluate their areas with critical dispassion, to pro vide thorough but not overly specialized discussion of their material, and to draw implications for how research, application, and social policy might be improved in the future. For our part as editors, we have tried to foster integra tion across the chapters and to provide background and conceptual material of our own.
Integrating Assumptions about Crime, People and Society
Author: Robert Agnew
Publisher: NYU Press
Why do people commit crimes? How do we control crime? The theories that criminologists use to answer these questions are built on a number of underlying assumptions, including those about the nature of crime, free will, human nature, and society. These assumptions have a fundamental impact on criminology: they largely determine what criminologists study, the causes they examine, the control strategies they recommend, and how they test their theories and evaluate crime-control strategies. In Toward a Unified Criminology, noted criminologist Robert Agnew provides a critical examination of these assumptions, drawing on a range of research and perspectives to argue that these assumptions are too restrictive, unduly limiting the types of "crime" that are explored, the causes that are considered, and the methods of data collection and analysis that are employed. As such, they undermine our ability to explain and control crime. Agnew then proposes an alternative set of assumptions, drawing heavily on both mainstream and critical theories of criminology, with the goal of laying the foundation for a unified criminology that is better able to explain a broader range of crimes.
Author: Marshall R. Clinard,Richard Quinney,John Wildeman
Category: Political Science
An important classic, especially useful for courses in criminal behavior and personality, this text begins with a discussion of the construction of types of crime and then formulates and utilizes a typology of criminal behavior systems.
Over the last two decades, researchers have made significant discoveries about the causes and origins of delinquency. Specifically, we have learned a great deal about adolescent development and its relationship to decision-making, about multiple factors that contribute to delinquency, and about the processes and contexts associated with the course of delinquent careers. Over the same period, public officials have made sweeping jurisprudential, jurisdictional, and procedural changes in our juvenile justice systems. The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice presents a timely compilation of state-of-the-art critical reviews of knowledge about causes of delinquency and their significance for justice policy, and about developments in the juvenile justice system to prevent and control youth crime. The first half of the handbook focuses on juvenile crime and examines trends and patterns in delinquency and victimization, explores causes of delinquency-at the individual, micro-social, and macro-social levels, and from natural and social science perspectives-and their implications for structuring a youth justice system. The second half of the handbook concentrates on juvenile justice and examines a range of issues-including the historical origins and re-invention of the juvenile court; juvenile offenders' mental health status and considerations of trial competence and culpability; intake, diversion, detention, and juvenile courts; and transfer/waiver strategies-and considers how the juvenile justice system itself influences delinquency. The Oxford Handbook of Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice provides a comprehensive overview of juvenile crime and juvenile justice administration by authors who are all leading scholars involved in cutting-edge research, and is an essential resource for scholars, students, and justice officials.
The phrase "evidence-based policy" is frequently used, but it's crucial that such claims are scrutinized and validated. When the data on social and behavioral interventions are presented, high-quality evidence must be clearly defined and the methodology behind such studies held to rigorous standards. Both the Cochrane Collaboration –focusing on healthcare – and the international Campbell Collaboration – concentrating on criminal justice, education, and social services – were created to develop, maintain and improve detailed guidelines for producing high-quality systematic reviews. And both organizations emphasize randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions. As a springboard from the Campbell Collaboration initiative and supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, this special issue of The Annals includes a thorough review of randomized tests across a variety of studies. Exploring significant dimensions of place randomized trials (also called cluster randomized trials or group randomized trials), these papers shed light on recent efforts to enhance the quality of designing such trials as well as on results reporting. The research topics included in this volume are diverse. Taken together, these papers offer important insight into the nuts and bolts of conducting randomized trials: the significance of place in trials; how such studies are initiated; the incentives and justifications needed by participants; how to overcome challenges of implementation; and where to find out what studies have already been conducted or are currently underway. While providing far-reaching insight into the topic of randomized testing, these papers also identify new issues and key questions to be further addressed in future research. Scholars and policymakers alike will find this collection of rigorous research essential in understanding the implications of current evidence-based policies as well as a guidepost for designing and conducting new studies.
The new edition of Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice combines cutting-edge research and expanded coverage of girls’ delinquency, including coverage of girls in gangs and the sexual trafficking of girls, to provide students with an accessible, up-to-date, and globally oriented textbook. Including global perspectives and coverage of cutting-edge research, this is the only textbook to deal exclusively with girls and crime Offers expanded coverage of girls in gangs and emerging literature on the sexual trafficking of girls Pulls together and analyzes all existing literature on the subject of female delinquency Brings to light new research on a wide range of issues, including the conditions of confinement for girls incarcerated in juvenile jails and prisons, Latina girls, and gender responsive programming Explores the moral panic around "violent," "bad," and "mean" girls
Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology 3e is about how to do research and investigate various types of research questions that arise in criminology and criminal justice. A complete discussion of research ethics–including ethical issues relating to the Nuremberg Code, research sponsorship, rights of human subjects and deception — helps readers understand their ethical responsibilities as researchers. This book explores the entire criminal justices and criminology research process from beginning to end including: sampling procedures; data collection techniques; measurement, validity and reliability issues; the role of ethics in the research process; and writing and documenting research papers. Presents a practical guide for conducting research in criminal justice and criminology careers.
In our attempts to understand crime, researchers typically focus on proximate factors such as the psychology of offenders, their developmental history, and the social structure in which they are embedded. While these factors are important, they don't tell the whole story. Evolutionary Criminology: Towards a Comprehensive Explanation of Crime explores how evolutionary biology adds to our understanding of why crime is committed, by whom, and our response to norm violations. This understanding is important both for a better understanding of what precipitates crime and to guide approaches for effectively managing criminal behavior. This book is divided into three parts. Part I reviews evolutionary biology concepts important for understanding human behavior, including crime. Part II focuses on theoretical approaches to explaining crime, including the evolution of cooperation, and the evolutionary history and function of violent crime, drug use, property offending, and white collar crime. The developmental origins of criminal behavior are described to account for the increase in offending during adolescence and early adulthood as well as to explain why some offenders are more likely to desist than others. Proximal causes of crime are examined, as well as cultural and structural processes influencing crime. Part III considers human motivation to punish norm violators and what this means for the development of a criminal justice system. This section also considers how an evolutionary approach contributes to our understanding of crime prevention and reduction. The section closes with an evolutionary approach to understanding offender rehabilitation and reintegration. Reviews how evolutionary findings improve our understanding of crime and punishment Examines motivations to offend, and to punish norm violators Articulates evolutionary explanations for adolescent crime increase Identifies how this knowledge can aid in crime prevention and reduction, and in offender rehabilitation
This book responds to the claim that criminology is becoming socially and politically irrelevant despite its exponential expansion as an academic sub-discipline. It does so by addressing the question 'what is to be done' in relation to a number of major issues associated with crime and punishment. The original contributions to this volume are provided by leading international experts in a wide range of issues. They address imprisonment, drugs, gangs, cybercrime, prostitution, domestic violence, crime control, as well as white collar and corporate crime. Written in an accessible style, this collection aims to contribute to the development of a more public criminology and encourages students and researchers at all levels to engage in a form of criminology that is more socially relevant and more useful.
Over recent years, the governance of crime - from policing and crime prevention to sentencing and prison organization - has moved away from a focus on reforming offenders toward preventing crime and managing behaviour using predictive and distributional (such as risk) techniques. Crime and Risk presents an engaging discussion of risk strategies and risk-taking in the domain of crime and criminal justice. It outlines the broad theoretical issues and political approaches involved, relating risk in contemporary crime governance to risk in criminal activity. Taking a broad and discursive approach, it covers: Risk-taking and contemporary culture The excitement associated with risk-taking and the impact of criminal activity The application of risk-oriented developments in crime prevention and control The use of genetic and related biotechnologies to assess and react to perceived threats The conceptualization of risk in relation to race and gender The influence of excitement upon criminal activity Evidence and accountability. ? Compact Criminology is an exciting series that invigorates and challenges the international field of criminology. Books in the series are short, authoritative, innovative assessments of emerging issues in criminology and criminal justice – offering critical, accessible introductions to important topics. They take a global rather than a narrowly national approach. Eminently readable and first-rate in quality, each book is written by a leading specialist. Compact Criminology provides a new type of tool for teaching, learning and research, one that is flexible and light on its feet. The series addresses fundamental needs in the growing and increasingly differentiated field of criminology.
Global Injustice and Crime Control places cross-border, cross-national and international crime and crime control within its wider context. It examines theory from a range of disciplines and introduces students to the frequently neglected area of the world order and world politics, in an effort to direct attention to the links between events, power, ideas, institutions, policies, actions and counter-actions at the international and domestic level. In an increasingly interconnected and interdependent world, the various dimensions of globalisation play a pivotal role in issues of crime and criminal justice in the 21st century. This interdisciplinary textbook offers a critical treatment of the development and recent acceleration of national, regional and international efforts at cross-border crime control and law enforcement. The book not only places cross-national and international efforts by police, courts, regional and international agencies within their historical context, but also focuses on elucidating leading theoretical perspectives from within globalisation literature, criminology and international relations to shed light upon both sides of this phenomenon. Areas covered include: cross-border crime and security, state crime and corruption, international responses to genocide, terrorism and counter-terrorism, organised crime. This book will be perfect reading for modules in transnational crime and justice and will be of interest to students in criminology, policing, public policy and international relations.