Imagine Galileo pointing his telescope not toward the sky but instead toward molecules, and discovering there a hitherto unimagined world. This is the adventure of nanoscale scientists exploring single molecules and moreover controlling them at will. This book presents key historical moments in the birth and evolution of nanoscience in the last thirty years. It narrates the genesis of revolutionary instruments and new species of molecule size objects. Nanoscalescientific research has not only powerfully affected the amount and orientation of knowledge, it has perhaps even more significantly redirected the ways in which much research work is carried out,changed scientists' methodology and reasoning processes, and influenced aspects of the structure of career trajectory and the functioning of scientific disciplines. This book invites the question: to what extent does nanoscale scientific research constitute a kind of 'scientific revolution'?
Blending elements of psychology, philosophy, and sociology with economics, Etzioni presents a bold new vision of the social sciences - one which proposes that broader moral, social and political concerns modify economic behaviour and shape individual decision-making. In establishing the necessitary of moral and social considerations in economic behaviour, he provides a provocative new framework for a more comprehensive, ethical and realistic approach to the social sciences today.
In a ground-breaking series of articles, one of them written by a Nobel Laureate, this volume demonstrates the evolutionary dynamic and the transformation of today's democratic societies into scientific-democratic societies. It highlights the progress of modeling individual and societal evaluation by neo-Bayesian utility theory. It shows how social learning and collective opinion formation work, and how democracies cope with randomness caused by randomizers. Nonlinear `evolution equations' and serial stochastic matrices of evolutionary game theory allow us to optimally compute possible serial evolutionary solutions of societal conflicts. But in democracies progress can be defined as any positive, gradual, innovative and creative change of culturally used, transmitted and stored mentifacts (models, theories), sociofacts (customs, opinions), artifacts and technifacts, within and across generations. The most important changes are caused, besides randomness, by conflict solutions and their realizations by citizens who follow democratic laws. These laws correspond to the extended Pareto principle, a supreme, socioethical democratic rule. According to this principle, progress is any increase in the individual and collective welfare which is achieved during any evolutionary progress. Central to evolutionary modeling is the criterion of the empirical realization of computed solutions. Applied to serial conflict solutions (decisions), evolutionary trajectories are formed; they become the most influential causal attractors of the channeling of societal evolution. Democratic constitutions, legal systems etc., store all advantageous, present and past, adaptive, competitive, cooperative and collective solutions and their rules; they have been accepted by majority votes. Societal laws are codes of statutes (default or statistical rules), and they serve to optimally solve societal conflicts, in analogy to game theoretical models or to statistical decision theory. Such solutions become necessary when we face harmful or advantageous random events always lurking at the edge of societal and external chaos. The evolutionary theory of societal evolution in democracies presents a new type of stochastic theory; it is based on default rules and stresses realization. The rules represent the change of our democracies into information, science and technology-based societies; they will revolutionize social sciences, especially economics. Their methods have already found their way into neural brain physiology and research into intelligence. In this book, neural activity and the creativity of human thinking are no longer regarded as linear-deductive. Only evolutive nonlinear thinking can include multiple causal choices by many individuals and the risks of internal and external randomness; this serves the increasing welfare of all individuals and society as a whole. Evolution and Progress in Democracies is relevant for social scientists, economists, evolution theorists, statisticians, philosophers, philosophers of science, and interdisciplinary researchers.
Continuity and Change in Economic Relations and Security Interests
Author: Ahmad Rashid Malik
Category: Political Science
This is the first book-length study to explain the complex nature of Pakistan-Japan relations. It analyses the evolution and development of relations between the two countries by defining two key factors: economic interests and security concerns in the US-led global security system. Providing a thorough analysis of the history of relations between the countries, the important role Pakistan played in the context of peace and conflict resolution in East Asia during 1947-52, which helped ending the Occupation of Japan and restoring the country’s post-war economy, is highlighted. Pakistan then emerged as the largest trading partner of Japan only after the United States. It was Pakistan’s benevolent role that helped Japan to comeback to Asia in the 1950s as the author explains these events in greater detail that are not commonly known. In the 1960s and also in the 1980s during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, Pakistan emerged as one of the largest recipients of Japanese aid. The author explains that Japanese strategic aid to Pakistan was diverted to strengthen democratic values and institutions after the end of the Cold War. He then clarifies that Pakistan-Japan relations were dominated by two main issues during the 1990s, Japanese economic cooperation in Pakistan's trade liberalization, and suspicion about Pakistan's nuclear program. In conclusion, the author states that there has been a remarkable continuity in the area of economic relations, though there have been changes in security concerns. The book sets out future prospects for economic and diplomatic relations between the two countries, and it will be of interest to academics working in the field of International Relations, International Political Economy, and Asian Studies. For intellectuals, diplomats, and businessmen, the book would be a handy reference.
Dickson K.W. Chiu,Minhong Wang,Elvira Popescu,Qing Li,Rynson Lau
ICWL 2011 International Workshops, KMEL, ELSM, and SPeL, Hong Kong, December 8-19, 2011; ICWL 2012 International Workshops, KMEL, SciLearn, and CCSTED, Sinaia, Romania, September 2-4, 2012, Revised Selected Papers
Author: Dickson K.W. Chiu,Minhong Wang,Elvira Popescu,Qing Li,Rynson Lau
This book constitutes the revised selected papers of the workshops of the 10th and 11th International Conference of Web-based Learning, ICWL 2011, held in Hong Kong, in December 2011 and ICWL 2012, held in Sinaia, Romania, in September 2012. This volume comprises papers from one symposium that took place both in 2011 and 2012 and four workshops (two from 2011 and two from 2012): 1. The 1st and 2nd International Symposium on Knowledge Management and E-Learning (KMEL2011 / 2012); 2. The 1st International Workshop on Enhancing Learning with Social (ELSM 2011); 3. The 4th International Workshop on Social and Personal Computing for Web-Supported Learning (SPeL 2011); 4. International Workshop on Learning within and from Smart Cities (SciLearn 2012); 5. International Workshop on Creative Collaboration through Supportive Technologies in Education (CCSTED 2012).
The book focuses on subjects of nuclear disarmament, the reduction and control of conventional weapons, the arms trade, future roles of the UN, regional confidence-building measures, global governance, sustainable use of resources and ethical challenges in the modern era, all of which related to the ultimate goal of eliminating war.
The problematic reality of an alterity implicit in the concept of communication has been a consistent attestation in formal discourse. The rapport of thought to this alterity has been consistently described as a radical inadequation. By virtue of the communicational economy which produces discontinuity and relation, illumination and the possibility of consciousness, an opacity haunts the famili arity of comprehension. Consciousness' spontaneity is limited by the difference or discontinuity of the exterior thing, of the exterior subject or intersubjective other, and of the generality of existence in its excess over comprehension's closure. An element implicit in difference or discontinuity escapes the power of comprehension, and even the possibility of manifestation. Within the system of tendencies and predications which characterizes formal discourse, however, this escape of alterity is most often understood as an escape which proceeds from its own substantiality: the unknowable in-itself of things, of subjects, and of generality. Alterity escapes the power of comprehension, on the basis of its power to escape this power. That which escapes the effectivity of consciousness, escapes on the basis of its own effectivity. For this reason, the rapport of inadequation described by the escape may function in formal discourse as a correlation. The inadequation of comprehension and exteriority may function as the vicissitude of a larger adequation. The latent principles of this adequation are power and totalization.
A Positive Approach to the Integration of Social Knowledge
Author: K.W. Kapp
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
THIS study is concerned with the search for a new unity of social knowledge and social inquiry. As such it is addressed to all those who see in the present compartmentalization and special ization of the social sciences the reason for the bewildering pro liferation of subject matters, the preoccupation with trivia and the failure to make the maximum use of our knowledge for human welfare. More specifically, I am addressing this book to those who are dealing with "interdisciplinary" problems such as the study of foreign areas, the analysis of sociocultural change, economic development of "backward" economies and the planning and teaching of "integrated" courses in the social sciences. The book suggests an answer to the question, How can our specialized knowledge about man and society be unified? As such the study reflects the conviction that all scientific knowledge, in order to make the greatest possible contribution to human welfare, must become comprehensive in character. In fact, such knowledge differs from popular and common-sense understanding precisely by the fact that it is systematically formulated and held together in terms of a few unifying conceptual frameworks. Indeed, all scientific understanding is, above all, an effort to simplify by unifying what has long appeared as unrelated and disparate. Those who believe that compartmentalization and specialization are the royal road to success in the social sciences may find this an irritating book.
The Combination Model as a New Integrated Approach to Professional and Family Life
Author: W. van Dongen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
Explains the historical evolution of the division of labour in modern welfare states. This book develops three policy models to illustrate how a democratic division of labour can be conceived in the long-term. It also presents a Complete Combination Model for the development of an integrated policy programme.
The foundations of health sciences need rethinking. The mechanistic biomedical model, apparently so successful in the past, is now criticised for failing to explain what health is and how it can be preserved. The world's major health problems no longer seem so controllable. A new science of health is needed, a radical spirit of inquiry which draws on a broad knowledge base and a variety of approaches, a science which does not balk at reconceptualising health and building on innovative research. Towards a New Science of Health provides a radical alternative to current biomedical thinking. Presenting an overview of all major paradigms in the health sciences, their historical development, socio-cultural background and value, the book provides a framework for innovative thinking in health. Drawing on a range of disciplinary perspectives and focussing on a variety of approaches - systems theory, human experience and biography, the healing process and social relations - the authors aim to bridge the gap between personal experience and scientific knowledge.
Building on Monterrey : International Conference on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, 18-22 March 2002
Publisher: United Nations Publications
Category: Consensus (Social sciences)
The Monterrey Consensus, adopted by acclamation as the signal achievement of the development financing Conference, asserts the international community's resolve to eradicate poverty, achieve sustained economic growth and promote sustainable development in the context of a fully inclusive and equitable global economic system. The text contains a commitment to strengthen the United Nations as the main organization to revamp the international financial system, working with the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). This publication offers a comprehensive view of the Monterrey Conference, pulling together in one volume and CD-ROM all the relevant speeches, proposals, reports, resolutions and other documentation, including the Monterrey Consensus itself. It is intended to serve as a resource for scholars and policy makers, and a vehicle to carry the messages of Monterrey to a wider public.
Gerald Schneider,Patricia A. Weitsman,Thomas Bernauer
Contemporary Allegory and the Search for Postmodern Faith
Author: Zhongying Cheng
Publisher: SUNY Press
This is the first book to thoroughly explore Confucian and Neo-Confucian metaphysics and ethics, building upon the creativity and temporality of human existence and human nature as well as their extension into human culture. Fundamental essays deal cogently with the relationship between Chinese language and Chinese philosophy, offering general categories which shape the matrix of ideas woven in Chinese philosophy from its very beginnings. Along with more general characterizations, there are themes placing Confucian thinkers in touch with modern communication theories, perceptions of individuals, religious themes, and scientific worldviews. Conceptual and comparative essays probe the frontiers of Chinese philosophy in its contemporary Confucian revival.
Diego Pignatelli Spinazzola Foreword by Stanley Krippner
Eastern psychologies in the direction of new Transpersonal Theories
Author: Diego Pignatelli Spinazzola Foreword by Stanley Krippner
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit
Using a creative and poetic modality, Diego Pignatelli explores myth, religion, science and spirituality—the “liminal” territories of modern psychology. He introduces us toTranspersonal Psychology, Grof’s holotropic paradigm and perinatal dynamics, mythology, oriental and Indian psychology, as well as Jungian, and depth psychology. Pignatelli also discusses the fields of parapsychology, shamanism, thanatology, Near Death Experiences (NDE), Out of Body Experiences (OBEs - astral travels occur during non-ordinary states of consciousness and travels to parallel universes through the Star Gates or “portals” of other mythological dimensions). He also teaches us about Kundalini awakening, mandala cosmology, altered/nonordinary states of consciousness (NOSC), psychedelic therapy and the implications of the new emerging paradigm whose holonomic theory and multidimensional psyche are currently explored by modern consciousness research.
This broad-ranging examination of privacy law considers the challenges faced by the law in changing technological, commercial and social environments. It encompasses three overlapping areas of analysis : privacy protection under the general law; legislative measures for data protection in digital communications networks; and the influence of transnational agreements and other pressures towards harmonised privacy standards. Leading internationally recognised authors discuss developments across these three areas in the United Kingdom, Europe, the United States, Australia and New Zealand.
The author offers a fresh analysis of the globalised political economy of development in the wake of the unravelling of neoliberalism and new challenges to US global dominance. Gerard Strange sees development as a phenomenon of vital interest not just to so-called emerging economies like China and the other 'BRICS' but also to world order as a whole. The book suggests that in the post-global financial crisis era all states and regions, including the supposedly dominant ones, must grapple with the problem of how to square development with a form of globalisation in which power is increasingly diffused and contested if not equal. Providing detailed case studies focusing on China, Latin America and the European Union, Strange traces the emergence of new development strategies heavily influenced by the ideas and legacy of Keynes, but updated to take account of globalisation during the neoliberal era. Looking beyond both protectionism and neoliberal austerity, the book sketches out a terrain for world order in which new forms of 'post-Listian' actorness and cooperation make a more equal and stable globalisation feasible.
This volume is a product of the efforts of the Institute for National Strategic Studies Spacepower Theory Project Team, which was tasked by the Department of Defense to create a theoretical framework for examining spacepower and its relationship to the achievement of national objectives. The team was charged with considering the space domain in a broad and holistic way, incorporating a wide range of perspectives from U.S. and international space actors engaged in scientiﬁc, commercial, intelligence, and military enterprises. This collection of papers commissioned by the team serves as a starting point for continued discourse on ways to extend, modify, reﬁne, and integrate a broad range of viewpoints about human-initiated space activity, its relationship to our globalized society, and its economic, political, and security interactions. It will equip practitioners, scholars, students, and citizens with the historical background and conceptual framework to navigate through and assess the challenges and opportunities of an increasingly complex space environment.