Imagine Galileo pointing his telescope not toward the sky but instead toward molecules, and discovering there a hitherto unimagined world. This is the adventure of nanoscale scientists exploring single molecules and moreover controlling them at will. This book presents key historical moments in the birth and evolution of nanoscience in the last thirty years. It narrates the genesis of revolutionary instruments and new species of molecule size objects. Nanoscalescientific research has not only powerfully affected the amount and orientation of knowledge, it has perhaps even more significantly redirected the ways in which much research work is carried out,changed scientists' methodology and reasoning processes, and influenced aspects of the structure of career trajectory and the functioning of scientific disciplines. This book invites the question: to what extent does nanoscale scientific research constitute a kind of 'scientific revolution'?
Blending elements of psychology, philosophy, and sociology with economics, Etzioni presents a bold new vision of the social sciences - one which proposes that broader moral, social and political concerns modify economic behaviour and shape individual decision-making. In establishing the necessitary of moral and social considerations in economic behaviour, he provides a provocative new framework for a more comprehensive, ethical and realistic approach to the social sciences today.
It is generally recognized today that the United States has a need to contri bute to the improvement of health throughout the world. The need stems from the interrelationships that exist between the health of Americans and the health status of the rest of the people on "Spaceship Earth." Disease does not respect national boundaries, and the frequency of travel and trade between countries increases each year. It further relates to the opportunities found in international settings to help solve health problems more effec tively and efficiently. This includes the unique human resources that are found throughout the world as well as certain natural ecological conditions that cannot be duplicated in the United States. The United States also has a responsibility to contribute to improved health status. Our tradition of humanitarianism alone supports such a re sponsibility, but our comparative wealth of technical and financial re sources dictates a requirement to participate. Modern political realities de fine relationships between developed and developing countries that will not allow us to isolate ourselves from the compelling health needs of a majority of the world's population.
In a ground-breaking series of articles, one of them written by a Nobel Laureate, this volume demonstrates the evolutionary dynamic and the transformation of today's democratic societies into scientific-democratic societies. It highlights the progress of modeling individual and societal evaluation by neo-Bayesian utility theory. It shows how social learning and collective opinion formation work, and how democracies cope with randomness caused by randomizers. Nonlinear `evolution equations' and serial stochastic matrices of evolutionary game theory allow us to optimally compute possible serial evolutionary solutions of societal conflicts. But in democracies progress can be defined as any positive, gradual, innovative and creative change of culturally used, transmitted and stored mentifacts (models, theories), sociofacts (customs, opinions), artifacts and technifacts, within and across generations. The most important changes are caused, besides randomness, by conflict solutions and their realizations by citizens who follow democratic laws. These laws correspond to the extended Pareto principle, a supreme, socioethical democratic rule. According to this principle, progress is any increase in the individual and collective welfare which is achieved during any evolutionary progress. Central to evolutionary modeling is the criterion of the empirical realization of computed solutions. Applied to serial conflict solutions (decisions), evolutionary trajectories are formed; they become the most influential causal attractors of the channeling of societal evolution. Democratic constitutions, legal systems etc., store all advantageous, present and past, adaptive, competitive, cooperative and collective solutions and their rules; they have been accepted by majority votes. Societal laws are codes of statutes (default or statistical rules), and they serve to optimally solve societal conflicts, in analogy to game theoretical models or to statistical decision theory. Such solutions become necessary when we face harmful or advantageous random events always lurking at the edge of societal and external chaos. The evolutionary theory of societal evolution in democracies presents a new type of stochastic theory; it is based on default rules and stresses realization. The rules represent the change of our democracies into information, science and technology-based societies; they will revolutionize social sciences, especially economics. Their methods have already found their way into neural brain physiology and research into intelligence. In this book, neural activity and the creativity of human thinking are no longer regarded as linear-deductive. Only evolutive nonlinear thinking can include multiple causal choices by many individuals and the risks of internal and external randomness; this serves the increasing welfare of all individuals and society as a whole. Evolution and Progress in Democracies is relevant for social scientists, economists, evolution theorists, statisticians, philosophers, philosophers of science, and interdisciplinary researchers.
Continuity and Change in Economic Relations and Security Interests
Author: Ahmad Rashid Malik
Category: Political Science
This is the first book-length study to explain the complex nature of Pakistan-Japan relations. It analyses the evolution and development of relations between the two countries by defining two key factors: economic interests and security concerns in the US-led global security system. Providing a thorough analysis of the history of relations between the countries, the important role Pakistan played in the context of peace and conflict resolution in East Asia during 1947-52, which helped ending the Occupation of Japan and restoring the country’s post-war economy, is highlighted. Pakistan then emerged as the largest trading partner of Japan only after the United States. It was Pakistan’s benevolent role that helped Japan to comeback to Asia in the 1950s as the author explains these events in greater detail that are not commonly known. In the 1960s and also in the 1980s during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, Pakistan emerged as one of the largest recipients of Japanese aid. The author explains that Japanese strategic aid to Pakistan was diverted to strengthen democratic values and institutions after the end of the Cold War. He then clarifies that Pakistan-Japan relations were dominated by two main issues during the 1990s, Japanese economic cooperation in Pakistan's trade liberalization, and suspicion about Pakistan's nuclear program. In conclusion, the author states that there has been a remarkable continuity in the area of economic relations, though there have been changes in security concerns. The book sets out future prospects for economic and diplomatic relations between the two countries, and it will be of interest to academics working in the field of International Relations, International Political Economy, and Asian Studies. For intellectuals, diplomats, and businessmen, the book would be a handy reference.
One of the most talented contemporary authors of cutting-edge math and science books conducts a fascinating tour of a higher reality, the Fourth Dimension. Includes problems, puzzles, and 200 drawings. "Informative and mind-dazzling." — Martin Gardner.
The book focuses on subjects of nuclear disarmament, the reduction and control of conventional weapons, the arms trade, future roles of the UN, regional confidence-building measures, global governance, sustainable use of resources and ethical challenges in the modern era, all of which related to the ultimate goal of eliminating war.
Substantial encouragement for this volume came from the editors and readers of the Studies for Phenomenological and Existential Philosophy (SPEP) at Northwestern University Press. But its publi cation has been made possible only by the unqualified and un abridged acceptance of the Editorial Board of Phaenomen%gica, which at the time was still headed by its founder, the late Professor H. L. Van Breda, who welcomed the manuscript most generously. This makes his untimely passing even more grievous to me. The stylistic copy editing and proof reading were handled ef ficiently by Ruth Nichols Jackson, secretary of the Philosophy Department. In the proof reading I also had the able help of my colleague Stanley Paulson. I dedicate this book to the memory of my late brother, Dr. chern. Erwin Spiegelberg, at the time of his death assistant professor at the University of Rio de Janeiro, who preceded me by two years in emigrating from Nazi Germany. When in 1938 he put an end to his life in an apparent depression, he also did so in order not to become a burden to his brothers, who were on the point of following him. Whatever I, more privileged in health and in opportunities in the country of my adoption, have been able to do and achieve since then has been done with a sense of a debt to him and of trying to live and work for him too.
Offering new ways of thinking about the intimate connections between analyst and patient, this lucid, clinically oriented volume presents an innovative model of psychoanalytic change. The authors integrate current findings in self psychology, attachment and infant research, and developmental systems theory to demonstrate the transformative power of interpersonal sharing between both members of the dyad. Interweaving conceptual material and careful guidelines for practice with case studies and clinical commentary, Intimate Attachments illuminates the power of the psychoanalytic process and affords readers a heightened level of creativity, freedom, and spontaneity in their therapeutic work. This volume will be of benefit to mental health practitioners and students interested in psychodynamic theory and treatment.
The problematic reality of an alterity implicit in the concept of communication has been a consistent attestation in formal discourse. The rapport of thought to this alterity has been consistently described as a radical inadequation. By virtue of the communicational economy which produces discontinuity and relation, illumination and the possibility of consciousness, an opacity haunts the famili arity of comprehension. Consciousness' spontaneity is limited by the difference or discontinuity of the exterior thing, of the exterior subject or intersubjective other, and of the generality of existence in its excess over comprehension's closure. An element implicit in difference or discontinuity escapes the power of comprehension, and even the possibility of manifestation. Within the system of tendencies and predications which characterizes formal discourse, however, this escape of alterity is most often understood as an escape which proceeds from its own substantiality: the unknowable in-itself of things, of subjects, and of generality. Alterity escapes the power of comprehension, on the basis of its power to escape this power. That which escapes the effectivity of consciousness, escapes on the basis of its own effectivity. For this reason, the rapport of inadequation described by the escape may function in formal discourse as a correlation. The inadequation of comprehension and exteriority may function as the vicissitude of a larger adequation. The latent principles of this adequation are power and totalization.
A Positive Approach to the Integration of Social Knowledge
Author: K.W. Kapp
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
THIS study is concerned with the search for a new unity of social knowledge and social inquiry. As such it is addressed to all those who see in the present compartmentalization and special ization of the social sciences the reason for the bewildering pro liferation of subject matters, the preoccupation with trivia and the failure to make the maximum use of our knowledge for human welfare. More specifically, I am addressing this book to those who are dealing with "interdisciplinary" problems such as the study of foreign areas, the analysis of sociocultural change, economic development of "backward" economies and the planning and teaching of "integrated" courses in the social sciences. The book suggests an answer to the question, How can our specialized knowledge about man and society be unified? As such the study reflects the conviction that all scientific knowledge, in order to make the greatest possible contribution to human welfare, must become comprehensive in character. In fact, such knowledge differs from popular and common-sense understanding precisely by the fact that it is systematically formulated and held together in terms of a few unifying conceptual frameworks. Indeed, all scientific understanding is, above all, an effort to simplify by unifying what has long appeared as unrelated and disparate. Those who believe that compartmentalization and specialization are the royal road to success in the social sciences may find this an irritating book.
The foundations of health sciences need rethinking. The mechanistic biomedical model, apparently so successful in the past, is now criticised for failing to explain what health is and how it can be preserved. The world's major health problems no longer seem so controllable. A new science of health is needed, a radical spirit of inquiry which draws on a broad knowledge base and a variety of approaches, a science which does not balk at reconceptualising health and building on innovative research. Towards a New Science of Health provides a radical alternative to current biomedical thinking. Presenting an overview of all major paradigms in the health sciences, their historical development, socio-cultural background and value, the book provides a framework for innovative thinking in health. Drawing on a range of disciplinary perspectives and focussing on a variety of approaches - systems theory, human experience and biography, the healing process and social relations - the authors aim to bridge the gap between personal experience and scientific knowledge.
Building on Monterrey : International Conference on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico, 18-22 March 2002
Publisher: United Nations Publications
Category: Consensus (Social sciences)
The Monterrey Consensus, adopted by acclamation as the signal achievement of the development financing Conference, asserts the international community's resolve to eradicate poverty, achieve sustained economic growth and promote sustainable development in the context of a fully inclusive and equitable global economic system. The text contains a commitment to strengthen the United Nations as the main organization to revamp the international financial system, working with the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). This publication offers a comprehensive view of the Monterrey Conference, pulling together in one volume and CD-ROM all the relevant speeches, proposals, reports, resolutions and other documentation, including the Monterrey Consensus itself. It is intended to serve as a resource for scholars and policy makers, and a vehicle to carry the messages of Monterrey to a wider public.
Should an international competition agreement be incorporated into the World Trade Organization? Taylor examines this question, arguing that such an agreement would be beneficial. Existing initiatives towards the regulation of cross-border, anti-competitive conduct have clear limitations that could be overcome by an agreement, and the WTO would provide the optimal institutional vehicle for it. At a practical level, Taylor points out, an international competition agreement could address under-regulation and over-regulation in the trade-competition regulatory matrix, realizing substantive benefits to international trade and competition. This book identifies the appropriate content and structure for a plurilateral competition agreement and proposes a draft negotiating text with accompanying commentary, and as such will be an invaluable tool for policy-makers, WTO negotiators, competition and trade lawyers, and international jurists.