Energy, Cheaper Than Than Coal
Author: Robert Hargraves
Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
Thorium energy can help check CO2 and global warming, cut deadly air pollution, provide inexhaustible energy, and increase human prosperity. Our world is beset by global warming, pollution, resource conflicts, and energy poverty. Millions die from coal plant emissions. We war over mideast oil. Food supplies from sea and land are threatened. Developing nations' growth exacerbates the crises. Few nations will adopt carbon taxes or energy policies against their economic self-interests to reduce global CO2 emissions. Energy cheaper than coal will dissuade all nations from burning coal. Innovative thorium energy uses economic persuasion to end the pollution, to provide energy and prosperity to developing nations, and to create energy security for all people for all time. "This book presents a lucid explanation of the workings of thorium-based reactors. It is must reading for anyone interested in our energy future." Leon Cooper, Brown University physicist and 1972 Nobel laureate for superconductivity "As our energy future is essential I can strongly recommend the book for everybody interested in this most significant topic." George Olah, 1994 Nobel laureate for carbon chemistry
Author: Thomas James Dolan
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
Category: Technology & Engineering
Molten Salt Reactors is a comprehensive reference on the status of molten salt reactor (MSR) research and thorium fuel utilization. There is growing awareness that nuclear energy is needed to complement intermittent energy sources and to avoid pollution from fossil fuels. Light water reactors are complex, expensive, and vulnerable to core melt, steam explosions, and hydrogen explosions, so better technology is needed. MSRs could operate safely at nearly atmospheric pressure and high temperature, yielding efficient electrical power generation, desalination, actinide incineration, hydrogen production, and other industrial heat applications. Coverage includes: Motivation -- why are we interested? Technical issues – reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials, environment, ... Generic designs -- thermal, fast, solid fuel, liquid fuel, ... Specific designs – aimed at electrical power, actinide incineration, thorium utilization, ... Worldwide activities in 23 countries Conclusions This book is a collaboration of 58 authors from 23 countries, written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten Salt Forum. It can serve as a reference for engineers and scientists, and it can be used as a textbook for graduate students and advanced undergrads. Molten Salt Reactors is the only complete review of the technology currently available, making this an essential text for anyone reviewing the use of MSRs and thorium fuel, including students, nuclear researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers. Written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten-Salt Forum Covers MSR-specific issues, various reactor designs, and discusses issues such as the environmental impact, non-proliferation, and licensing Includes case studies and examples from experts across the globe
Proceedings of the ThEC13 Conference, CERN, Globe of Science and Innovation, Geneva, Switzerland, October 27-31, 2013
Author: Jean-Pierre Revol,Maurice Bourquin,Yacine Kadi,Egil Lillestol,Jean-Christophe de Mestral,Karel Samec
The Thorium Energy Conference (ThEC13) gathered some of the world’s leading experts on thorium technologies to review the possibility of destroying nuclear waste in the short term, and replacing the uranium fuel cycle in nuclear systems with the thorium fuel cycle in the long term. The latter would provide abundant, reliable and safe energy with no CO2 production, no air pollution, and minimal waste production. The participants, representatives of 30 countries, included Carlo Rubbia, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics and inventor of the Energy Amplifier; Jack Steinberger, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics; Hans Blix, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rolf Heuer, Director General of CERN; Pascal Couchepin, former President of the Swiss Confederation; and Claude Haegi, President of the FEDRE, to name just a few. The ThEC13 proceedings are a source of reference on the use of thorium for energy generation. They offer detailed technical reviews of the status of thorium energy technologies, from basic R&D to industrial developments. They also describe how thorium can be used in critical reactors and in subcritical accelerator-driven systems (ADS), answering the important questions: – Why is thorium so attractive and what is the role of innovation, in particular in the nuclear energy domain? – What are the national and international R&D programs on thorium technologies and how are they progressing? ThEC13 was organized jointly by the international Thorium Energy Committee (iThEC), an association based in Geneva, and the International Thorium Energy Organisation (IThEO). It was held in the Globe of Science and Innovation at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2013.
Author: T.A. Samuel Devraj
Publisher: Discovery Publishing House
Contents: Introduction, Studies on the Solvent Extraction of Uranium (VI) with Dibenzoylmethane, Extraction - Spectrophotometric Studies on the U (VI) - DBM - 3, 5, di Br PADAP Mixed Ligand System, Results and Discussion of the Trace Analysis of Uranium, Review of the Earlier Work on the Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Studies on Thorium (IV), Studies on the Solvent Extraction of Thorium (IV) - TOPO - Complex Extracted into Toluene, Spectrophotometric Studies on Th (IV) - TOPO - 3, 5 - di Br PADAP Ternary System, Analytical Applications of Th (IV) - TOPO - 3, 5 - di Br - PADAP Ternary System, Results and Discussion of the Trace Analysis of Thorium.
Compounds with Carbon: Carbonates, Thiocyanates, Alkoxides, Carboxylates
Author: Kenneth W. Bagnall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The present volume of the Gmelin thorium series describes the solid thorium-carbon compounds with the exception of the carbides and coordination compounds of the type 4 ThAn· X B, where B is a neutral ligand. The complex equilibria of the Th + ion with C-containing complexing agents are treated in the ThD1 volume. A first look into this volume demonstrates that a very large number of ThlV complexes has 4 been prepared. This may be explained by the fact that the Th + ion is the largest tetravalent ion of the periodic table. Therefore, the preparation of complexes with, e. g. , multidentate ligands can give a well-established picture of the coordination number as a function of charge and ionic radius. However, there are very few modern and updated comprehensive treatments of such data. Many compounds described in this volume are characterized by no other means than analytical composition and IR spectra (whereby IR spectra of organic ThlV salts mostly give information only on the ligand). Besides thorium carbonate and carbonato complexes, which are relevant for the environmental behaviour of this radioactive element and some organic complexes like oxalates, which are used in the field of analytical and separation chemistry nearly all other compounds described here are practically only of scientific interest. On the other hand in order to have scientifically reliable data, a very large part of these compounds needs further investigation and characterization.
General Properties. Spectra. Recoil Reactions
Author: Robert G. Behrens,Michael Bickel,Rolf Engleman,Jean Fuger,Lawrence E. Grimes,Basil Kanellakopulos,Daniel J. Lam,Kurt Roessler,Boyd Veal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The present volume describes the general properties of the thorium atom and ions, the thermodynamics of its compounds and solutions, the behavior of solutions and solid com pounds under the influence of its own radiation as well as an external radiation field, and spectroscopic data in great detail. The different chapters are of special interest to scientists who work in these fields, and also in the corresponding fields of other elements. In some special fields there exists a detailed knowledge of this radioelement whereas in other fields, such as M6Bbauer spectra, lower oxidation states, or radiation stability, there are large gaps. Due to the fact that the significance 23 of thorium as a breeder fuel ( 2"fh to be converted to fissile 233U after thermal neutron capture) has decreased within the last decade, the behavior of thorium is not as yet so thoroughly investigated as the heavier radioactive element uranium. Many of these data, however, are not only of academic interest, e.g., the knowledge of atomic spectra is needed for some analytical methods, especially in the trace concentration region. Due to the noble gaS-like electronic configuration of the tetravalent ion, there are no absorption bands in the visible region so that in general spectra and data are very scarce. This volume is a very detailed and critically reviewed compilation, written by experts from the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, and the United States.
The Toxicology of Radioactive Substances
Author: A. A. Letavet,E. B. Kurlyandskaya
Category: Health & Fitness
The Toxicology of Radioactive Substances, Volume 4: Thorium-232 and Uranium-238 deals with the toxic properties of two radioactive elements, thorium-232 and uranium-238, as well as their soluble and insoluble compounds. Emphasis is placed on their biological effects and the late sequelae of their administration, especially in the case of insoluble compounds. Some of the results of laboratory studies on the acute and chronic effects of the very poorly soluble uranium compound U3O8 are presented. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and opens with an overview of certain aspects of the toxicology of insoluble compounds of thorium-232 and uranium-238, followed by a discussion on the comparative toxicity of soluble and insoluble compounds of thorium-232. Subsequent chapters explore the absorption, distribution, and excretion of certain soluble compounds of natural thorium; the behavior of thorium dioxide in rats after intratracheal and intraperitoneal administration; the effect of thorium dioxide on the peripheral blood of rats; and photometric determination of low amounts of thorium in biological materials. Changes in the peripheral blood following chronic and acute poisoning with U308 are also considered. This book will be of interest to chemists and toxicologists.
International Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry
Author: D. I. Ryabchikov,E. K. Gol'Braikh
International Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry, Volume 10: The Analytical Chemistry of Thorium focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of thorium. The book first discusses the occurrence of thorium and its properties. Topics include the position of thorium in the periodic system; methods of preparation for metallic thorium; and radioactivity of thorium isotopes. The text surveys the chemical and physical methods in identifying thorium. Gravimetric and fluorescence methods; detection and estimation of thorium by spectroscopic and X-ray analysis; and colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods are discussed. The text also examines the methods of separating thorium from associated elements. The separation of thorium from rare earths, scandium, titanium, uranium, lead, alkali metals, gallium, and beryllium is underscored. The text also discusses the determination of thorium in natural and industrial materials. Regeneration of thorium from industrial waste; isolation of thorium from ores and minerals; and analysis of alloys containing thorium are explained. The book is a valuable source of data for students and chemists wanting to study thorium.
Author: R.W. Boyle
Category: Technology & Engineering
Developments in Economic Geology, 16: Geochemical Prospecting for Thorium and Uranium Deposits focuses on the analysis of various geochemical methods applicable in the search for all types of thorium and uranium deposits. The publication first ponders on the general chemistry and geochemistry of thorium and uranium, deposits of thorium and uranium and their indicator elements, and geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium. Discussions focus on radiation surveys, selection of areas, primary mineralization, supergene oxidation, and secondary enrichment of endogenic thorium and uranium deposits, and equilibrium in the natural radioactive series. The book then ponders on lithochemical, pedochemical, hydrochemical, and biogeochemical surveys of the geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium. Topics include heavy and light mineral surveys of stream, river, pond, and lake sediments, detailed litochemical surveys utilizing primary halos, and case histories. The text takes a look at sampling procedures and analytical methods for estimating thorium and uranium and miscellaneous methods and atmochemical surveys on the geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium, including isotopic methods, remote sensing and geothermal methods, and liquid inclusion and thermoluminescent methods. The book is a valuable source of data for researchers wanting to explore geochemical prospecting for thorium and uranium deposits.