Thorium energy can help check CO2 and global warming, cut deadly air pollution, provide inexhaustible energy, and increase human prosperity. Our world is beset by global warming, pollution, resource conflicts, and energy poverty. Millions die from coal plant emissions. We war over mideast oil. Food supplies from sea and land are threatened. Developing nations' growth exacerbates the crises. Few nations will adopt carbon taxes or energy policies against their economic self-interests to reduce global CO2 emissions. Energy cheaper than coal will dissuade all nations from burning coal. Innovative thorium energy uses economic persuasion to end the pollution, to provide energy and prosperity to developing nations, and to create energy security for all people for all time. "This book presents a lucid explanation of the workings of thorium-based reactors. It is must reading for anyone interested in our energy future." Leon Cooper, Brown University physicist and 1972 Nobel laureate for superconductivity "As our energy future is essential I can strongly recommend the book for everybody interested in this most significant topic." George Olah, 1994 Nobel laureate for carbon chemistry
A riveting look at how an alternative source of energy is revoluntionising nuclear power, promising a safe and clean future for millions, and why thorium was sidelined at the height of the Cold War In this groundbreaking account of an energy revolution in the making, award-winning science writer Richard Martin introduces us to thorium, a radioactive element and alternative nuclear fuel that is far safer, cleaner, and more abundant than uranium. At the dawn of the Atomic Age, thorium and uranium seemed to be in close competition as the fuel of the future. Uranium, with its ability to undergo fission and produce explosive material for atomic weapons, won out over its more pacific sister element, relegating thorium to the dustbin of science. Now, as we grapple with the perils of nuclear energy and rogue atomic weapons, and mankind confronts the specter of global climate change, thorium is re-emerging as the overlooked energy source as a small group of activists and outsiders is working, with the help of Silicon Valley investors, to build a thorium-power industry. In the first book mainstream book to tackle these issues, Superfuel is a story of rediscovery of a long lost technology that has the power to transform the world's future, and the story of the pacifists, who were sidelined in favour of atomic weapon hawks, but who can wean us off our fossil-fuel addiction and avert the risk of nuclear meltdown for ever.
D. J. Crouse,K. B. Brown,U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
Author: Roy E. Albert,American Industrial Hygiene Association,U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
R. Ko,M. R. Weiler,Hanford Atomic Products Operation. Hanford Laboratories Operation,Hanford Works,U.S. Atomic Energy Commission,United States. Energy Research and Development Administration,United States. National Bureau of Standards. Fracture and Deformation Division,United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Fusion Energy,United States. National Bureau of Standards
Author: R. Ko,M. R. Weiler,Hanford Atomic Products Operation. Hanford Laboratories Operation,Hanford Works,U.S. Atomic Energy Commission,United States. Energy Research and Development Administration,United States. National Bureau of Standards. Fracture and Deformation Division,United States. Dept. of Energy. Office of Fusion Energy,United States. National Bureau of Standards
Category: Spectrum analysis
Jean-Pierre Revol,Maurice Bourquin,Yacine Kadi,Egil Lillestol,Jean-Christophe de Mestral,Karel Samec
Proceedings of the ThEC13 Conference, CERN, Globe of Science and Innovation, Geneva, Switzerland, October 27-31, 2013
Author: Jean-Pierre Revol,Maurice Bourquin,Yacine Kadi,Egil Lillestol,Jean-Christophe de Mestral,Karel Samec
The Thorium Energy Conference (ThEC13) gathered some of the world’s leading experts on thorium technologies to review the possibility of destroying nuclear waste in the short term, and replacing the uranium fuel cycle in nuclear systems with the thorium fuel cycle in the long term. The latter would provide abundant, reliable and safe energy with no CO2 production, no air pollution, and minimal waste production. The participants, representatives of 30 countries, included Carlo Rubbia, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics and inventor of the Energy Amplifier; Jack Steinberger, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics; Hans Blix, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rolf Heuer, Director General of CERN; Pascal Couchepin, former President of the Swiss Confederation; and Claude Haegi, President of the FEDRE, to name just a few. The ThEC13 proceedings are a source of reference on the use of thorium for energy generation. They offer detailed technical reviews of the status of thorium energy technologies, from basic R&D to industrial developments. They also describe how thorium can be used in critical reactors and in subcritical accelerator-driven systems (ADS), answering the important questions: – Why is thorium so attractive and what is the role of innovation, in particular in the nuclear energy domain? – What are the national and international R&D programs on thorium technologies and how are they progressing? ThEC13 was organized jointly by the international Thorium Energy Committee (iThEC), an association based in Geneva, and the International Thorium Energy Organisation (IThEO). It was held in the Globe of Science and Innovation at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2013.
L. R. Weissert,G. Schileo,American Society for Metals,U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
Contents: Introduction, Studies on the Solvent Extraction of Uranium (VI) with Dibenzoylmethane, Extraction - Spectrophotometric Studies on the U (VI) - DBM - 3, 5, di Br PADAP Mixed Ligand System, Results and Discussion of the Trace Analysis of Uranium, Review of the Earlier Work on the Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Studies on Thorium (IV), Studies on the Solvent Extraction of Thorium (IV) - TOPO - Complex Extracted into Toluene, Spectrophotometric Studies on Th (IV) - TOPO - 3, 5 - di Br PADAP Ternary System, Analytical Applications of Th (IV) - TOPO - 3, 5 - di Br - PADAP Ternary System, Results and Discussion of the Trace Analysis of Thorium.
Compounds with Carbon: Carbonates, Thiocyanates, Alkoxides, Carboxylates
Author: Kenneth W. Bagnall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The present volume of the Gmelin thorium series describes the solid thorium-carbon compounds with the exception of the carbides and coordination compounds of the type 4 ThAn· X B, where B is a neutral ligand. The complex equilibria of the Th + ion with C-containing complexing agents are treated in the ThD1 volume. A first look into this volume demonstrates that a very large number of ThlV complexes has 4 been prepared. This may be explained by the fact that the Th + ion is the largest tetravalent ion of the periodic table. Therefore, the preparation of complexes with, e. g. , multidentate ligands can give a well-established picture of the coordination number as a function of charge and ionic radius. However, there are very few modern and updated comprehensive treatments of such data. Many compounds described in this volume are characterized by no other means than analytical composition and IR spectra (whereby IR spectra of organic ThlV salts mostly give information only on the ligand). Besides thorium carbonate and carbonato complexes, which are relevant for the environmental behaviour of this radioactive element and some organic complexes like oxalates, which are used in the field of analytical and separation chemistry nearly all other compounds described here are practically only of scientific interest. On the other hand in order to have scientifically reliable data, a very large part of these compounds needs further investigation and characterization.
Robert G. Behrens,Michael Bickel,Rolf Engleman,Jean Fuger,Lawrence E. Grimes,Basil Kanellakopulos,Daniel J. Lam,Kurt Roessler,Boyd Veal
Author: Robert G. Behrens,Michael Bickel,Rolf Engleman,Jean Fuger,Lawrence E. Grimes,Basil Kanellakopulos,Daniel J. Lam,Kurt Roessler,Boyd Veal
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The present volume describes the general properties of the thorium atom and ions, the thermodynamics of its compounds and solutions, the behavior of solutions and solid com pounds under the influence of its own radiation as well as an external radiation field, and spectroscopic data in great detail. The different chapters are of special interest to scientists who work in these fields, and also in the corresponding fields of other elements. In some special fields there exists a detailed knowledge of this radioelement whereas in other fields, such as M6Bbauer spectra, lower oxidation states, or radiation stability, there are large gaps. Due to the fact that the significance 23 of thorium as a breeder fuel ( 2"fh to be converted to fissile 233U after thermal neutron capture) has decreased within the last decade, the behavior of thorium is not as yet so thoroughly investigated as the heavier radioactive element uranium. Many of these data, however, are not only of academic interest, e.g., the knowledge of atomic spectra is needed for some analytical methods, especially in the trace concentration region. Due to the noble gaS-like electronic configuration of the tetravalent ion, there are no absorption bands in the visible region so that in general spectra and data are very scarce. This volume is a very detailed and critically reviewed compilation, written by experts from the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, and the United States.
M. E. Wrenn,U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Division of Health, Siting, and Waste Management
The Toxicology of Radioactive Substances, Volume 4: Thorium-232 and Uranium-238 deals with the toxic properties of two radioactive elements, thorium-232 and uranium-238, as well as their soluble and insoluble compounds. Emphasis is placed on their biological effects and the late sequelae of their administration, especially in the case of insoluble compounds. Some of the results of laboratory studies on the acute and chronic effects of the very poorly soluble uranium compound U3O8 are presented. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and opens with an overview of certain aspects of the toxicology of insoluble compounds of thorium-232 and uranium-238, followed by a discussion on the comparative toxicity of soluble and insoluble compounds of thorium-232. Subsequent chapters explore the absorption, distribution, and excretion of certain soluble compounds of natural thorium; the behavior of thorium dioxide in rats after intratracheal and intraperitoneal administration; the effect of thorium dioxide on the peripheral blood of rats; and photometric determination of low amounts of thorium in biological materials. Changes in the peripheral blood following chronic and acute poisoning with U308 are also considered. This book will be of interest to chemists and toxicologists.