**Author**: Nicholas Pippenger

**Publisher:** Cambridge University Press

**ISBN:** 9780521553803

**Category:** Computers

**Page:** 251

**View:** 3123

A mathematically sophisticated introduction to Turing's theory, Boolean functions, automata, and formal languages.

The chapters of this volume all have their own level of presentation. The topics have been chosen based on the active research interest associated with them. Since the interest in some topics is older than that in others, some presentations contain fundamental definitions and basic results while others relate very little of the elementary theory behind them and aim directly toward an exposition of advanced results. Presentations of the latter sort are in some cases restricted to a short survey of recent results (due to the complexity of the methods and proofs themselves). Hence the variation in level of presentation from chapter to chapter only reflects the conceptual situation itself. One example of this is the collective efforts to develop an acceptable theory of computation on the real numbers. The last two decades has seen at least two new definitions of effective operations on the real numbers.

Computability theory originated with the seminal work of Gödel, Church, Turing, Kleene and Post in the 1930s. This theory includes a wide spectrum of topics, such as the theory of reducibilities and their degree structures, computably enumerable sets and their automorphisms, and subrecursive hierarchy classifications. Recent work in computability theory has focused on Turing definability and promises to have far-reaching mathematical, scientific, and philosophical consequences. Written by a leading researcher, Computability Theory provides a concise, comprehensive, and authoritative introduction to contemporary computability theory, techniques, and results. The basic concepts and techniques of computability theory are placed in their historical, philosophical and logical context. This presentation is characterized by an unusual breadth of coverage and the inclusion of advanced topics not to be found elsewhere in the literature at this level. The book includes both the standard material for a first course in computability and more advanced looks at degree structures, forcing, priority methods, and determinacy. The final chapter explores a variety of computability applications to mathematics and science. Computability Theory is an invaluable text, reference, and guide to the direction of current research in the field. Nowhere else will you find the techniques and results of this beautiful and basic subject brought alive in such an approachable and lively way.

This book offers an original and informative view of the development of fundamental concepts of computability theory. The treatment is put into historical context, emphasizing the motivation for ideas as well as their logical and formal development. In Part I the author introduces computability theory, with chapters on the foundational crisis of mathematics in the early twentieth century, and formalism; in Part II he explains classical computability theory, with chapters on the quest for formalization, the Turing Machine, and early successes such as defining incomputable problems, c.e. (computably enumerable) sets, and developing methods for proving incomputability; in Part III he explains relative computability, with chapters on computation with external help, degrees of unsolvability, the Turing hierarchy of unsolvability, the class of degrees of unsolvability, c.e. degrees and the priority method, and the arithmetical hierarchy. This is a gentle introduction from the origins of computability theory up to current research, and it will be of value as a textbook and guide for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in the domains of computability theory and theoretical computer science.

*Current Trends and Open Problems : Proceedings of a 1999 AMS-IMS-SIAM Joint Summer Research Conference, Computability Theory and Applications, June 13-17, 1999, University of Colorado, Boulder*

**Author**: Peter Cholak,Steffen Lempp,Manuel Lerman,Richard A. Shore

**Publisher:** American Mathematical Soc.

**ISBN:** 0821819224

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 320

**View:** 5708

This superb exposition of a complex subject examines new developments in the theory and practice of computation from a mathematical perspective, with topics ranging from classical computability to complexity, from biocomputing to quantum computing. This book is suitable for researchers and graduate students in mathematics, philosophy, and computer science with a special interest in logic and foundational issues. Most useful to graduate students are the survey papers on computable analysis and biological computing. Logicians and theoretical physicists will also benefit from this book.

This introduction to recursive theory computability begins with a mathematical characterization of computable functions, develops the mathematical theory and includes a full discussion of noncomputability and undecidability. Later chapters move on to more advanced topics such as degrees of unsolvability and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem.

Provides a picture of current ideas and methods in the ongoing investigations into the pure mathematical foundations of computability theory.

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2008, held in Athens, Greece, in June 2008. The 36 revised full papers presented together with 25 invited tutorials and lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from 108 submissions. Among them are papers of 6 special sessions entitled algorithms in the history of mathematics, formalising mathematics and extracting algorithms from proofs, higher-type recursion and applications, algorithmic game theory, quantum algorithms and complexity, and biology and computation.

Aimed at mathematicians and computer scientists who will only be exposed to one course in this area, Computability: A Mathematical Sketchbook provides a brief but rigorous introduction to the abstract theory of computation, sometimes also referred to as recursion theory. It develops major themes in computability theory, such as Rice's theorem and the recursion theorem, and provides a systematic account of Blum's complexity theory as well as an introduction to the theory of computable real numbers and functions. The book is intended as a university text, but it may also be used for self-study; appropriate exercises and solutions are included.

In this book, Yurii L. Ershov posits the view that computability-in the broadest sense-can be regarded as the Sigma-definability in the suitable sets. He presents a new approach to providing the Gödel incompleteness theorem based on systematic use of the formulas with the restricted quantifiers. The volume also includes a novel exposition on the foundations of the theory of admissible sets with urelements, using the Gandy theorem throughout the theory's development. Other topics discussed are forcing, Sigma-definability, dynamic logic, and Sigma-predicates of finite types.

Computability Theory: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the major concepts, constructions, and theorems of the elementary theory of computability of recursive functions. This book provides mathematical evidence for the validity of the Church–Turing thesis. Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of the concept of effective process so that a clear understanding of the effective computability of partial and total functions is obtained. This text then introduces a formal development of the equivalence of Turing machine computability, enumerability, and decidability with other formulations. Other chapters consider the formulas of the predicate calculus, systems of recursion equations, and Post's production systems. This book discusses as well the fundamental properties of the partial recursive functions and the recursively enumerable sets. The final chapter deals with different formulations of the basic ideas of computability that are equivalent to Turing-computability. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate or graduate students.

The book provides the first full length exploration of fuzzy computability. It describes the notion of fuzziness and present the foundation of computability theory. It then presents the various approaches to fuzzy computability. This text provides a glimpse into the different approaches in this area, which is important for researchers in order to have a clear view of the field. It contains a detailed literature review and the author includes all proofs to make the presentation accessible. Ideas for future research and explorations are also provided. Students and researchers in computer science and mathematics will benefit from this work.

This revised and extensively expanded edition of Computability and Complexity Theory comprises essential materials that are core knowledge in the theory of computation. The book is self-contained, with a preliminary chapter describing key mathematical concepts and notations. Subsequent chapters move from the qualitative aspects of classical computability theory to the quantitative aspects of complexity theory. Dedicated chapters on undecidability, NP-completeness, and relative computability focus on the limitations of computability and the distinctions between feasible and intractable. Substantial new content in this edition includes: a chapter on nonuniformity studying Boolean circuits, advice classes and the important result of Karp─Lipton. a chapter studying properties of the fundamental probabilistic complexity classes a study of the alternating Turing machine and uniform circuit classes. an introduction of counting classes, proving the famous results of Valiant and Vazirani and of Toda a thorough treatment of the proof that IP is identical to PSPACE With its accessibility and well-devised organization, this text/reference is an excellent resource and guide for those looking to develop a solid grounding in the theory of computing. Beginning graduates, advanced undergraduates, and professionals involved in theoretical computer science, complexity theory, and computability will find the book an essential and practical learning tool. Topics and features: Concise, focused materials cover the most fundamental concepts and results in the field of modern complexity theory, including the theory of NP-completeness, NP-hardness, the polynomial hierarchy, and complete problems for other complexity classes Contains information that otherwise exists only in research literature and presents it in a unified, simplified manner Provides key mathematical background information, including sections on logic and number theory and algebra Supported by numerous exercises and supplementary problems for reinforcement and self-study purposes

Reflexive Structures: An Introduction to Computability Theory is concerned with the foundations of the theory of recursive functions. The approach taken presents the fundamental structures in a fairly general setting, but avoiding the introduction of abstract axiomatic domains. Natural numbers and numerical functions are considered exclusively, which results in a concrete theory conceptually organized around Church's thesis. The book develops the important structures in recursive function theory: closure properties, reflexivity, enumeration, and hyperenumeration. Of particular interest is the treatment of recursion, which is considered from two different points of view: via the minimal fixed point theory of continuous transformations, and via the well known stack algorithm. Reflexive Structures is intended as an introduction to the general theory of computability. It can be used as a text or reference in senior undergraduate and first year graduate level classes in computer science or mathematics.

Classic graduate-level introduction to theory of computability. Discusses general theory of computability, computable functions, operations on computable functions, Turing machines self-applied, unsolvable decision problems, applications of general theory, mathematical logic, Kleene hierarchy, more.

Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are also implicit in computer modelling in many areas of physical and social science. This detailed investigation into the logical foundations of specification and specification languages and their application to the definition of programming languages, coupled with a clear exposition of theories of data and computable models as mathematical notions will be welcomed by researchers and graduate students.

This monograph is devoted to the identification and measurement theory of costs and benefits in a fuzzy information environment. The process of cost-benefit analysis is presented, requiring the development of real cost-benefit databases and the construction of cost-benefit criterion. These steps are accomplished with various theoretical constructs that provide sets of self-contained algorithms for application. This book integrates cost-benefit analysis, theory of fuzzy decisions and social decisions into unified decision algorithms accessible to practitioners, researchers, and graduate students. It features the essentials of fuzzy mathematics and algorithms in a comprehensive way, exposing a multi-disciplinary approach for the development of cost-benefit decision making in the framework of fuzziness and soft computing.