„Der Staat“ ist ein Werk des griechischen Philosophen Platon, in dem über die Gerechtigkeit und ihre mögliche Verwirklichung in einem idealen Staat diskutiert wird. An dem fiktiven, literarisch gestalteten Dialog beteiligen sich sieben Personen, darunter Platons Brüder Glaukon und Adeimantos und der Redner Thrasymachos. Platons Lehrer Sokrates ist die Hauptfigur. Weitere Anwesende hören lediglich zu. (Zitat aus wikipedia.de)
Mit seinem Werk Politeia ("Der Staat") wurde Platon zum Begründer einer neuen literarischen Gattung: der politisch-philosophischen Utopie. Schon im Altertum versuchten eine Reihe von Autoren ihm nachzueifern (Theopompos, Euhemeros, Iambulos, parodistisch auch Lukian), und nachdem Thomas Morus mit dem namengebenden Werk "Utopia" (1516) die Gattung gleichsam neu belebt hatte, entstand eine nicht mehr zu überblickende Flut utopischer Entwürfe. Doch nicht nur durch die hier entfaltete Staatslehre erwies sich die "Politeia" als grundlegendes und richtungsweisendes Werk: Platons Ausführungen zu solch verschiedenen philosophischen Gebieten wie der Theorie der Erziehung, der Theorie der Dichtung, der Ethik und Tugendlehre, der Seelenlehre haben die Diskussion bis in unsere Tage beeinflusst. Platon ist aber auch ein Sprachkünstler, der seine Werke als Dialog-"Dramen" meisterhaft gestaltete. Dabei weiß er sich souverän von dem Medium Schrift zu distanzieren, das drei Hauptmängel aufweist: Sie sagt immer dasselbe, kann auf Fragen nicht antworten; sie wendet sich unterschiedslos an alle, weiß nicht, zu wem sie reden und zu wem sie schweigen soll; und wird sie angegriffen, so kann sie sich nicht selbst zur Hilfe kommen. Dass der Kern der platonischen Ideenlehre nicht in dafür ungeeignete Köpfe "gepflanzt" werden kann, beweist das Erste Buch: Das aufgezwungene Gespräch über die Gerechtigkeit mit Polemarchos und dem Sophisten Thrasymachos endet in einer Aporie (so wie Platons Versuche, seine politische Theorie in die Praxis umzusetzen, an der mangelnden Eignung des jungen Herrschers von Syrakus, Dionysios II., scheitern mussten). Erst als Platon (von Buch II an) mit seinen Brüdern Glaukon und Adeimantos das Gesprächsthema wieder aufgreift, kann der Funken der Erkenntnis überspringen, und "Einsicht leuchtet auf".
The late James Adam's edition of The Republic of Plato was published in 1902 and has long been out of print; it still remains among the most detailed and valuable critical editions available. D. A. Rees, Fellow and Tutor of Jesus College, Oxford, has written an introduction of 15,000 words for this edition. In it, he surveys Adam's work on The Republic and reviews subsequent work on the textual problems, language and meaning of the book. The book is divided into two volumes; Volume I. Introduction and Books I-V, and Volume II, printed here, Books VI-X and Indexes.
Long regarded as the most accurate rendering of Plato's Republic that has yet been published, this widely acclaimed work is the first strictly literal translation of a timeless classic. In addition to the annotated text, there is also a rich and valuable essay—as well as indices—which will better enable the reader to approach the heart of Plato's intention. This new edition includes a new introduction by acclaimed critic Adam Kirsch, setting the work in its intellectual context for a new generation of readers.
Most commentaries on the Republic rush through Book I with embarrassment because the arguments of the participants, including Socrates, are specious. Beginning with Book II, the arguments are brilliant, so why did Plato write Book I? Lycos shows that the function of Book I is to attack the view that justice is external to the soul--external to the power humans have to render things good--and is merely instrumental to a good society. The dramatic situation in Book I presents justice as internal, requiring not laws, but discrimination and virtue. After this introduction, the rest of the Republic serves to sketch out what virtue is and how to practice discrimination. Plato on Justice and Power ends with some illuminating contrasts between this sense of virtue and that characteristic of our modern liberal politics which takes an external view of justice similar to the Athenians view at the time of Plato.
It is the first expression of the concept of a Utopia, a perfect society. It is the first thoughtful examination of the concept of an inner life. It is the classic discussion of concepts of justice. It is a profoundly reflective work on the nature of philosophy itself. It is 2,300 years old, and one of the greatest books humanity has ever produced. Written around 360 B.C., The Republicby the Greek philosopher and mathematician PLATO (c. 428 B.C.c. 347 B.C.)is the foundational work of Western thought, with notable influences on thinkers and writers as diverse as Shakespeare, Saint Augustine, and Bertrand Russell. It is impossible to overstate its importance, and its wisdom is so intense, wide-ranging, and often seemingly contradictory that it continues to generate heated debate, even controversy, to this day. Essential reading for anyone who wishes to consider him- or herself educated, this is the unabridged Republic presented in the highly readable 1894 translation by Benjamin Jowett.
An authoritative new translation of Plato's The Republic by Christopher Rowe, with notes and an introduction. 'We set about founding the best city we could, because we could be confident that if it was good we would find justice in it' The Republic, Plato's masterwork, was first enjoyed 2,400 years ago and remains one of the most widely-read books in the world: as a foundational work of Western philosophy, and for the richness of its ideas and virtuosity of its writing. Presented as a dialogue between Plato's teacher Socrates and various interlocutors, it is an exhortation to philosophy, inviting its readers to reflect on the choices to be made if we are to live the best life available to us. This complex, dynamic work creates a picture of an ideal society governed not by the desire for money, power or fame, but by philosophy, wisdom and justice. Christopher Rowe's accurate and enjoyable new translation remains faithful to the many variations of the Republic's tone, style and pace. This edition also contains a chronology, further reading, an outline of the work's main arguments and an introduction discussing Plato's relationship with Socrates, and the Republic's style, ideas and historical context.
Bringing between two covers the most influential and accessible articles on Plato's Republic, this collection illuminates what is widely held to be the most important work of Western philosophy and political theory. It will be valuable not only to philosophers, but to political theorists, historians, classicists, literary scholars, and interested general readers.
Democracy and the Philosophical Problem of Persuasion
Author: James L. Kastely
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Plato isn’t exactly thought of as a champion of democracy, and perhaps even less as an important rhetorical theorist. In this book, James L. Kastely recasts Plato in just these lights, offering a vivid new reading of one of Plato’s most important works: the Republic. At heart, Kastely demonstrates, the Republic is a democratic epic poem and pioneering work in rhetorical theory. Examining issues of justice, communication, persuasion, and audience, he uncovers a seedbed of theoretical ideas that resonate all the way up to our contemporary democratic practices. As Kastely shows, the Republic begins with two interrelated crises: one rhetorical, one philosophical. In the first, democracy is defended by a discourse of justice, but no one can take this discourse seriously because no one can see—in a world where the powerful dominate the weak—how justice is a value in itself. That value must be found philosophically, but philosophy, as Plato and Socrates understand it, can reach only the very few. In order to reach its larger political audience, it must become rhetoric; it must become a persuasive part of the larger culture—which, at that time, meant epic poetry. Tracing how Plato and Socrates formulate this transformation in the Republic, Kastely isolates a crucial theory of persuasion that is central to how we talk together about justice and organize ourselves according to democratic principles.
Edward Urwick’s original work draws upon Plato’s best known work, the Republic, to provide a new interpretation of Plato’s teaching based upon Indian religious thought. Most scholars have sought to interpret the Republic from the standpoint of politics, ethics, and metaphysics and indeed the accepted title of the dialogue – Concerning a Polity or Republic – would seem to legitimate this. Even the alternative title for the work – Concerning Justice – seems to justify such an approach. Yet the original Greek work, Dikaiosune, had a fuller meaning: righteousness. The author believes this gives a truer clue to the meaning of the dialogue. It is a discussion of righteousness in all its forms, from the just dealing of the law-abiding citizen to the spirit of holiness in the saint.
In this book a distinguished philosopher offers a comprehensive interpretation of Plato's most controversial dialogue. Treating the Republic as a unity and focusing on the dramatic form as the presentation of the argument, Stanley Rosen challenges earlier analyses of the Republic (including the ironic reading of Leo Strauss and his disciples) and argues that the key to understanding the dialogue is to grasp the author's intention in composing it, in particular whether Plato believed that the city constructed in the Republic is possible and desirable. Rosen demonstrates that the fundamental principles underlying the just city are theoretically attractive but that the attempt to enact them in practice leads to conceptual incoherence and political disaster. The Republic, says Rosen, is a vivid illustration of the irreconcilability of philosophy and political practice.
To the vast literature on Plato's Republic comes a new interpretation. In Beautiful City, David Roochnik argues convincingly that Plato's masterpiece is misunderstood by modern readers. The work must, he explains, be read dialectically, its parts understood as forming a unified whole. Approached in this way, the text no longer appears to defend an authoritarian and monolithic political system, but rather supplies a qualified defense of democracy and the values of diversity. Writing in clear and straightforward prose, Roochnik demonstrates how Plato's treatment of the city and the soul evolves throughout the dialogue and can be appreciated only by considering the Republic in its entirety. He shows that the views expressed in the early parts of the text do not represent Plato's final judgment on these subjects but are in fact dialectical "moments" intended to be both partial and provisional. Books 5–7 of the Republic are, he maintains, meant to revise and improve upon books 2–4. Similarly, he sees the usually neglected books 8–10 as advancing beyond the thoughts presented in the previous books. Paying particular attention to these later books, Roochnik details, for instance, how the stories of the "mistaken" regimes, which are often seen as unimportant, are actually crucial in Plato's account of the soul. Beautiful City is certain to be controversial, as the author's insights and opinions will engage and challenge philosophers, classicists, and political theorists.