The Professionalization of Public Participation is an edited collection of essays by leading and emerging scholars examining the emerging profession of public participation professionals. Public participation professionals are persons working in the public, private, or third sectors that are paid to design, implement, and/or facilitate participatory forums. The rapid growth and proliferation of participatory arrangements call for expertise in the organizing of public participation. The contributors analyze the professionalization of this practice in different countries (United States, France, Canada, Italy, and the United Kingdom) to see how their actions challenge the development of participatory arrangements. Designing such processes is a delicate activity, since it may affect not only the quality of the processes and their legitimacy, but also their capacity to influence decision-making.
Citizen involvement is considered the cornerstone of democratic theory and practice. Citizens today have the knowledge and ability to participate more fully in the political, technical, and administrative decisions that affect them. On the other hand, direct citizen participation is often viewed with skepticism, even wariness. Many argue that citizens do not have the time, preparation, or interest to be directly involved in public affairs, and suggest instead that representative democracy, or indirect citizen participation, is the most effective form of government. Some of the very best writings on this key topic - which is at the root of the entire "reinventing government" movement - can be found in the journals that ASPA publishes or sponsors. In this collection Nancy Roberts has brought together the emerging classics on the ongoing debate over citizen involvement. Her detailed introductory essay and section openers frame the key issues, provide historical context, and fill in any gaps not directly covered by the articles. More than just an anthology, "The Age of Direct Citizen Participation" provides a unique and useful framework for understanding this important subject. It is an ideal resource for any Public Administration course involving citizen engagement and performance management.
Katherine A. Graham,Susan D. Phillips,Institute of Public Administration of Canada
Election campaigns in small and mid-sized electoral districts have been run from the grass roots from the beginning of the republic. Yard signs, door-to-door canvassing, and soap-box oratory have characterized state and local elections for years, and many predict their persistence into the 21st century. This book looks at new trends in small-town politics, tracking the infiltration of sophisticated communications technology, the use of political consultants, and the increase in fundraising and campaign expenditures. Original surveys, interviews, and in-depth case studies lead the author to conclude that the new tactics are with us to stay, but that their potentially negative effects--rising campaign budgets and diminished citizen participation--may be mitigated by creative approaches to reform. Visit our website for sample chapters!
An insightful exploration of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liaison), including its international dimensions. This book offers a distinct understanding of this process, valuable to those involved in critical information flows, such as intelligence, risk, crisis and emergency managers.
What really happened when citizens were asked to participate in their community’s poverty programs? In this revealing new book, the authors provide an answer to this question through a systematic empirical analysis of a single public policy issue—citizen participation in the Community Action Program of the Johnson Administration’s “War on Poverty.” Beginning with a brief case study description and analysis of the politics of community action in each of America’s five largest cities—New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Detroit, and Philadelphia—the authors move on to a fascinating examination of race and authority structures in our urban life. In a series of lively chapters, Professors Greenstone and Peterson show how the coalitions that formed around the community action question developed not out of electoral or organizational interests alone, but were strongly influenced by our conceptions of the nature of authority in America. They discuss the factors that affected the development of the action program and they note that democratic elections of low-income representatives, however much preferred by democratic reformers, were an ineffective way of representing the interests of the poor. The book stresses the way in which both machine and reform structures affected the ability of minority groups to organize effectively and to form alliances in urban politics. It considers the wide-ranging critiques made of the Community Action Program by conservative, liberal, and radical analysts and finds that all of them fail to appreciate the significance and intensity of the racial cleavage in American politics.
The National Perspectives on the Development of Public Relations: Other Voices series is the first to offer an authentic world-wide view of the history of public relations. It will feature six books, five of which will cover continental and regional groups. This book in the series focuses on Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Professionalization of Women Artists in America
Author: Laura R. Prieto
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Picture of the prospects and constraints faced by women sculptors in the United States from the late eighteenth century throught the 1930s and the emerging of a professional identity for women artists. Thanks to their success as neoclassicists, women sculptors were able to cross over into nationalistic and political subjects that were unavailable to women painters.
Douglas A. Chalmers,Carlos M. Vilas,Katherine Hite,Scott B. Martin,Kerianne Piester,Monique Segarra
Author: Douglas A. Chalmers,Carlos M. Vilas,Katherine Hite,Scott B. Martin,Kerianne Piester,Monique Segarra
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Political Science
Against a broader backdrop of globalization and worldwide moves toward political democracy, The New Politics of Inequality in Latin America examines the unfolding relationships among social change, equity, and the democratic representation of the poor in Latin America. Recent Latin American governments have turned away from redistributive policies; at the same time, popular political and social organizations have been generally weakened, inequality has increased, and the gap between rich and poor has grown. Hanging in the balance is the consolidation and the quality of new or would-be democracies; this volume suggests that governments must find not just short-term programmes to alleviate poverty, but long-term means to ensure the effective integration of the poor into political life. The New Politics of Inequality in Latin America bridges the intellectual chasm between, on the one hand, studies of grassroots politics, and on the other, explorations of elite politics and formal institution-building. It will be of interest to students and scholars of contemporary Latin American politics and society and, more generally, in the vicissitudes of democracy and citizenship in the late twentieth-century global system.
United Nations. Division for Public Economics and Public Administration
Author: United Nations. Division for Public Economics and Public Administration
Publisher: United Nations Publications
Category: Africa, Portuguese-speaking
The public sector of the African Lusophone (Portuguese-speaking) countries is beset by a variety of shortcomings that impairs its capacity to design , manage, monitor and oversee the development tasks it faces. This publication arose from a seminar held in Brazil in November 1998, the objective of which was to undertake a needs assessment of these countries and identify perspectives of programmes/projects to be formulated and supported by the international community. The report concludes with an extensive list of recommendations.
Ever since Eve tempted Adam with her apple, women have been regarded as a corrupting and destructive force. The very idea that women can be used as interrogation tools, as evidenced in the infamous Abu Ghraib torture photos, plays on age-old fears of women as sexually threatening weapons, and therefore the literal explosion of women onto the war scene should come as no surprise. From the female soldiers involved in Abu Ghraib to Palestinian women suicide bombers, women and their bodies have become powerful weapons in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. In Women as Weapons of War, Kelly Oliver reveals how the media and the administration frequently use metaphors of weaponry to describe women and female sexuality and forge a deliberate link between notions of vulnerability and images of violence. Focusing specifically on the U.S. campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, Oliver analyzes contemporary discourse surrounding women, sex, and gender and the use of women to justify America's decision to go to war. For example, the administration's call to liberate "women of cover," suggesting a woman's right to bare arms is a sign of freedom and progress. Oliver also considers what forms of cultural meaning, or lack of meaning, could cause both the guiltlessness demonstrated by female soldiers at Abu Ghraib and the profound commitment to death made by suicide bombers. She examines the pleasure taken in violence and the passion for death exhibited by these women and what kind of contexts created them. In conclusion, Oliver diagnoses our cultural fascination with sex, violence, and death and its relationship with live news coverage and embedded reporting, which naturalizes horrific events and stymies critical reflection. This process, she argues, further compromises the borders between fantasy and reality, fueling a kind of paranoid patriotism that results in extreme forms of violence.
"This exploration of media policymaking looks at its shift from a field essentially defined by national legislative and regulatory frameworks and a minimum of international supervision to a complex ecology of interdependent structures. A number of issues, themes, and case studies illustrate and enhance the understanding of this situation. The text's purpose is to amplify the empirical basis for a critique of the emerging global media policy environment as well as serve as a resource for actors seeking to intervene effectively in the area of media policy."
Our public health system is primarily concerned with the promotion of health and the prevention of disease. But while everyone may agree with these goals in principle, in practice public health is a highly contentious policy arena. that is inevitably entangled with sensitive issues ranging from occupational safety and environmental hazards to health education, immunization, and treatment of addiction and sexually transmitted disease. Today however, concern for protecting the population against bio-terrorism and new epidemics such as SARS is tipping the balance back toward increased support for public health. This book focuses on the politics, policies, and methodologies of public health and the twenty-first century challenges to the public health system of the United States. It explores the system's relatively weak position in the American political culture, medical establishment, and legal system; scientific and privacy issues in public health; and the challenges posed by ecological risk and the looming threat of bio-terrorist attack. Each chapter includes study questions. The volume also includes a chronology of major laws and events in public health policy along with an extensive bibliography.
Papers, Results, Materials Scientific Congress Munich, August 21 to 25, 1972
Author: Ommo Grupe,Dietrich Kurz,Johannes M. Teipel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Should scientific congresses take place in connection with Olympic Games, and should science be represented not only in the form of applied science engaged in the care of athletes, but also as an informing, reflecting and critical authority? The Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad answered this question in the affirmative, and the results have justified this decision. The invitation sent out by the Organizing Committee was accepted by numerous eminent scholars and many participants from all over the world; it was their merit that the general topic of the congress could be discussed in manifold ways under various aspects and without prejudice. For this reason, they deserve our gratitude and appreciation. By now, the congress report has been completed. It is part of the total scientific concept which includes the preparatory publication, "The Scientific View of Sport Perspectives, Aspects, Issues", the congress itself and the present report; and, in close connection therewith, the exhibitions, "100 Years of German Excavation Work in Olympia", "Sport and Medicine" and the literary exhibition. It is to be hoped that this report will prove an important source of information and a stimulus for discussion among participants and scholars, students, teachers and coaches; and that it will safeguard the fruitful continuation of the work initiated by the Munich congress. Thanks are due to those who took pains in preparing this document. It will be an essential element within the framework of all that will remain of the Olympic Games of 1972.
Author: Mark Bovens,Robert E. Goodin,Thomas Schillemans
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Political Science
Over the past two decades public accountability has become not only an icon in political, managerial, and administrative discourse but also the object of much scholarly analysis across a broad range of social and administrative sciences. This handbook provides a state of the art overview of recent scholarship on public accountability. It collects, consolidates, and integrates an upsurge of inquiry currently scattered across many disciplines and subdisciplines. It provides a one-stop-shop on the subject, not only for academics who study accountability, but also for practitioners who are designing, adjusting, or struggling with mechanisms for accountable governance. Drawing on the best scholars in the field from around the world, The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability showcases conceptual and normative as well as the empirical approaches in public accountability studies. In addition to giving an overview of scholarly research in a variety of disciplines, it takes stock of a wide range of accountability mechanisms and practices across the public, private and non-profit sectors, making this volume a must-have for both practitioners and scholars, both established and new to the field.
Based on an unprecedented survey of the entire membership and over 80 elite interviews The Scottish National Party is the definitive account of the nature of the SNP following its election as a party of government for the first time in its eighty year history.
The second edition of this widely acclaimed and extensively cited collection of original contributions by specialist authors reflects changes in the field of cultural economics over the last eight years. Thoroughly revised chapters alongside new topics and contributors bring the Handbook up-to-date, taking into account new research, literature and the impact of new technologies in the creative industries. The book covers a range of topics encompassing the creative industries as well as the economics of the arts and culture, and includes chapters on: economics of art (including auctions, markets, prices, anthropology), artists' labour markets, creativity and the creative economy, cultural districts, cultural value, globalization and international trade, the internet, media economics, museums, non-profit organisations, opera, performance indicators, performing arts, publishing, regulation, tax expenditures, and welfare economics.
Cochavit Elefant,Mercédès Pavlicevic,Dr Gary Ansdell,Professor Brynjulf Stige
Author: Cochavit Elefant,Mercédès Pavlicevic,Dr Gary Ansdell,Professor Brynjulf Stige
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
This book explores how people may use music in ways that are helpful for them, especially in relation to a sense of wellbeing, belonging and participation. The central premise for the study is that help is not a decontextualized effect that music produces. The book contributes to the current discourse on music, culture and society and it is developed in dialogue with related areas of study, such as music sociology, ethnomusicology, community psychology and health promotion. Where Music Helps describes the emerging movement that has been labelled Community Music Therapy, and it presents ethnographically informed case studies of eight music projects (localized in England, Israel, Norway, and South Africa). The various chapters of the book portray "music's help" in action within a broad range of contexts; with individuals, groups and communities – all of whom have been challenged by illness or disability, social and cultural disadvantage or injustice. Music and musicing has helped these people find their voice (literally and metaphorically); to be welcomed and to welcome, to be accepted and to accept, to be together in different and better ways, to project alternative messages about themselves or their community and to connect with others beyond their immediate environment. The overriding theme that is explored is how music comes to afford things in concert with its environments, which may suggest a way of accounting for the role of music in music therapy without reducing music to a secondary role in relation to the "therapeutic," that is, being "just" a symbol of psychological states, a stimulus, or a text reflecting socio-cultural content.