A the end of the fourteenth century, Norway, having previously been an independent kingdom, became by conquest a province of Denmark and remained so for three centuries. In1814, as part of the fall-out from the Napoleonic wars, the country became a largely independent nation within the monarchy of Sweden. By this time, however, Danish had become the language of government, commerce, and education, as well as of the middle and upper classes. Nationalistic Norwegians sought to reestablish native identity by creating and promulgating a new language based partly on rural dialects and partly on Old Norse. The upper and middle classes sought to retain a form of Norwegian close to Danish that would be intelligible to themselves and to their neighbours in Sweden and Denmark. The controversy has gone on ever since. One result is that the standard dictionaries of Norwegian ignore pronunciation, for no version can be counted as 'received'. Another is that there has been considerable variety and change in Norwe
Author: Jacques Durand,Ulrike Gut,Gjert Kristoffersen
Publisher: Oxford Handbooks in Linguistic
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
This handbook presents the first systematic account of corpus phonology - the employment of corpora, especially purpose-built phonological corpora of spoken language, for studying speakers' and listeners' acquisition and knowledge of the sound system of their native languages and the principles underlying those systems. The field combines methods and theoretical approaches from phonology, both diachronic and synchronic, phonetics, corpus linguistics, speech technology, information technology and computer science, mathematics and statistics. The book is divided into four parts: the first looks at the design, compilation, and use of phonological corpora, while the second looks at specific applications, including examples from French and Norwegian phonology, child phonological development, and second language acquisition. Part 3 looks at the tools and methods used, such as Praat and EXMARaLDA, and the final part examines a number of currently available phonological corpora in various languages, including LANCHART, LeaP, and IViE. It will appeal not only to those working with phonological corpora, but also to researchers and students of phonology and phonetics more generally, as well as to all those interested in language variation, dialectology, first and second language acquisition, and sociolinguistics.
This book presents a comprehensive account of the phonology of Swedish, describes its history, segmental phonology, lower prosodic phonology, stress and tone, morphology-phonology interactions, higher prosodic phonology, and intonation, Its approach is data-oriented and, insofar as possible, theory-neutral.
This book describes all the known ways in which the sounds of the world's languages differ. Encapsulating the work of two leading figures in the field, it will be a standard work of reference for researchers in phonetics, linguistics and speech science for many years to come. The scope of the book is truly global, with data drawn from nearly 400 languages, many of them investigated at first hand by the authors.
This book presents a comprehensive, contrastive account of the phonological structures and characteristics of Icelandic and Faroese. It is written for Nordic linguists and theoretical phonologists interested in what the languages reveal about phonological structure and phonological change and the relation between morphology, phonology, and phonetics. The book is divided into five parts. In the first Professor Árnason provides the theoretical and historical context of his investigation. Icelandic and Faroese originate from the West-Scandinavian or Norse spoken in Norway, Iceland and part of the Scottish Isles at the end of the Viking Age. The modern spoken languages are barely intelligible to each other and, despite many common phonological characteristics, exhibit differences that raise questions about their historical and structural relation and about phonological change more generally. Separate parts are devoted to synchronic analysis of the sounds of the languages, their phonological oppositions, syllabic structure and phonotactics, lexical morphophonemics, rhythmic structure, intonation and postlexical variation. The book draws on the author's and others' published work and presents the results of original research in Faroese and Icelandic phonology.
Tone and Intonation are two types of pitch variation, which are used by speakers of all languages in order to give shape to utterances. More specifically, tone encodes segments and morphemes, and intonation gives utterances a further discoursal meaning that is independent of the meanings of the words themselves. In this comprehensive survey, Carlos Gussenhoven provides an overview of research into tone and intonation, discussing why speakers vary their pitch, what pitch variations mean, and how they are integrated into our grammars. He also explains why intonation in part appears to be universally understood, while at other times it is language-specific and can lead to misunderstandings. After eight chapters on general topics relating to pitch modulation, the book's central arguments are illustrated with comprehensive phonological descriptions - partly in Optimality Theory - of the tonal and intonational systems of six languages, including Japanese, Dutch, and English.
This third edition of Compendium of the World’s Languages has been thoroughly revised to provide up-to-date and accurate descriptions of a wide selection of natural language systems. All cultural and historical notes as well as statistical data have been checked, updated and in many cases expanded. Presenting an even broader range of languages and language families, including new coverage of Australian aboriginal languages and expanded treatment of North American and African languages, this new edition offers a total of 342 entries over nearly 2000 pages. Key features include: Complete rewriting, systematization and regularisation of the phonology sections Provision of IPA symbol grids arranged by articulatory feature and by alphabetic resemblance to facilitate use of the new phonology sections Expansion of morphology descriptions for most major languages Provision of new illustrative text samples Addition of a glossary of technical terms and an expanded bibliography Comparative tables of the numerals 1-10 in a representative range of languages, and also grouped by family Drawing upon a wealth of recent developments and research in language typology and broadened availability of descriptive data, this new incarnation of George Campbell’s astounding Compendium brings a much-loved survey emphatically into the twenty-first century for a new generation of readers. Scholarly, comprehensive and highly accessible, Compendium of the World’s Languages remains the ideal reference for all interested linguists and professionals alike.
From Afrikaans to Zulu, almost 100 languages from the comprehensive Compendium of the World's Languages are featured in this new concise version. Many articles have been revised. The Concise Compendium presents a detailed comparative study of the major and many of the lesser known languages of the world. Included are representatives of all language families, with samples of Amerindian, such as Navajo and of African languages, such as Fulani and Nama; languages of politically independent groups in the former USSR, like Uzbek and Belorussian; those of political pressure groups, such as Breton and Catalan and significant community/ethnic languages, including Amharic and Vietnamese. Throughout, the treatment is factual and jargon-free. Articles are ordered alphabetically and each has a standard structure for ease of reference: * general historical and sociolinguistic introduction * writing system * sound system * grammatical system A passage from the Gospel of St. John illustrates each language with a written tradition. These scripts are explained in an appendix at the end of the book. Presents 100 of the world's major languages and representatives of different language groups, politically significant languages and particularly interesting ones.
Against the background of the past half century’s typological and generative work on comparative syntax, this volume brings together 16 papers considering what we have learned and may still be able to learn about the nature and extent of syntactic variation. More specifically, it offers a multi-perspective critique of the Principles and Parameters approach to syntactic variation, evaluating the merits and shortcomings of the pre-Minimalist phase of this enterprise and considering and illustrating the possibilities opened up by recent empirical and theoretical advances. Contributions focus on four central topics: firstly, the question of the locus of variation, whether the attested variation may plausibly be understood in parametric terms and, if so, what form such parameters might take; secondly, the fate of one of the most prominent early parameters, the Null Subject Parameter; thirdly, the matter of parametric clusters more generally; and finally, acquisition issues.
Older Germanic Languages in a Comparative Perspective
Author: Toril Swan,Endre Mørck,Olaf Jansen
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS is a series of books that open new perspectives in our understanding of language. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.
Located at the intersection of phonology, psycholinguistics and phonetics, this volume offers the latest research findings in key areas of prosodic theory, including: •The relationship between intonation and pragmatics in speech production •Sentence modality prosody characterization •The role of pitch in quantity-based sound systems •Consonant-conditioned tone depression phonology across languages •The encoding of intonational contrasts in both intonational and tonal languages Featuring new data and ground-breaking results, the papers draw on empirical approaches that analyze production, perception and comprehension experiments such as the prepared speech paradigm and semantic scaling tasks. These are discussed in a variety of languages, some underrepresented in the literature (such as French and Estonian) while others, such as Shekgalagari, are examined in this way for the first time. This collection of cutting-edge material will be of interest to a broad range of language researchers.
Harry van der Hulst,Typology of Languages in Europe (Project)
Author: Harry van der Hulst,Typology of Languages in Europe (Project)
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Research on language universals and research on linguistic typology are not antagonistic, but rather complementary approaches to the same fundamental problem: the relationship between the amazing diversity of languages and the profound unity of language.
The History of English: A Linguistic Introduction is for anyone interested in the history of the English language. While leading the reader through the pre-history of English, through Germanic times, Old English, Middle English, Early Modern English, and Modern English, the book also introduces the reader to concepts in theoretical and historical linguistics. It includes authentic texts from each period of the language, from Beowulf to the King James Bible. This book is a great introduction to the field of linguistics for anyone interested in language!
Multilingual Aspects of Speech Sound Disorders in Children explores both multilingual and multicultural aspects of children with speech sound disorders. The 30 chapters have been written by 44 authors from 16 different countries about 112 languages and dialects. The book is designed to translate research into clinical practice. It is divided into three sections: (1) Foundations, (2) Multilingual speech acquisition, (3) Speech-language pathology practice. An introductory chapter discusses cross-linguistic and multilingual aspects of speech sound disorders in children. Subsequent chapters address speech sound acquisition, how the disorder manifests in different languages, cultural contexts, and speakers, and addresses diagnosis, assessment and intervention. The research chapters synthesize available research across a wide range of languages. A unique feature of this book are the chapters that translate research into clinical practice. These chapters provide real-life vignettes for specific geographical or linguistic contexts.
Tonal accents in Norwegian: Phonology, morphology and lexical specification breaks from the traditional and contemporary analyses of word accent in North Germanic with the goal of providing a more simplex and unified morphophonological analysis of word accents in North Germanic. It gives the facts of accent distribution in Standard East Norwegian, discusses how three of the more recent and most important analyses of accent assignment in Norwegian and Swedish deal with these facts and provides an alternative analysis. Given that many Accent 1 words are loans, the book also discusses how loanword incorporated in East Norwegian and other North Germanic dialects and the question of why loans predominantly bear Accent 1. Although the focus of the book is word accent assignment in Standard East Norwegian, it also refers to Central Swedish and Old Norse. In this way, it accounts for many aspects of accent assignment, the true nature of which might have gone undetected had only one of the North Germanic language been taken into consideration. The book also dedicates one chapter to the phonetics of the tonal contrast. Addressing the question of how perceptually salient the tonal contrast is.
Understanding Phonology, Fourth Edition provides a clear, accessible and broad introduction to Phonology. Introducing basic concepts, it provides a comprehensive account of phonological issues such as segmental contrasts; syllables and moras; quantity, tone, intonation and stress; feature geometry; and prosodic constituent structure. This new edition has been reorganized and revised with key features including: A brand new eResource at www.routledge.com/9781138961425, which contains a full answer key for all exercises, and audio recordings of illustrative examples; Illustrations in languages from all six continents and all major language families, including Arabic, Mandarin, Finnish, Zulu and Hawaiian; Over 140 exercises to test understanding, including new exercises involving larger data sets; Revised coverage of tone, stress and opacity in OT. Understanding Phonology is essential reading for students coming to this topic for the first time.
Written by some of the top researchers and clinicians in the field, Communication Disorders in Multicultural Populations, 4th Edition offers an in-depth look at the major cultural groups in the U.S. and the issues concerning their communication development, common disorders, and treatment options. This fourth edition features a wealth of updates and new features — including the latest research and added coverage of communication issues in countries such as Australia, China, Canada, and Brazil — to give speech-language pathology students and speech-language pathologists a balanced and global perspective on the most topical multicultural communication issues of today. Comprehensive coverage focuses on a wide variety of cultural and age populations. Cutting-edge research and data offer up-to-date discussions based on the latest studies in multiculturalism as it relates to the SLP and AuD professions. Diverse panel of expert authors include some of the top researchers and clinicians in the field. Additional resources provide a focused listing of print and electronic sources at the end of each chapter to support more in-depth study of a particular subject. Chapter on international perspectives tackles issues in countries such as Australia, Canada, China, and Brazil to give you a more global understanding of communication disorders. The latest statistics from the 2010 U.S. Census report offers the most current data available. Increased content on older adults covers the multicultural issues, voice disorders, and neurogenic disorders particular to this important demographic. Case studies give you practice solving realistic clinical problems. Chapter overview and conclusion outline the key information in each chapter and serve as a checklist for content mastery.
Eva-Maria Krech,Eberhard Stock,Ursula Hirschfeld,Lutz-Christian Anders
Author: Eva-Maria Krech,Eberhard Stock,Ursula Hirschfeld,Lutz-Christian Anders
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Erarbeitet von einer Gruppe renommierter Forscher des traditionsreichen Instituts für Sprechwissenschaft und Phonetik der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, ist das Deutsche Aussprachewörterbuch das neue maßgebliche Referenzwerk zur deutschen Standardaussprache. Es informiert zuverlässig über die deutsche Aussprache und gibt den Standard so wieder, wie er heute von den meisten Deutschsprachigen als hochsprachliche Norm empfunden und verwendet wird. Neben einer ausführlichen Einleitung zur Phonetik und Transkription bietet es ein umfassendes Wörterverzeichnis mit ca. 150.000 Stichwörtern (darunter auch zahlreiche fremde Wörter und Namen) sowie zahlreiche Infokästen, die der Erläuterung von phonetischen Grundregeln und Aussprachebesonderheiten dienen. Die gebundene Ausgabe des Wörterbuchs enthält zudem eine Audio-CD mit gesprochenen Tonbeispielen zur akustischen Verdeutlichung der Regeln, die in der Einleitung behandelt werden. Anders als andere Aussprachewörterbücher basieren die hier präsentierten Angaben zu großen Teilen auf empirisch gewonnenem Datenmaterial; das Werk steht damit in der Nachfolge des halleschen Großen Wörterbuchs der deutschen Aussprache. Die zugrunde liegenden Untersuchungen, die seit Beginn der 1990er Jahre über einen Zeitraum von über zehn Jahren durchgeführt wurden, schlossen unter anderem ausgedehnte soziophonetische Studien ein, darunter eine systematische Befragung von ca. 1.600 Personen mit unterschiedlichem sozialem Hintergrund aus allen Sprachlandschaften Deutschlands zur Akzeptanz bestimmter Ausspracheformen. Die Präsentation bedient sich zeitgenössischer didaktischer Methoden und ermöglicht einen raschen Zugang und gute Verständlichkeit für jeden Benutzer. Damit liegt ein modernes, in allen Fragen der deutschen Standardaussprache maßgebliches und höchsten wissenschaftlichen Ansprüchen genügendes Aussprachewörterbuch vor, das den Siebs ablöst.
Edited by three authorities in the field, this Handbook presents contributions from experts across the world who report the cutting-edge of international research. It is ground-breaking in its holistic, evidence-informed account that aims to synthesize key messages for policy and practice in English, language and literacy teaching. A comprehensive collection, the Handbook focuses on the three key areas of reading, writing, and language, and issues that cut across them. The international emphasis of all the chapters is extended by a final section that looks directly at different countries and continents. The authors address many key issues including: why pupil motivation is so important the evidence for what works in teaching and learning the place of Information Technology in the twenty-first century the status of English and other languages globalisation and political control of education. This definitive guide concludes by discussing the need for better policy cycles that genuinely build on research evidence and teachers’ working knowledge in order to engage young people and transform their life chances. A powerful account that will be of interest to students, researchers and academics involved with education.