The Phonology of Norwegian

Author: Gjert Kristoffersen

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198237650

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 366

View: 5390

A the end of the fourteenth century, Norway, having previously been an independent kingdom, became by conquest a province of Denmark and remained so for three centuries. In1814, as part of the fall-out from the Napoleonic wars, the country became a largely independent nation within the monarchy of Sweden. By this time, however, Danish had become the language of government, commerce, and education, as well as of the middle and upper classes. Nationalistic Norwegians sought to reestablish native identity by creating and promulgating a new language based partly on rural dialects and partly on Old Norse. The upper and middle classes sought to retain a form of Norwegian close to Danish that would be intelligible to themselves and to their neighbours in Sweden and Denmark. The controversy has gone on ever since. One result is that the standard dictionaries of Norwegian ignore pronunciation, for no version can be counted as 'received'. Another is that there has been considerable variety and change in Norwe

The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese

Author: Kristján Árnason

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199229317

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 349

View: 8466

This book presents a comprehensive, contrastive account of the phonological structures and characteristics of Icelandic and Faroese. It is written for Nordic linguists and theoretical phonologists interested in what the languages reveal about phonological structure and phonological change and the relation between morphology, phonology, and phonetics. The book is divided into five parts. In the first Professor Árnason provides the theoretical and historical context of his investigation. Icelandic and Faroese originate from the West-Scandinavian or Norse spoken in Norway, Iceland and part of the Scottish Isles at the end of the Viking Age. The modern spoken languages are barely intelligible to each other and, despite many common phonological characteristics, exhibit differences that raise questions about their historical and structural relation and about phonological change more generally. Separate parts are devoted to synchronic analysis of the sounds of the languages, their phonological oppositions, syllabic structure and phonotactics, lexical morphophonemics, rhythmic structure, intonation and postlexical variation. The book draws on the author's and others' published work and presents the results of original research in Faroese and Icelandic phonology.

The Oxford Handbook of Corpus Phonology

Author: Jacques Durand,Ulrike Gut,Gjert Kristoffersen

Publisher: Oxford Handbooks in Linguistic

ISBN: 0199571937

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 662

View: 6135

This handbook presents the first systematic account of corpus phonology - the employment of corpora, especially purpose-built phonological corpora of spoken language, for studying speakers' and listeners' acquisition and knowledge of the sound system of their native languages and the principles underlying those systems. The field combines methods and theoretical approaches from phonology, both diachronic and synchronic, phonetics, corpus linguistics, speech technology, information technology and computer science, mathematics and statistics. The book is divided into four parts: the first looks at the design, compilation, and use of phonological corpora, while the second looks at specific applications, including examples from French and Norwegian phonology, child phonological development, and second language acquisition. Part 3 looks at the tools and methods used, such as Praat and EXMARaLDA, and the final part examines a number of currently available phonological corpora in various languages, including LANCHART, LeaP, and IViE. It will appeal not only to those working with phonological corpora, but also to researchers and students of phonology and phonetics more generally, as well as to all those interested in language variation, dialectology, first and second language acquisition, and sociolinguistics.

The Phonology of Swedish

Author: Tomas Riad

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199543577

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 338

View: 1086

This book presents a comprehensive account of the phonology of Swedish, describes its history, segmental phonology, lower prosodic phonology, stress and tone, morphology-phonology interactions, higher prosodic phonology, and intonation, Its approach is data-oriented and, insofar as possible, theory-neutral.

The Sounds of the World's Languages

Author: Peter Ladefoged,Ian Maddieson

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631198154

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 450

View: 6998

This book describes all the known ways in which the sounds of the world's languages differ. Encapsulating the work of two leading figures in the field, it will be a standard work of reference for researchers in phonetics, linguistics and speech science for many years to come. The scope of the book is truly global, with data drawn from nearly 400 languages, many of them investigated at first hand by the authors.

The Phonology of German

Author: Richard Wiese

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198299509

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 358

View: 811

Featuring the most complete and up-to-date description of the phonology of German presently available, this book applies recent models of phonological theory, putting particular emphasis on the interaction of morphology and phonology. It focuses on the present-day standard language, but includes discussions of other variants and registers.

The Phonology of Danish

Author: Hans Basbøll

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198242689

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 596

View: 6704

The book is the most comprehensive account of the phonology of Danish ever published in any language. It gives a clear analysis of the sound patterns of modern Danish and examines the relations between its speech sounds and grammar. The author develops new models for the analysis of phonology and morphology-phonology interactions, and shows how these may be applied to Danish and to other languages.Danish has an unusually rich vowel system and exhibits radical reduction processes that make it difficult for foreigners to understand. The sound pattern is equally challenging for the analyst. Professor Basbøll develops a non-circular model for the sonority syllable and applies it to Danish phonotactics. He presents a radically new and insightful analysis of stød, a syllable accent which has a complex grammatical distribution and is unique among the world's languages. Healso describes syllabic and word structures, and stress and intonation.The book is fully referenced and indexed. It will be widely welcomed by phonologists and scholars of Danish, and is likely to become the standard account of Danish phonology.

The Phonology of Portuguese

Author: Maria Helena Mateus,Ernesto d'Andrade

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191590504

Category:

Page: 172

View: 3946

Portuguese emerged from vulgar Latin during the course of the third century. Influential in its development were successive invasions by Germanic peoples, Visigoths, and Moors, the latter of whom were finally evicted in the thirteenth century. As a consequence of the newly-independent kingdoms imperial achievements, Portuguese is the national language of Brazil and the official language of several African countries. Maria Helena Mateus and Ernesto dAndrade present a broad description and comparative analysis of the phonetics and phonology of European and Brazilian Portuguese. They begin by introducing the history of Portuguese and its principal varieties. Chapter 2 describes the phonetic characteristics of consonants, vowels, and glides, and Chapter 3 looks at prosodic structure. Chapters 4 and 5 present the general characteristics of Portuguese nominal and verbal systems, the former considering inflectional and the latter derivational processes. Chapter 6 examines stress, main, secondary, and echo, and Chapter 7 describes phonological processes that are not related to the morphological structure of the word, including the peculiar process of nazalization. The authors deploy current theoretical models to explain the rich variety of Portuguese phonology and interrelated aspects of morphology. This is by far the most comprehensive account of the subject to have appeared in English, and the most up-to-date in any language.

The Routledge Handbook of Phonological Theory

Author: S.J. Hannahs,Anna Bosch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317382129

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 646

View: 520

The Routledge Handbook of Phonological Theory provides a comprehensive overview of the major contemporary approaches to phonology. Phonology is frequently defined as the systematic organisation of the sounds of human language. For some, this includes aspects of both the surface phonetics together with systematic structural properties of the sound system; for others, phonology is seen as distinct from, and autonomous from, phonetics. The Routledge Handbook of Phonological Theory surveys the differing ways in which phonology is viewed, with a focus on current approaches to phonology. Divided into two parts, this handbook: covers major conceptual frameworks within phonology, including: rule-based phonology; Optimality Theory; Government Phonology; Dependency Phonology; and connectionist approaches to generative phonology; explores the central issue of the relationship between phonetics and phonology; features 23 chapters written by leading academics from around the world. The Routledge Handbook of Phonological Theory is an authoritative survey of this key field in linguistics, and is essential reading for students studying phonology.

The Phonetics and Phonology of Geminate Consonants

Author: Haruo Kubozono

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191071102

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 416

View: 9998

This book is the first volume specifically devoted to the phonetics and phonology of geminate consonants, a feature of many of the world's languages including Arabic, Bengali, Finnish, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Malayalam, Persian, Saami, Swiss German, and Turkish. While the contrast between geminate and singleton consonants has been widely studied, the phonetic manifestation and phonological nature of geminate consonants, as well as their cross-linguistic similarities and differences, are not fully understood. The volume brings together original data and novel analyses of geminate consonants in a variety of languages across the world. Experts in the field present a wide range of approaches to the study of phonological contrasts in general by introducing various experimental and non-experimental methodologies; they also discuss phonological contrasts in a wider context and examine the behaviour of geminate consonants in loanword phonology and language acquisition. The volume takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on experimental phonetics, theoretical phonology, speech processing, neurolinguistics, and language acquisition.

The Phonology of Tone and Intonation

Author: Carlos Gussenhoven

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521012003

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 355

View: 4245

Tone and Intonation are two types of pitch variation, which are used by speakers of all languages in order to give shape to utterances. More specifically, tone encodes segments and morphemes, and intonation gives utterances a further discoursal meaning that is independent of the meanings of the words themselves. In this comprehensive survey, Carlos Gussenhoven provides an overview of research into tone and intonation, discussing why speakers vary their pitch, what pitch variations mean, and how they are integrated into our grammars. He also explains why intonation in part appears to be universally understood, while at other times it is language-specific and can lead to misunderstandings. After eight chapters on general topics relating to pitch modulation, the book's central arguments are illustrated with comprehensive phonological descriptions - partly in Optimality Theory - of the tonal and intonational systems of six languages, including Japanese, Dutch, and English.

The Phonology of English as an International Language

Author: Jennifer Jenkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780194421645

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 258

View: 6308

This book advocates a new approach to English pronunciation teaching, in which the goal is mutual intelligibility among non-native speakers, rather than the imitation of native speakers. English pronunciation is considered in an international context, with the emphasis on phonological intelligibility for listeners for whom English is not their first language. The author proposes a new pronunciation syllabus, the Lingua Franca Core, based on findings from empirical research where English pronunciation is examined in its sociolinguistic context.

Compendium of the World's Languages

Author: George L. Campbell,Gareth King

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136258450

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1984

View: 1594

This third edition of Compendium of the World’s Languages has been thoroughly revised to provide up-to-date and accurate descriptions of a wide selection of natural language systems. All cultural and historical notes as well as statistical data have been checked, updated and in many cases expanded. Presenting an even broader range of languages and language families, including new coverage of Australian aboriginal languages and expanded treatment of North American and African languages, this new edition offers a total of 342 entries over nearly 2000 pages. Key features include: Complete rewriting, systematization and regularisation of the phonology sections Provision of IPA symbol grids arranged by articulatory feature and by alphabetic resemblance to facilitate use of the new phonology sections Expansion of morphology descriptions for most major languages Provision of new illustrative text samples Addition of a glossary of technical terms and an expanded bibliography Comparative tables of the numerals 1-10 in a representative range of languages, and also grouped by family Drawing upon a wealth of recent developments and research in language typology and broadened availability of descriptive data, this new incarnation of George Campbell’s astounding Compendium brings a much-loved survey emphatically into the twenty-first century for a new generation of readers. Scholarly, comprehensive and highly accessible, Compendium of the World’s Languages remains the ideal reference for all interested linguists and professionals alike.

The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic

Author: Janet C. E. Watson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191607754

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 336

View: 7740

This book is the first comprehensive account of the phonology and morphology of Arabic. It is a pioneering work of scholarship, based on the author's research in the region. Arabic is a Semitic language spoken by some 250 million people in an area stretching from Morocco in the West to parts of Iran in the East. Apart from its great intrinsic interest, the importance of the language for phonological and morphological theory lies, as the author shows, in its rich root-and-pattern morphology and its large set of guttural consonants. Dr Watson focuses on two eastern dialects, Cairene and San'ani. Cairene is typical of an advanced urban Mediterranean dialect and has a cultural importance throughout the Arab world; it is also the variety learned by most foreign speakers of Arabic. San'ani, spoken in Yemen, is representative of a conservative peninsula dialect. In addition the book makes extensive reference to other dialects as well as to classical and Modern Standard Arabic. The volume opens with an overview of the history and varieties of Arabic, and of the study of phonology within the Arab linguistic tradition. Successive chapters then cover dialectal differences and similarities, and the position of Arabic within Semitic; the phoneme system and the representation of phonological features; the syllable and syllabification; word stress; derivational morphology; inflectional morphology; lexical phonology; and post-lexical phonology. The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic will be of great interest to Arabists and comparative Semiticists, as well as to phonologists, morphologists, and linguists more generally.

A History of the Chinese Language

Author: Hongyuan Dong

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131774389X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 218

View: 4058

A History of the Chinese Language provides a comprehensive introduction to the historical development of the Chinese language from its proto Sino-Tibetan roots in prehistoric times to Modern Standard Chinese. Taking a highly accessible and balanced approach, it presents a chronological survey of the various stages of Chinese language development, covering crucial aspects such as phonology, syntax and semantics. Features include: Coverage of the key historical stages in Chinese language development, such as Old Chinese, Middle Chinese, Early Modern Chinese, Classical Chinese and Modern Standard Chinese Treatment of core linguistic aspects of the Chinese language including phonological changes, grammatical development, lexical evolution, vernacular writing, Chinese characters and Modern Chinese dialects Inclusion of many authentic Chinese legends and texts throughout the book, presented through a rigorous framework of linguistic analysis to help students to build up strong critical and evaluative skills and acquire valuable cultural knowledge Integration of materials from different disciplines, such as archaeology, anthropology, history and sociolinguistics, to highlight the cultural and social background of each period of the language Helpful appendices to aid students with no prior knowledge of linguistics or the Chinese language Companion website at www.routledge.com/cw/dong offering a wealth of supplementary resources such as additional exercises, answer keys and audio recordings of the sounds of Middle and Old Chinese. Written by a highly experienced instructor, A History of the Chinese Language will be an essential resource for beginning students of Chinese Language and Linguistics and for anyone interested in the history and culture of China.

Language

Author: George Melville Bolling,Bernard Bloch

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language and languages

Page: N.A

View: 410

Practical Phonetics and Phonology

A Resource Book for Students

Author: Beverley S. Collins,Inger M. Mees

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136163727

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 330

View: 9917

Routledge English Language Introductions cover core areas of language study and are one-stop resources for students. Assuming no prior knowledge, books in the series offer an accessible overview of the subject, with activities, study questions, sample analyses, commentaries and key readings—all in the same volume. The innovative and flexible ‘two-dimensional’ structure is built around four sections—introduction, development, exploration and extension—which offer self-contained stages for study. Each topic can also be read across these sections, enabling the reader to build gradually on the knowledge gained. Revised and updated throughout, this third edition of Practical Phonetics and Phonology: presents the essentials of the subject and their day-to-day applications in an engaging and accessible manner covers all the core concepts of speech science, such as the phoneme, syllable structure, production of speech, vowel and consonant possibilities, glottal settings, stress, rhythm, intonation and the surprises of connected speech incorporates classic readings from key names in the discipline including David Abercrombie, David Crystal, Dennis Fry, Daniel Jones, Peter Ladefoged, Peter Trudgill and John Wells includes an audio CD containing a collection of samples provided by genuine speakers of 25 accent varieties from Britain, Ireland, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Singapore and West Africa gives outlines of the sound systems of six key languages from around the world contains over a hundred activity exercises, many accompanied by audio material is accompanied by a brand new companion website featuring additional guidance, audio files, keys to activities in the book, further exercises and activities, and extra practice in phonemic transcription New features of this edition include an additional reading on teaching pronunciation, phonetic descriptions of three more languages (Japanese, Polish and Italian), expanded material on spelling/sound relationships, more information on acquiring the pronunciation of a foreign language, additional suggestions for further reading and much new illustrative material. Written by authors who are experienced teachers and researchers, this best-selling textbook will appeal to all students of English language and linguistics and those training for a certificate in TEFL.

The Languages of Scandinavia

Seven Sisters of the North

Author: Ruth H. Sanders

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022649389X

Category: History

Page: 221

View: 7603

Introduction: Dead man talking -- Prologue to history -- Gemini, the twins: Faroese and Icelandic -- East is East: heralding the birth of Danish and Swedish -- The ties that bind: Finnish is visited by Swedish -- The black death comes for Norwegian: Danish makes a house call -- Faroese emerges -- Sámi, language of the far North: encounters with Norwegian, Swedish, and Finnish -- Epilogue: the seven sisters now and in the future

The Languages of Japan and Korea

Author: Nicolas Tranter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415462878

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 516

View: 6528

The Languages of Japan and Korea provides detailed descriptions of the major varieties of languages in the region, both modern and pre-modern, within a common format, producing a long-needed introductory reference source. Korean, Japanese, Ainu, and representative members of the main groupings of the Ryukyuan chain are discussed for the first time in great detail in a single work. The volume is divided into language sketches, the majority of which are broken down into sections on phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax and lexicon. Specific emphasis is placed on aspects of syntactic interest, including speech levels, honorifics and classifiers. Each language variety is represented in Roman-based transcription, although its own script (where there is such orthography) and IPA transcriptions are used sparingly where appropriate. The dialects of both the modern and oldest forms of the languages are given extensive treatment, with a primary focus on the differences from the standard language. These synchronic snapshots are complemented by a discussion of both the genetic and areal relationships between languages in the region. With contributions from a variety of scholars of the highest reputation, The Language of Japan and Korea is a much needed and highly useful tool for professionals and students in linguistics, as well as area studies specialists.