Containing over 500 definitions of political theories, dogmas and phraseologies, this dictionary includes updated entries on the European Community and federalism alongside new definitions of the European Court of Justice and Central Banks, among others. Frequently-used terms in Middle-Eastern politics are explained, from Ayatollah and the Arab-Israeli wars, to fundamentalism and the Gulf War. It also includes sections on ideas that have become familiar terms over recent years, such as perestroika, glasnost, being politically correct, and Thatcherism, as well as issues that have taken on greater political significance - for example, abortion and environmentalism.
The Penguin Dictionary of International Relations provides an authoritative overview of this complex and constantly shifting subject. Ranging from the Arab-Israeli conflict to weapons of mass destruction, this is an indispensable and comprehensive guide to the events, organisations, theories and concepts that are shaping today's global community.
Terms drawn from a host of different topics - the economics of trade and industry, politics and sociology, the environment and land use, planning and management - are used constantly by human geographers. This reference book provides definitions of all such terms (as well as certain historical usages still to be found in important sources) and explains the invaluable mathematical and statistical techniques that have revolutionized all the human sciences.
Featuring hundreds of entries, this authoritative, A-to-Z reference encompasses the full spectrum and history of Western philosophy, covering such topics as logic, metaphysics, ethics, and epistemology, as well as providing incisive profiles of the world's great philosophers, past and present, and their influence. Original.
From Diane Abbott to George Young, via Keynesianism and Thatcherism, this book is a student reference guide to British politics. With over 1000 entries, it covers the personalities, policies and institutions that have shaped British politics.
Offers full coverage of the chief personalities, events, wars, and politics of the period, featuring the internal histories of Africa, China, and other empires, and examines colonialism and the social developments of the time.
Although the distinction between the politics of the left and the right is commonly assumed in the media and in treatments of political science and history, the terms are used so loosely that the student and the general reader are often confused: What exactly are the terms left and right supposed to imply? This two-volume Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right contains over 450 articles on individuals, movements, political parties, and ideological principles, with those usually thought of as left in the left-hand volume (Volume 1), and those considered on the right in the right-hand volume (Volume 2).
A handy guide to every religion practised in India In India, the birthplace of some of the world’s major faiths and home to many more, religion is a way of life, existing as much in temples, mosques, churches and wayside shrines as it does in social laws, cultural practices and the political arena. The Religions of India contains, in a single volume, a comprehensive account of every major faith practised in the country today—Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and the Bahai faith. This meticulously researched work traverses a vast range of topics—from Somnatha Temple and Babri Masjid to Tirthankaras and the Akali Movement; from the Shariat and the Eucharist to Shabuoth and nirvana. It places each religion in its historical context, tracing its evolution from its inception to the present. • Incisive profiles of founders and key patrons, deities, saints, mystics and philosophers • Information on and insights into lesser-known and regional forms of worship, as well as important festivals, customs and rituals • Extensively cross-referenced with suggestions for further reading
Das Buch versucht, den Anforderungen der neuen Studienlandschaft gerecht zu werden und verbindet die Knappheit der Darstellung mit dem Anspruch, zur eigenständigen Analysefähigkeit internationaler Politik hinzuführen. Diese Fähigkeit ist mit "studieren" gemeint, und der Text legt dafür in 15 knappen Kapiteln die Grundlage. Sie führen, in didaktisch innovativer Form fiktiver Streitgespräche, ein in die Forschungsprogramme der Internationalen Politik und verdeutlichen deren Ertrag in Anwendung auf unterschiedliche Sachbereiche internationaler Politik (Sicherheitspolitik, Handels- und Umweltpolitik, Menschenrechtsschutz). Daneben wird exemplarisch (USA, D) in die Außenpolitik-Analyse eingeführt. Fragen der Konfliktbewältigung (Nord-Süd-Konflikt, Konfliktregion Naher Osten) und der Institutionalisierung internationaler Politik (internationale Organisationen und Regime) werden durchgehend behandelt.
Ronald H. Fritze,Brian E. Coutts,Louis Andrew Vyhnanek
Author: Ronald H. Fritze,Brian E. Coutts,Louis Andrew Vyhnanek
Fully annotated and completely updated—the most comprehensive guide to reference books in the field of history. * This guide includes 900+ complete entries for reference works and provides complete bibliographic information for over 400 other works * Descriptive annotations provide guidance to quality reference materials and offer a useful and time-saving alternative to research using the Internet * Topical chapters and detailed index help readers locate the materials they need for research and allow for effective searches of more obscure topics * The guide includes materials of interest for undergraduates, graduate students, academic researchers, and educated general readers
The Penguin Dictionary of American English Usage and Style
Author: Penguin Books, Ltd
Aim; Form The volume in your hands is meant to be both useful and enjoyable, a readable dictionary for all who are interested in our language. In A-to-Z form, it is mainly a guide to good usage of English, the American variety, contrasted with some 2,000 quoted examples of misusage and questionable usage. It does the job of “illuminating many traps and pitfalls in English usage” (as my editor puts it). I have sought to provide clear explanations in plain language. This book is designed for general readers as well as those who work with words. The examples were drawn from the popular press, broadcasting, books, and a variety of other sources, mostly in the latter eighties and the nineties. Each entry devoted to a specific word or phrase contains one or more of those quotations. The troublesome forms are contrasted with the proper forms (which are emphasized by italics) and definitions are given. Entries on general topics are presented too; they deal with matters of grammar, punctuation, style, and so on. A list of them, with further description of the two types of entry, appears under “General Topics,” following this introduction. With few exceptions, the examples have determined the choices of word entries. Thus the book in part amounts to an informal survey of contemporary problems in English usage. Both perennial problems and new ones come up. Of the misuses discouraged by earlier books on English usage, some persist; others have not turned up, but, as though to take their place, new offenses against the language have emerged. Here are some hints for finding your way around the volume: • Main entries, headed in boldface, are arranged alphabetically, letter by letter. • Many entries are divided into sections, which are numbered and titled. The sections of an entry are arranged alphabetically, and their titles are listed at the beginning, after the main title. Some sections contain subsections, distinguished by letters and titles. • There are numerous crossreferences, some standing alone and others within entries. For instance, in the C’s under Comma it says See Punctuation, 3, referring the reader to the entry. Many entries refer to related entries. Alphabetical order is used in listing any series of crossreferences and various other series. last entry vii introduction Watching Our Words Viewpoint This work could be viewed as an antidote to laissez-faire lexicography and anything-goes grammar. The doctrine that whatever emerges from people’s lips is the language and that many verbal wrongs make a right is not advocated here. Nor is the cliché of English as “a living language” dragged in to justify bad English. On the contrary, I do not hesitate to distinguish between right and wrong usage when the difference is clear. My inclination is to question deviant forms, challenge innovations to prove themselves, and resist senseless fads. (See also the final section of this introduction.) I thereby risk being labeled a “purist” by some critics—as though impurity were desirable. Perhaps in a long-range, philosophical sense there is no verbal right and wrong. But that view does not help you and me in choosing our words and putting together our sentences clearly and properly according to the educated norms of society. Those holding the permissive views follow most of the norms themselves. They do not say or write, “Them guys hasn’t came,” or “I ain’t did nothin nohow,” although some people are apt to do so. For the most part, the laws of grammar have not been repealed. Not that one should be pedantic either. The book does not flatly condemn split infinitives, prepositions at the end of sentences, conjunctions at the beginning, sentence fragments, or phrases like “It’s me.” But it does value precision over fashion, logic over illogic, and grammatical correctness over “political correctness.” (In my view, those who mutilate our language for political motives do wrong.) At times the difference between correct and incorrect usage is hazy. English has an abundance of words,* more than any other language, and multiple ways to express almost any idea. Our language is so complex that nobody ever learns it all and that even its leading authorities occasionally stumble. They disagree and one finds fault with another. Their differences concern both specific points and standards of strictness or looseness in the use of words and grammar. Some loose uses of words or phrases and some slang that may pass harmlessly in informal conversation are inappropriate when transferred to serious writing or even serious speech. This book will help the reader to make sound choices. Examples Samples of sentences that clearly fall into the wrong category follow. The first few are (alternately) by professionals of broadcasting and journalism. A correction follows each quotation. (Each comes up in the main text.) “There were roofs completely tore up.” Torn up. “I like to serve it with croutons . . . that is flavored with olive oil.” Are flavored. “Police said ——— and ——— built the bombs theirselves.” Themselves. “It would be more racism showing it’s ugly head again.” Its. “There is a way to empower your viii introduction *The Oxford English Dictionary, seeking to record all English words, says it covers more than 500,000 words and phrases in its twenty volumes. The Guinness Book of World Records places the count at more than 600,000 words plus 400,000 technical terms, a total exceeding a million. It numbers the Shakespearean vocabulary at 33,000 words and expresses doubt that any person uses more than 60,000. children and make them far more better . . . students.” Delete “more.” “Women have smaller brains then men.” Than. “The . . . campaign has got to break into the double digits to be respectful.” Respectable. (Headline:) “Be Happy She Prys.” Pries. Additional slip-ups, by people in other fields, include these: (Advertising:) “I always wanted to loose weight.” Lose. (Book publishing:) “Allow someone else to proofread [edit?] it . . . who will not be affraid to be biased in their opinion.” Afraid to be unbiased in his opinion. (Diplomacy:) “It is quite clear that the crisis has reached a critical point.” Better: the dispute or the situation. (Education:) “Me and my kids live in a dormitory.” I and. (Law:) “No one is free to flaunt the tax laws.” Flout. (Medicine:) “We’re obligated to do that biopsy irregardless of the physical findings.” Regardless. (Psychology:) “Their child don’t look so good.” Doesn’t look. The book debunks some widespread misbeliefs. If we do not fully understand the meanings of certain words or if we accept some clichés on their faces, we may believe that fury rages in the “eye” of a storm; a “fraction” is a small part; the character “Frankenstein” was a monster; to “impeach” an official is to oust him from office; a jury can find a defendant “innocent”; pencils contain the metal “lead”; a “misdemeanor” is not a crime; prostitution is the “oldest profession”; an exception “proves” a rule; the Constitution guarantees “the pursuit of happiness”; and so on. The criticism of any extract does not negate the overall merit of the work that is quoted.* Clarity Clarity is a leading theme of this book. More than 100 entries deal with the problem of ambiguity (noun): the state of being ambiguous (adjective), able to be interpreted in two or more different ways. Consider this sentence: “When P—— was hired by H——, he had a criminal record.” Which one is “he”? (That example is from Pronouns, 1. Consult also the cross-reference Ambiguity and the next section of this introduction, Wounded Words. General examples of fuzzy prose appear in Verbosity and other entries.) Clear expression requires clear thinkintroduction ix *Of 2,000-odd examples of misusage or questionable usage, almost half originated with newspapers, news agencies, or magazines; about a fifth each with broadcasters and books; and a tenth with people in many other fields or miscellaneous sources, described in the text. A few appeared in other reference works. The single most frequent source of examples was The New York Times (usually the national edition), which occasionally is quoted here approvingly too. Newspapers distributed in the San Francisco Bay area and TV and radio broadcasts heard there were significant sources. Dozens of other newspapers, from most regions of the country, yielded examples too. So did 120 books, mostly nonfiction. Some correct or incorrect examples, not counted above, were composed where fitting. The sources of the quotations are not usually identified by name. Space did not permit the publication of a list of such sources (although it had been contemplated). But a variety of reference works consulted as sources of information are listed in the back of the book. ing. It helps also to be versed in the distinctions among words and in the elements of grammar, including tense, number, mood, parts of speech, sentence structure, and punctuation. Even so, clarity may not survive hastiness, inability to express ideas simply, intentional hedging, lack of facts, language that is too pompous or too slangy, obscurity of ideas or terms, overloading of sentences, overlooking of double meanings, stinginess in using words or punctuation, too little thought, or too much abstraction and generality without concrete examples. Then, too, muddiness and confusion can overcome our best efforts. Writers on the English language often compare it with other languages and glory in its complexity, variety, and subtlety. Yet the language is so complex, with varieties of expression so vast, subtleties so fine, and such a proliferation of word meanings, that it can trap any of us at some time or other. Unqualified praise helps no one. Let us be aware of the difficulties and try to overcome them. Greater efforts to write and speak clearly, accurately, and sensibly would mean more understanding, something that society needs. Wounded Words One of the problems is that English is being deprived of the benefit of many distinctive words as looser meanings develop. The addition of the new meanings renders some of the words ambiguous. I call them wounded words. Examples of those words and their strict meanings follow; loose meanings are in parentheses. Which meaning a writer or speaker has intended is not always plain from the context. A fabulous story is one that is characteristic of a fable (or a good story). An impact is a violent contact (or an effect). A legendary figure is mythical (or famous). One who is masterful is dictatorial (or skillful). To scan a document is to examine it carefully and systematically (or quickly and superficially). If a scene is a shambles, it shows evidence of bloodshed (or disorder). If an incident transpired this year, this year is when it became known (or happened). When an ultimatum is given, a threat of war is issued (or a demand is made). That which is viable is able to live (or feasible).* Many loose or questionable uses are widespread. Does that mean we have to follow suit? Of course not. Save the Language New words continually appear. Those that fill needs are generally desirable. What ought to be questioned or resisted are the watering-down of distinctive words that we already have, the creation of ambiguity and fuzziness, the breakdown of grace and grammar, and irrational verbal fads. Change characterizes the history of English; but whereas innovations in the main language used to be tested slowly by time, and street slang usually stayed there, they are now both thrust upon the public almost instantly by the media of mass communication. x introduction *Among words in similar condition are these: accost, alibi, anticipate, bemuse, brandish, brutalize, burgeon, careen, classic, cohort, compendium, connive, cool, culminate, decimate, desecrate, destiny, dilemma, disaster, effete, eke, endemic, enormity, erstwhile, exotic, fantastic, formidable, fortuitous, fraction, gay, idyllic, incredible, increment, internecine, jurist, literal, livid, marginal, mean (noun), minimize, neat, obscene, outrageous, paranoid, pristine, quite, sure, travesty, unique, utilize, verbal, virtual, vital, weird, wherefore, willy-nilly. The words emphasized in this section have separate entries. Our language is an invaluable resource, as much a part of our heritage as forests, wildlife, and waters. Yet where are movements for verbal conservation? Who campaigns to save endangered words? When do we ever see demonstrations against linguistic pollution? To support the cause of good English, you and I need not join a group, attend rallies, or give money. We can contribute every day by knowing the language, shunning the fads, and watching our words. P.W.L. San Francisco
Islam today is a truly global faith, yet it remains somewhat of an enigma to many of us. Each and every day our newspapers are saturated with references to Islam; Quran, Taliban, Hijab, Fatwa, Allah, Sunni, Jihad, Shia, the list goes on. But how much do we really understand? Are we, in fact, misunderstanding? The Penguin Dictionary of Islam provides complete, impartial answers. It includes extensive coverage of the historical formations of the worldwide Muslim community and highlights key modern Muslim figures and events. Understanding Islam is vital to understanding our world and this text is the definitive authority, designed for both general and academic readers.
This dictionary covers the period 1789-1945. A revised edition, it includes new entries and the text has been brought up-to-date to reflect information current at the time of publication. It includes the non-European world, social, economic and ideological developments, and political events.
Die globalen Veränderungen der letzten Jahrzehnte und das Ende des Kalten Krieges werfen ein neues Licht auf Hannah Arendts Schrift »Über die Revolution«. Arendt analysiert in dieser brillanten Studie eines der erstaunlichsten Phänomene des 20. Jahrhunderts: Ausgehend von der amerikanischen und der Französischen Revolution, untersucht sie die Ablösung des Krieges als Mittel der gewaltsamen Veränderung durch die Revolution.
This dictionary investigates the wide range of cliches throughout the history of the English language. With over 1500 sourced cliches listed, both ancient an modern, this work looks at the more informal side of the English language.