PMH Bell's famous book is a comprehensive study of the period and debates surrounding the European origins of the Second World War. He approaches the subject from three different angles: describing the various explanations that have been offered for the war and the historiographical debates that have arisen from them, analysing the ideological, economic and strategic forces at work in Europe during the 1930s, and tracing the course of events from peace in 1932, via the initial outbreak of hostilities in 1939, through to the climactic German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 which marked the descent into general conflict. Written in a lucid, accessible style, this is an indispensable guide to the complex origins of the Second World War.
Hailed on publication as a thought-provoking, authoritative analysis of the true beginnings of the Second World War, this revised edition of The Road to War is essential reading for anyone interested in this momentous period of history. Taking each major nation in turn, the book tells the story of their road to war; recapturing the concerns, anxieties and prejudices of the statesmen of the thirties.
Professor Iriye analyses the origins of the 1941 conflict against the background of international relations in the preceding decade in order to answer the key question: Why did Japan decide to go to war against so formidable a combination of powers?
A new edition of this brilliantly written survey of the changing ways that war has been waged in Europe, from the Norse invasions to the present day, Michael Howard illuminates the way in which warfare has shaped the history of the Continent, its effect on social and political institutions, and the ways in which technological and social change have in turn shaped the way in which wars are fought. This new edition includes a fully updated further reading and a newchapter bringing the story into the twenty-first century, including the invasion of Iraq and the so-called 'War against Terror'.
One of the most popular and controversial historians of the twentieth century, who made his subject accessible to millions, A.J.P. Taylor caused a storm of outrage with this scandalous bestseller. Debunking what were accepted truths about the Second World War, he argued provocatively that Hitler did not set out to cause the war as part of an evil master plan, but blundered into it partly by accident, aided by the shortcomings of others. Fiercely attacked for vindicating Hitler, A.J.P. Taylor’s stringent re-examination of the events preceding the Nazi invasion of Poland on 1st September 1939 opened up new debate, and is now recognized as a brilliant and classic piece of scholarly research. ‘Highly original and penetrating ... No one who has digested this enthralling work will ever be able to look at the period again in quite the same way’ Sunday Telegraph.
David Kaiser looks at four hundred years of modern European history to find the political causes of general war in four distinct periods (1559âe"1659, 1661âe"1713, 1792âe"1815, and 1914âe"1945). He shows how war became a natural function of politics, a logical consequence of contemporary political behavior. Rather than fighting simply to expand, states in each war fought for specific political and economic reasons. The book illustrates the extraordinary power of politics and war in modern Western civilization, if not in history as a whole. In a provocative and original new preface and chapter, Kaiser shows which aspects of four past areas of conflict do, and do not, seem relevant to the immediate future, and he sketches out some new possibilities for Europe.
Antony Best,Jussi Hanhimaki,Joseph A. Maiolo,Kirsten E. Schulze,Jussi M. Hanhimäki
Author: Antony Best,Jussi Hanhimaki,Joseph A. Maiolo,Kirsten E. Schulze,Jussi M. Hanhimäki
This major new global history of the twentieth century is written by four prominent international historians for first-year undergraduate level and upward. Using their thematic and regional expertise, the authors have produced an authoritative yet accessible account of the history of international relations in the last century, covering events in Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the Americas. They focus on the history of relations between states and on the broad ideological, economic and cultural forces that have influenced the evolution of international politics over the past one hundred years. Among the areas this book covers are: the decline of European hegemony over the international order the diffusion of power to the two superpowers the rise of newly independent states in Asia and Africa the course and consequences of the three major global conflicts of the twentieth century: the Great War, the Second World War and the Cold War. This is an absolutely essential book in the study of twentieth century history. Students will find themselves lacking without it.
The second edition of this leading introduction to the origins of the First World War. Updated to take account of the latest debates around the war's origins and outbreak, this is an essential classroom text which significantly revises our understanding of diplomacy, political culture, and economic history from 1870 to 1914.
In the course of the twentieth century, no war looms as profoundly transformative or as destructive as World War II. Its global scope and human toll reveal the true face of modern, industrialized warfare. Now, for the first time, we have a comprehensive, single-volume account of how and why this global conflict evolved as it did. "A War To Be Won" is a unique and powerful operational history of the Second World War that tells the full story of battle on land, on sea, and in the air. Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett analyze the operations and tactics that defined the conduct of the war in both the European and Pacific Theaters. Moving between the war room and the battlefield, we see how strategies were crafted and revised, and how the multitudes of combat troops struggled to discharge their orders. The authors present incisive portraits of the military leaders, on both sides of the struggle, demonstrating the ambiguities they faced, the opportunities they took, and those they missed. Throughout, we see the relationship between the actual operations of the war and their political and moral implications. "A War To Be Won" is the culmination of decades of research by two of America's premier military historians. It avoids a celebratory view of the war but preserves a profound respect for the problems the Allies faced and overcame as well as a realistic assessment of the Axis accomplishments and failures. It is the essential military history of World War II--from the Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to the surrender of Japan in 1945--for students, scholars, and general readers alike.
The Second World War is a compact but comprehensive and absorbing history of the war. It examines the causes of the war, how it was won and lost, and its far-reaching consequences for humanity. In tracing the key events of both the European and the Far Eastern wars, R. A. C. Parker outlines clearly the strategies of the participants, the economies and societies that underlay them, and the strengths and weaknesses of their fighting forces. He describes the decisive battles andanalyses the reasons for their outcome, paying close attention to special features of the war: mobile warfare, forced migration, the Holocaust, strategic and nuclear bombing. Unlike many other histories of the war this book places British and European involvement squarely in an international perspective,and the author never shies away from raising fundamental questions.
Author: M. B. B. Biskupski,James S. Pula,Piotr J. Wróbel
Publisher: Ohio University Press
The Origins of Modern Polish Democracy is a series of closely integrated essays that traces the idea of democracy in Polish thought and practice. It begins with the transformative events of the mid-nineteenth century, which witnessed revolutionary developments in the socioeconomic and demographic structure of Poland, and continues through changes that marked the postcommunist era of free Poland. The idea of democracy survived in Poland through long periods of foreign occupation, the trials of two world wars, and years of Communist subjugation. Whether in Poland itself or among exiles, Polish speculation about the creation of a liberal-democratic Poland has been central to modern Polish political thought. This volume is unique in that is traces the evolution of the idea of democracy, both during the periods when Poland was an independent country—1918-1939—and during the periods of foreign occupation before 1918 through World War II and the Communist era. For those periods when Poland was not free, the volume discusses how the idea of democracy evolved among exile and underground Polish circles. This important work is the only single-volume English-language history of modern Polish democratic thought and parliamentary systems and represents the latest scholarly research by leading specialists from Europe and North America.
Were war veterans a key factor in the emergence and expansion of fascism movements and regimes in interwar Europe? Transcending the long-standing controversies around the notion of 'brutalisation', this book applies a transnational perspective to offer a new and suggestive interpretation of the relationship between war veterans and fascism. Drawing on a wide range of sources written in five different languages, Alcalde analyses the creation and transnational circulation of the 'myth of the fascist veterans', first promoted by Benito Mussolini and the Italian fascist movement, and later embraced by the Stahlhelm, the Nazis, the Faisceau and the Falange among other groups across the European continent. Spanning historical events from Fascist Italy to Francoist Spain, War Veterans and Fascism in Interwar Europe is an illuminating social, cultural and international history of war veterans between the years of the Great War to the beginning of the Second World War.
One of the most important questions of human existence is what drives nations to war-especially massive, system-threatening war. Much military history focuses on the who, when, and where of war. In this riveting book, Dale C. Copeland brings attention to bear on why governments make decisions that lead to, sustain, and intensify conflicts. Copeland presents detailed historical narratives of several twentieth-century cases, including World War I, World War II, and the Cold War. He highlights instigating factors that transcend individual personalities, styles of government, geography, and historical context to reveal remarkable consistency across several major wars usually considered dissimilar. The result is a series of challenges to established interpretive positions and provocative new readings of the causes of conflict. Classical realists and neorealists claim that dominant powers initiate war. Hegemonic stability realists believe that wars are most often started by rising states. Copeland offers an approach stronger in explanatory power and predictive capacity than these three brands of realism: he examines not only the power resources but the shifting power differentials of states. He specifies more precisely the conditions under which state decline leads to conflict, drawing empirical support from the critical cases of the twentieth century as well as major wars spanning from ancient Greece to the Napoleonic Wars.
Europa am Abgrund Das europäische zwanzigste Jahrhundert war geprägt von kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen. Europa erlebte gewaltige Turbulenzen, die Hölle zweier Weltkriege in der ersten Jahrhunderthälfte und tiefgreifende Veränderungen. Der britische Historiker Ian Kershaw erzählt in einem meisterhaften Panorama die Geschichte dieses Kontinents vom Vorabend des Ersten Weltkriegs bis in die Zeit des beginnenden Kalten Kriegs Ende der vierziger Jahre, nachdem die europäische Zivilisation an den Rand der Selbstzerstörung gelangt war. Ethnische Auseinandersetzungen, aggressiver Nationalismus und Gebietsstreitigkeiten, Klassenkonflikte und die tiefe Krise des Kapitalismus waren die treibenden Kräfte, die Kershaw dabei besonders in den Blick nimmt. Neben den großen Entwicklungslinien in Politik, Wirtschaft, Kultur und Gesellschaft schildert er auch immer wieder Erlebnisse und Erfahrungen einzelner, die einen Eindruck geben vom Leben im Europa der ersten Jahrhunderthälfte.
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
The Greek Civil War (1943-50) has had less attention than it deserves from historians. A major conflict in its own right, it developed out of the rivalry between communist and conservative partisans for control of Greece as the Axis forces retreated at the end of the Second World War. Spanning the transition from World War to Cold War, it offers a case-study of the tensions played out across the ethnic and cultural faultlines of Europe at that time - and how the major powers used them for their own ends. In this striking and original study, David Close does justice both to the domestic context of the conflict and also to its international significance. His emphasis, however, is on the former, since to most readers the political history of Greece in the period will be unfamiliar territory. His purpose is to explore the issues which were at stake; to explain why deep-rooted tensions erupted in violence; and to understand why the conflict involved so large a proportion of the population across so much of Greece. He begins with an analysis of Greece after the First World War, showing why the country was so vulnerable to the devastating economic and ideological forces which swept through Europe in the earlier part of the century. He shows how foreign powers manipulated the warring factions in Greece for their own purposes - but he also emphasises how far the Greek factions professed ideologies, and pursued strategies, that were their own, and not imported from abroad. He traces the long descent into bloodshed; and the book ends with a concise account of the conflict itself, and its eventual outcome.