The Pre-Columbian Maya were organized into a series of independent kingdoms or polities rather than unified into a single state. The vast majority of studies of Maya states focus on the apogee of their development in the classic period, ca. 250-850 C.E. As a result, Maya states are defined according to the specific political structures that characterized classic period lowland Maya society. The Origins of Maya States is the first study in over 30 years to examine the origins and development of these states specifically during the preceding preclassic period, ca. 1000 B.C.E. to 250 C.E. Attempts to understand the origins of Maya states cannot escape the limitations of archaeological data, and this is complicated by both the variability of Maya states in time and space and the interplay between internal development and external impacts. To mitigate these factors, editors Loa P. Traxler and Robert J. Sharer assemble a collection of essays that combines an examination of topical issues with regional perspectives from both the Maya area and neighboring Mesoamerican regions to highlight the role of interregional interaction in the evolution of Maya states. Topics covered include material signatures for the development of Maya states, evaluations of extant models for the emergence of Maya states, and advancement of new models based on recent archaeological data. Contributors address the development of complexity during the preclassic era within the Maya regions of the Pacific coast, highlands, and lowlands and explore preclassic economic, social, political, and ideological systems that provide a developmental context for the origins of Maya states. Contributors: Marcello A. Canuto, John E. Clark, Ann Cyphers, Francisco Estrada-Belli, David C. Grove, Norman Hammond, Richard D. Hansen, Eleanor King, Michael Love, Simon Martin, Astrid Runggaldier, Robert Sharer, Loa Traxler.
Papers from the 1987 Maya Weekend conference at the University of Pennsylvania Museum present current views of Maya culture and language. Also included is an article by George Stuart summarizing the history of the study of Maya hieroglyphs and the fascinating scholars and laypersons who have helped bring about their decipherment. Symposium Series III University Museum Monograph, 77
"The Ancient Maya Marketplace, edited by Eleanor M. King, reviews the debate on prehispanic Maya markets. The volume's contributors challenge the model of a non-commercialized Maya economy and offer compelling new evidence for the existence and identification of ancient marketplaces among the Maya"--Provided by publisher.
This monograph reports the results of the Quiriguá Project Site Periphery Program, five seasons (1975-1979) of archaeological survey and excavation in the 96 km2 immediately adjoining the classic Maya site of Quiriguá. Ashmore identifies and helps us understand where and how the people of Quiriguá lived. She presents detailed material evidence in two data catalogues, for the floodplain settlement adjoining Quiriguá and for sites in the wider periphery. The work situates Quiriguá settlement firmly in a regional context, benefiting from the extraordinary abundance of information amassed in southeastern Mesoamerica since 1979. It sheds new light on the political, economic, and social dynamics of the region including the sometimes-fractious interactions between Quiriguá, its overlords at Copan, and people elsewhere in the Lower Motagua Valley and beyond. Content on this book's CD-ROM may be found online at this location: http://core.tdar.org/project/376582. Quiriguá Reports, IV
Gender was a fluid potential, not a fixed category, before the Spaniards came to Mesoamerica. Childhood training and ritual shaped, but did not set, adult gender, which could encompass third genders and alternative sexualities as well as "male" and "female." At the height of the Classic period, Maya rulers presented themselves as embodying the entire range of gender possibilities, from male through female, by wearing blended costumes and playing male and female roles in state ceremonies. This landmark book offers the first comprehensive description and analysis of gender and power relations in prehispanic Mesoamerica from the Formative Period Olmec world (ca. 1500-500 BC) through the Postclassic Maya and Aztec societies of the sixteenth century AD. Using approaches from contemporary gender theory, Rosemary Joyce explores how Mesoamericans created human images to represent idealized notions of what it meant to be male and female and to depict proper gender roles. She then juxtaposes these images with archaeological evidence from burials, house sites, and body ornaments, which reveals that real gender roles were more fluid and variable than the stereotyped images suggest.
Now shrouded in Guatemalan jungle, the ancient Maya city of Piedras Negras flourished between the sixth and ninth centuries, when its rulers erected monumental limestone sculptures carved with hieroglyphic texts and images of themselves and family members, advisers, and captives. In Engaging Ancient Maya Sculpture at Piedras Negras, Guatemala, Megan E. O’Neil offers new ways to understand these stelae, altars, and panels by exploring how ancient Maya people interacted with them. These monuments, considered sacred, were one of the community’s important forms of cultural and religious expression. Stelae may have held the essence of rulers they commemorated, and the objects remained loci for reverence of those rulers after they died. Using a variety of evidence,O’Neil examines how the forms, compositions, and contexts of the sculptures invited people to engage with them and the figures they embodied looks at these monuments not as inert bearers of images but as palpable presences that existed in real space at specific historical moments. Her analysis brings to the fore the material and affective force of these powerful objects that were seen, touched, and manipulated in the past. O’Neil investigates the monuments not only at the moment of their creation but also in later years and shows how they changed over time. She argues that the relationships among sculptures of different generations were performed in processions, through which ancient Maya people integrated historical dialogues and ancestral commemoration into the landscape. With the help of more than 160 illustrations, O’Neil reveals these sculptures’ continuing life histories, which in the past century have included their fragmentation and transformation into commodities sold on the international art market. Shedding light on modern-day transposition and display of these ancient monuments, O’Neil’s study contributes to ongoing discussions of cultural patrimony.
Virginia M. Fields,Dorie Reents-Budet,Ricardo Agurcia Fasquelle
Author: Virginia M. Fields,Dorie Reents-Budet,Ricardo Agurcia Fasquelle
Publisher: Scala Books
Published to accompany a traveling exhibition organized by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, this book breaks new ground by documenting the development and exploring the manifestations of royal authority among the ancient Maya as well as their descendants, as revealed by the religious beliefs and ceremonies of the Maya today. Drawing on the most current archaeological, epigraphic, and art historical research of an impressive roster of Maya scholars, Lords of Creation addresses specific aspects of the central historical issues and seminal artworks that exemplify the primary characteristic of Maya divine kingship, the capacity of rulers to intercede between gods and men.
Although Quiriguá and its magnificent carved monuments have been recorded and studied by scholars over the past century, little archaeological data were available until recently. From 1973 through 1979, the University Museum sponsored investigations at this major lowland Maya site in eastern Guatemala. The aims of the work were to document a basic chronology, to determine the nature and pattern of structures, and to test hypotheses concerning the origins, location, and demise of Quiriguá. University Museum Monograph, 49
Author: University of Pennsylvania. Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology,John M. Weeks,Andree Suplee
Publisher: UPenn Museum of Archaeology
Category: Biography & Autobiography
"Rare archival illustrations show contemporary (1870-1900) photographs of the University of Pennsylvania Museum library and portraits of individual authors represented in the Brinton Library."--BOOK JACKET.
Illustrates new methodological directions in analyzing human social and biological variation Offers a wide array of research on past populations around the globe Explains the central features of bioarchaeological research by key researchers and established experts around the world
William A. Haviland,Harald E. L. Prins,Bunny McBride,Dana Walrath
Author: William A. Haviland,Harald E. L. Prins,Bunny McBride,Dana Walrath
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Category: Social Science
Offering compelling photos, engaging examples, and select studies by anthropologists in a variety of locations around the globe, this streamlined, market-leading text presents cultural anthropology in vivid, accessible terms showing students how the field is relevant to understanding the complex world around them. The authors present the fundamental concepts from a holistic perspective using three unifying themes to frame the text: 1) the varied ways humans face the challenges of existence, 2) the connections between culture and biology in shaping human beliefs and behavior, and 3) the impact of globalization on peoples and cultures around the world. They also integrate coverage of race, class, gender, and ethnicity throughout the text, and in this edition, they have expanded the popular Globalscape feature to get students thinking about the consequences of globalization and (sometimes) their own behavior. Furthermore, the text's strong supplements program provides instructors and students with a wealth of resources designed to enhance the teaching and learning experience. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Situated on the banks of the Usumacinta River in northwestern Guatemala, Piedras Negras is an important Maya site known for its carved monuments and panels. Between 1931 and 1938 the University Museum conducted research at Piedras Negras, excavating the site core, producing an excellent site map, and documenting architectural developments to an unprecedented standard. Project member Tatiana Proskouriakoff revolutionized Maya historiography with her architectural reconstructions and visionary synthesis of the position and dating of texts and monuments at the site. Innovative excavation methods included test pitting, probing in more modest structures, and the identification of new building types such as sweat baths. More importantly, the Piedras Negras project developed the logistical and methodological criteria that are now standard in the field. Fewer than a dozen copies of the preliminary papers were issued between 1933 and 1936; the later descriptive and interpretive essays of the architecture series have likewise become rare. Piedras Negras Archaeology, 1931-1939 reintroduces to the scholarly community and public these pioneering works, meticulously scanned and edited from the fragile originals, with all the maps, tables, line art, and photographs from the initial reports, and an interpretive essay and index for modern readers. University Museum Monograph, 122