The Origins of Genome Architecture

Author: Michael Lynch

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 494

View: 885

The availability of genomic blueprints for hundreds of species has led to a transformation in biology, encouraging the proliferation of adaptive arguments for the evolution of genomic features, yet often sacrificing simpler, more compelling explanations. This textbook explains why the details matter and presents an explanatory framework for how the architectural diversity of eukarotic genomes and genes came to arise. Presented in non-technical fashion, it is compatible for use in an advanced Genetics course and as a professional reference.

The Origins of Genome Architecture

Author: Michael Lynch

Publisher: Sinauer Associates Incorporated

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 494

View: 746

The availability of genomic blueprints for hundreds of species has led to a transformation in biology, encouraging the proliferation of adaptive arguments for the evolution of genomic features, yet often sacrificing simpler, more compelling explanations. This textbook explains why the details matter and presents an explanatory framework for how the architectural diversity of eukarotic genomes and genes came to arise. Presented in non-technical fashion, it is compatible for use in an advanced Genetics course and as a professional reference.

The Vital Question: Energy, Evolution, and the Origins of Complex Life

Author: Nick Lane

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 420

“One of the deepest, most illuminating books about the history of life to have been published in recent years.” —The Economist The Earth teems with life: in its oceans, forests, skies and cities. Yet there’s a black hole at the heart of biology. We do not know why complex life is the way it is, or, for that matter, how life first began. In The Vital Question, award-winning author and biochemist Nick Lane radically reframes evolutionary history, putting forward a solution to conundrums that have puzzled generations of scientists. For two and a half billion years, from the very origins of life, single-celled organisms such as bacteria evolved without changing their basic form. Then, on just one occasion in four billion years, they made the jump to complexity. All complex life, from mushrooms to man, shares puzzling features, such as sex, which are unknown in bacteria. How and why did this radical transformation happen? The answer, Lane argues, lies in energy: all life on Earth lives off a voltage with the strength of a lightning bolt. Building on the pillars of evolutionary theory, Lane’s hypothesis draws on cutting-edge research into the link between energy and cell biology, in order to deliver a compelling account of evolution from the very origins of life to the emergence of multicellular organisms, while offering deep insights into our own lives and deaths. Both rigorous and enchanting, The Vital Question provides a solution to life’s vital question: why are we as we are, and indeed, why are we here at all?

The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations

A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

Author: Andreas Wagner

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 832

The history of life is a nearly four billion year old story of transformative change. This change ranges from dramatic macroscopic innovations such as the evolution of wings or eyes, to a myriad of molecular changes that form the basis of macroscopic innovations. We are familiar with many examples of innovations (qualitatively new phenotypes that provide a critical benefit) but have no systematic understanding of the principles that allow organisms to innovate. This book proposes several such principles as the basis of a theory of innovation, integrating recent knowledge about complex molecular phenotypes with more traditional Darwinian thinking. Central to the book are genotype networks: vast sets of connected genotypes that exist in metabolism and regulatory circuitry, as well as in protein and RNA molecules. The theory can successfully unify innovations that occur at different levels of organization. It captures known features of biological innovation, including the fact that many innovations occur multiple times independently, and that they combine existing parts of a system to new purposes. It also argues that environmental change is important to create biological systems that are both complex and robust, and shows how such robustness can facilitate innovation. Beyond that, the theory can reconcile neutralism and selectionism, as well as explain the role of phenotypic plasticity, gene duplication, recombination, and cryptic variation in innovation. Finally, its principles can be applied to technological innovation, and thus open to human engineering endeavours the powerful principles that have allowed life's spectacular success.

On the Origin of Phyla

Author: James W. Valentine

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 614

View: 379

Owing its inspiration and title to On the Origin of Species, James W. Valentine's ambitious book synthesizes and applies the vast treasury of theory and research collected in the century and a half since Darwin's time. By investigating the origins of life's diversity, Valentine unlocks the mystery of the origin of phyla. One of the twentieth century's most distinguished paleobiologists, Valentine here integrates data from molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology, embryology, comparative morphology, and paleontology into an analysis of interest to scholars from any of these fields. He begins by examining the sorts of evidence that can be gleaned from fossils, molecules, and morphology, then reviews and compares the basic morphology and development of animal phyla, emphasizing the important design elements found in the bodyplans of both living and extinct phyla. Finally, Valentine undertakes the monumental task of developing models to explain the origin and early diversification of animal phyla, as well as their later evolutionary patterns. Truly a magnum opus, On the Origin of Phyla will take its place as one of the classic scientific texts of the twentieth century, affecting the work of paleontologists, morphologists, and developmental, molecular, and evolutionary biologists for decades to come. "A magisterial compendium . . . . Valentine offers a judicious evaluation of an astonishing array of evidence."—Richard Fortey, New Scientist "Truly a magnum opus, On the Origin of Phyla has already taken its place as one of the classic scientific texts of the twentieth century, affecting the work of paleontologists, morphologists, and developmental, molecular, and evolutionary biologists for decades to come."—Ethology, Ecology & Evolution "Valentine is one of the Renaissance minds of our time. . . . Darwin wisely called his best-known work On the Origin of the Species; the origin of the phyla is an even stickier problem, and Valentine deserves credit for tackling it at such breadth . . . . A magnificient book."—Stefan Bengtson, Nature

The Dynamic Genome

A Darwinian Approach

Author: Antonio Fontdevila

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 212

View: 316

Provides a synthetic, readable account of some widely debated evolutionary issues in the context of our growing understanding of functional genomics.

Evolutionary Feedbacks Between Population Biology and Genome Architecture

Author: Tariq Ezaz

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 699

This eBook presents all 10 articles published under the Frontiers Research Topic "Evolutionary Feedbacks Between Population Biology and Genome Architecture", edited by Scott V. Edwards and Tariq Ezaz. With the rise of rapid genome sequencing across the Tree of Life, challenges arise in understanding the major evolutionary forces influencing the structure of microbial and eukaryotic genomes, in particular the prevalence of natural selection versus genetic drift in shaping those genomes. Additional complexities in understanding genome architecture arise with the increasing incidence of interspecific hybridization as a force for shaping genotypes and phenotypes. A key paradigm shift facilitating a more nuanced interpretation of genomes came with the rise of the nearly neutral theory in the 1970s, followed by a greater appreciation for the contribution of nonadaptive forces such as genetic drift to genome structure in the 1990s and 2000s. The articles published in this eBook grapple with these issues and provide an update as to the ways in which modern population genetics and genome informatics deepen our understanding of the subtle interplay between these myriad forces. From intraspecific to macroevolutionary studies, population biology and population genetics are now major tools for understanding the broad landscape of how genomes evolve across the Tree of Life. This volume is a celebration across diverse taxa of the contributions of population genetics thinking to genome studies. We hope it spurs additional research and clarity in the ongoing search for rules governing the evolution of genomes.

Evolution and the Emergent Self

The Rise of Complexity and Behavioral Versatility in Nature

Author: Raymond L. Neubauer

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN:

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 632

Evolution and the Emergent Self is an eloquent and evocative new synthesis that explores how the human species emerged from the cosmic dust. Lucidly presenting ideas about the rise of complexity in our genetic, neuronal, ecological, and ultimately cosmological settings, the author takes readers on a provocative tour of modern science's quest to understand our place in nature and in our universe. Readers fascinated with "Big History" and drawn to examine big ideas will be challenged and enthralled by Raymond L. Neubauer's ambitious narrative. How did humans emerge from the cosmos and the pre-biotic Earth, and what mechanisms of biological, chemical, and physical sciences drove this increasingly complex process? Neubauer presents a view of nature that describes the rising complexity of life in terms of increasing information content, first in genes and then in brains. The evolution of the nervous system expanded the capacity of organisms to store information, making learning possible. In key chapters, the author portrays four species with high brain:body ratios—chimpanzees, elephants, ravens, and dolphins—showing how each species shares with humans the capacity for complex communication, elaborate social relationships, flexible behavior, tool use, and powers of abstraction. A large brain can have a hierarchical arrangement of circuits that facilitates higher levels of abstraction. Neubauer describes this constellation of qualities as an emergent self, arguing that self-awareness is nascent in several species besides humans and that potential human characteristics are embedded in the evolutionary process and have emerged repeatedly in a variety of lineages on our planet. He ultimately demonstrates that human culture is not a unique offshoot of a language-specialized primate, but an analogue of fundamental mechanisms that organisms have used since the beginning of life on Earth to gather and process information in order to buffer themselves from fluctuations in the environment. Neubauer also views these developments in a cosmic setting, detailing open thermodynamic systems that grow more complex as the energy flowing through them increases. Similar processes of increasing complexity can be found in the "self-organizing" structures of both living and nonliving forms. Recent evidence from astronomy indicates that planet formation may be nearly as frequent as star formation. Since life makes use of the elements commonly seeded into space by burning and expiring stars, it is reasonable to speculate that the evolution of life and intelligence that happened on our planet may be found across the universe.

Genome Evolution

Gene and Genome Duplications and the Origin of Novel Gene Functions

Author: Axel Meyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 237

View: 524

In the years since the publication of Susumu Ohno's 1970 landmark book Evolution by gene duplication tremendous advances have been made in molecular biology and especially in genomics. Studies of genome structure and function prerequisite to testing hypotheses of genome evolution were all but impossible until recent methodological advances. This book evaluates newly generated empirical evidence as it pertains to theories of genomic evolutionary patterns and processes. Tests of hypotheses using analyses of complete genomes, interpreted in a phylogenetic context, provide evidence regarding the relative importance of gene duplication. The alternative explanation is that the evolution of regulatory elements that control the expression of and interactions among genes has been a more important force in shaping evolutionary innovation. This collection of papers will be of interest to all academic and industry researchers working in the fields of molecular biology, biotechnology, genomics and genome centers.

The Origins of Order

Self Organization and Selection in Evolution

Author: Stuart A. Kauffman

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN:

Category: Medical

Page: 709

View: 338

Kauffman's thesis combines concepts of self-organization, integration with natural selection, and adaptation to explain the origins of life and maintenance of order in complex biological systems.