Author: Robert I. Rotberg,Theodore K. Rabb,Robert Gilpin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Since the development of the modern state system in Europe four centuries ago, there have been ten general wars involving a majority of the major powers and a high level of casualties. Another major war is difficult to conceive of, since it would presumably be the last such conflict, and yet it is not an impossibility. In this volume a distinguished group of political scientists and historians examine the origins of major wars and discuss the problems in preventing a nuclear war.
Copeland asks why governments make decisions that lead to, sustain, and intensify conflicts, drawing on detailed historical narratives of several twentieth-century cases, including World War I, World War II, and the Cold War.
This is a brand-new edition of the critically acclaimed Encyclopedia of Government and Politics which has been fully revised and updated to provide a systematic account of politics and political studies at the beginning of the new millennium. Providing a penetrating analysis of government and politics at a global, regional and nation-state level, the Encyclopedia assesses both traditional and contemporary approaches, and projects the paths of future research. The articles provide a degree of critical analysis far beyond a simple descriptive outline of the subject. Internationally respected contributors have been carefully selected to present contending approaches to related topics, both to clarify the political implications of the various methodologies and to enrich the portrayal of political life. With its expanded, revised and updated coverage, Encyclopedia of Government and Politics is more than ever an indispensable tool for students, teachers, professional analysts and policy-makers.
Mit seiner 1892 in der endgültigen Fassung veröffentlichten Schrift zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der menschlichen Gesellschaft gilt Friedrich Engels als unmittelbarer Vorläufer der modernen Wirtschafts- und Staatssoziologie. Zunächst betrachtet der Autor die schrittweise Entwicklung von der barbarischen Urgesellschaft bis zur Durchsetzung der Zivilisation in Gestalt des römischen Reichs. In einem zweiten Schritt parallelisiert Engels diesen Prozess dann mit der Entstehung der verschiedenen Familienformen und der daraus hervorgehenden Vorstellung des Privateigentums.
»Hari vereint präzise Recherche mit einer zutiefst menschlichen Erzählung. Dieses Buch wird eine dringend notwendige Debatte auslösen.« Glenn Greenwald Der Krieg gegen die Drogen gilt inzwischen als gescheitert, der Handel mit Drogen ist ein blühendes Geschäft, alle Maßnahmen gegen den Konsum sind weitgehend erfolglos. Woran liegt das? Der britische Journalist Johann Hari begibt sich auf eine einzigartige Reise – von Brooklyn über Mexiko bis nach Deutschland – und erzählt die Geschichten derjenigen, deren Leben vom immerwährenden Kampf gegen Drogen geprägt ist: von Dealern, Süchtigen, Kartellmitgliedern, den Verlierern und Profiteuren. Mit seiner grandiosen literarischen Reportage schreibt Hari sowohl eine Geschichte des Krieges gegen Drogen als auch ein mitreißendes und streitbares Plädoyer zum Umdenken. »Hervorragender Journalismus, packend erzählt.« Naomi Klein »Phantastisch!« Noam Chomsky
This book is a systematic effort by leading international scholars to map the trends in major-power warfare and explore whether it is waxing or waning. The main point of departure is that major-power war as a historical institution is in decline. This does not mean, though, that wars between states are in general disappearing. While there is some convergence in the conclusions by individual authors, they are by no means unanimous about the trend. The articles explore different causes and correlates of the declining trend in major-power warfare, including the impact of the international structure, nuclear weapons, international law, multilateral institutions, sovereignty and value changes.
Realism has been the subject of critical scrutiny for some time and this examination aims to identify and define its strengths and shortcomings, making a contribution to the study of international relations.
The Origins and Future of a New International Order
Author: J. Baron
Category: Political Science
This book explains the period of great power peace in the last fifty years and outlines the path to perpetuating it. Drawing on the Realist tradition and challenging conventional wisdom about the causes of American primacy, Baron explores contributions to peace made by the balance of power, nuclear weapons, democracy and globalization.
Das verlorene Wissen um Gemeinschaft und Menschlichkeit
Author: Sebastian Junger
Publisher: Karl Blessing Verlag
Category: Social Science
Unser Trauma: eine Gesellschaft ohne Gemeinschaft. »Entbehrungen machen dem Menschen nichts aus, er ist sogar auf sie angewiesen; worunter er jedoch leidet, ist das Gefühl, nicht gebraucht zu werden. Die moderne Gesellschaft hat die Kunst perfektioniert, Menschen das Gefühl der Nutzlosigkeit zu geben. Es ist an der Zeit, dem ein Ende zu setzen.« Sebastian Junger Warum beschließen Soldaten nach ihrer Rückkehr aus dem Krieg und in die Heimat, sich zu neuen Einsätzen zu melden? Warum sind Belastungsstörungen und Depressionen in unserer modernen Gesellschaft so virulent? Warum erinnern sich Menschen oft sehnsüchtiger an Katastrophenerfahrungen als an Hochzeiten oder Karibikurlaube? Mit Tribe hat Sebastian Junger eines der meistdiskutierten Werke des Jahres vorgelegt. Er erklärt, was wir von Stammeskulturen über Loyalität, Gemeinschaftsgefühl und die ewige Suche des Menschen nach Sinn lernen können.
Revolution within a state almost invariably leads to intense security competition between states, and often to war. In Revolution and War, Stephen M. Walt explains why this is so, and suggests how the risk of conflicts brought on by domestic upheaval might be reduced in the future. In doing so, he explores one of the basic questions of international relations: What are the connections between domestic politics and foreign policy? Walt begins by exposing the flaws in existing theories about the relationship between revolution and war. Drawing on the theoretical literature about revolution and the realist perspective on international politics, he argues that revolutions cause wars by altering the balance of threats between a revolutionary state and its rivals. Each state sees the other as both a looming danger and a vulnerable adversary, making war seem both necessary and attractive. Walt traces the dynamics of this argument through detailed studies of the French, Russian, and Iranian revolutions, and through briefer treatment of the American, Mexican, Turkish, and Chinese cases. He also considers the experience of the Soviet Union, whose revolutionary transformation led to conflict within the former Soviet empire but not with the outside world. An important refinement of realist approaches to international politics, this book unites the study of revolution with scholarship on the causes of war.
Today, more than ever, we are buffeted by forces that originate from beyond our shores. Whether it’s war, economics, politics, or law, we live in a global world influenced by a complex landscape of international transactions. Esteemed academic Charles Jones ably provides the building blocks to understand the history of these interactions, outlining all the key actors — from the United States and China to the IMF and Google — and the competing theories that attempt to explain them. Arguing that the strength of international relations lies in its contradictions — it’s not a single discipline but a fascinating mess of history, politics, economics, sociology, law, anthropology, and cultural studies — this guide provides a lively discussion of the limitations of the field, as well as an explanation of why it is so essential. Covering globalization, conflict, history, and theory, this is the perfect primer for students of international relations, workers in an international context, and citizens across the globe.
Why Wars Happen is a groundbreaking inquiry into the crucial yet surprisingly understudied question of why wars occur. Jeremy Black, one of Britain's foremost military historians, presents an interdisciplinary study that draws on subjects such as history, political science, and international relations and marshals a vast range of material with global examples spanning from the fifteenth century to today. Black examines several major modern wars in their historical contexts, taking into account cultural differences and various conflict theories. He analyzes the three main types of war—between cultures, within cultures, and civil—and explores the problems of defining war. Black's investigation inspires fascinating questions such as: Do wars reflect the bellicosity in societies and states, or do they largely arise as a result of a diplomatic breakdown? How closely is war linked to changes in the nature of warfare, the international system, or the internal character of states? Black also considers contemporary situations and evaluates the possible course of future wars. Offering a valuable and thought-provoking analysis on the causes of war and conflicts, Why Wars Happen will interest historians and readers of military history alike.
This Companion brings together 29 essays from leading theorists and historians on the origins of wars, their immediate causes and consequences and the mechanisms leading to the breakdown of peaceful relations. The essays are arranged thematically in four parts and include analysis of significant conflicts and consideration of long term, systemic conflicts and highlight the need for interdisciplinary approaches to the study of war as a global phenomenon.
An Introduction to Theories of International Conflict
Author: Greg Cashman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Category: Political Science
Now in a thoroughly revised and updated edition, this classic text presents a comprehensive survey of the many alternative theories that attempt to explain the causes of interstate war. For each theory, Greg Cashman examines the arguments and counterarguments, considers the empirical evidence and counterevidence generated by social-science research, looks at historical applications of the theory, and discusses the theory’s implications for restraining international violence. Cashman examines theories of war at the individual, substate, nation-state, dyadic, and international system levels of analysis. Written in a clear and accessible style, this interdisciplinary text will be essential reading for all students of international relations.
No nation has maintained such an immense stature in world politics as the United States has since the Cold War’s end. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks, prompting the global war on terrorism and the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, along with American economic and "soft power" primacy, there has been increased interest in and scrutiny of American foreign policy. The Routledge Handbook of American Foreign Policy brings together leading experts in the field to examine current trends in the way scholars study the history and theories of American conduct in the world, analysis of state and non-state actors and their tools in conducting policy, and the dynamics of a variety of pressing transnational challenges facing the United States. This volume provides a systematic overview of all aspects of American foreign policy and drives the agenda for further, cutting edge research. Contributors bring analytic depth and breadth to both the ways in which this subject is approached and the substance of policy formulation and process. The Handbook is an invaluable resource to students, researchers, scholars, and journalists trying to make sense of the broader debates in international relations.
Dangers, Delusions, and Dilemmas in National Security
Author: Richard K. Betts
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Political Science
While American national security policy has grown more interventionist since the Cold War, Washington has also hoped to shape the world on the cheap. Misled by the stunning success against Iraq in 1991, administrations of both parties have pursued ambitious aims with limited force, committing the country's military frequently yet often hesitantly, with inconsistent justification. These ventures have produced strategic confusion, unplanned entanglements, and indecisive results. This collection of essays by Richard K. Betts, a leading international politics scholar, investigates the use of American force since the end of the Cold War, suggesting guidelines for making it more selective and successful. Betts brings his extensive knowledge of twentieth century American diplomatic and military history to bear on the full range of theory and practice in national security, surveying the Cold War roots of recent initiatives and arguing that U.S. policy has always been more unilateral than liberal theorists claim. He exposes mistakes made by humanitarian interventions and peace operations; reviews the issues raised by terrorism and the use of modern nuclear, biological, and cyber weapons; evaluates the case for preventive war, which almost always proves wrong; weighs the lessons learned from campaigns in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Vietnam; assesses the rise of China and the resurgence of Russia; quells concerns about civil-military relations; exposes anomalies within recent defense budgets; and confronts the practical barriers to effective strategy. Betts ultimately argues for greater caution and restraint, while encouraging more decisive action when force is required, and he recommends a more dispassionate assessment of national security interests, even in the face of global instability and unfamiliar threats.
Reforging the Link to Foreign Policy-Making through Scientific Enquiry
Author: Fred Chernoff
Category: Political Science
This new study challenges how we think about international relations, presenting an analysis of current trends and insights into new directions. It shows how the discipline of international relations was created with a purpose of helping policy-makers to build a more peaceful and just world. However, many of the current trends, post-positivism, constructivism, reflectivism, and post-modernism share a conception of international theory that is inherently incapable of offering significant guidance to policy-makers. The Power of International Theory critically examines these approaches and offers a novel conventional-causal alternative that allows the reforging of a link between IR theory and policy-making. While recognizing the criticisms of earlier forms of positivism and behaviouralism, the book defends holistic testing of empirical principles, methodological pluralism, criteria for choosing the best theory, a notion of 'causality,' and a limited form of prediction, all of which are needed to guide policy-makers. This is an essential book for all students and scholars of international relations.