The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs: An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs provides basic logic of mathematical proofs and shows how mathematical proofs work. It offers techniques for both reading and writing proofs. The second chapter of the book discusses the techniques in proving if/then statements by contrapositive and proofing by contradiction. It also includes the negation statement, and/or. It examines various theorems, such as the if and only-if, or equivalence theorems, the existence theorems, and the uniqueness theorems. In addition, use of counter examples, mathematical induction, composite statements including multiple hypothesis and multiple conclusions, and equality of numbers are covered in this chapter. The book also provides mathematical topics for practicing proof techniques. Included here are the Cartesian products, indexed families, functions, and relations. The last chapter of the book provides review exercises on various topics. Undergraduate students in engineering and physical science will find this book invaluable. Jumps right in with the needed vocabulary—gets students thinking like mathematicians from the beginning Offers a large variety of examples and problems with solutions for students to work through on their own Includes a collection of exercises without solutions to help instructors prepare assignments Contains an extensive list of basic mathematical definitions and concepts needed in abstract mathematics
The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems. * The "List of Symbols" has been extended. * Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises. * Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"
The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems.* The "List of Symbols" has been extended.* Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises.* Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"
This book eases students into the rigors of university mathematics. The emphasis is on understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. The author achieves this by exploring set theory, combinatorics, and number theory, topics that include many fundamental ideas and may not be a part of a young mathematician's toolkit. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the all-time-great classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. The over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student but also plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.
A Transition to Advanced Mathematics, Second Edition
Author: Charles Roberts
Publisher: CRC Press
Introduction to Mathematical Proofs helps students develop the necessary skills to write clear, correct, and concise proofs. Unlike similar textbooks, this one begins with logic since it is the underlying language of mathematics and the basis of reasoned arguments. The text then discusses deductive mathematical systems and the systems of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers. It also covers elementary topics in set theory, explores various properties of relations and functions, and proves several theorems using induction. The final chapters introduce the concept of cardinalities of sets and the concepts and proofs of real analysis and group theory. In the appendix, the author includes some basic guidelines to follow when writing proofs. This new edition includes more than 125 new exercises in sections titled More Challenging Exercises. Also, numerous examples illustrate in detail how to write proofs and show how to solve problems. These examples can serve as models for students to emulate when solving exercises. Several biographical sketches and historical comments have been included to enrich and enliven the text. Written in a conversational style, yet maintaining the proper level of mathematical rigor, this accessible book teaches students to reason logically, read proofs critically, and write valid mathematical proofs. It prepares them to succeed in more advanced mathematics courses, such as abstract algebra and analysis.
Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.
Exploring Mathematics gives students experience with doing mathematics - interrogating mathematical claims, exploring definitions, forming conjectures, attempting proofs, and presenting results - and engages them with examples, exercises, and projects that pique their interest. Written with a minimal number of pre-requisites, this text can be used by college students in their first and second years of study, and by independent readers who want an accessible introduction to theoretical mathematics. Core topics include proof techniques, sets, functions, relations, and cardinality, with selected additional topics that provide many possibilities for further exploration. With a problem-based approach to investigating the material, students develop interesting examples and theorems through numerous exercises and projects. In-text exercises, with complete solutions or robust hints included in an appendix, help students explore and master the topics being presented. The end-of-chapter exercises and projects provide students with opportunities to confirm their understanding of core material, learn new concepts, and develop mathematical creativity.
An engaging and accessible introduction to mathematical proof incorporating ideas from real analysis A mathematical proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement. Since the time of the ancient Greek mathematicians, the proof has been a cornerstone of the science of mathematics. The goal of this book is to help students learn to follow and understand the function and structure of mathematical proof and to produce proofs of their own. An Introduction to Proof through Real Analysis is based on course material developed and refined over thirty years by Professor Daniel J. Madden and was designed to function as a complete text for both first proofs and first analysis courses. Written in an engaging and accessible narrative style, this book systematically covers the basic techniques of proof writing, beginning with real numbers and progressing to logic, set theory, topology, and continuity. The book proceeds from natural numbers to rational numbers in a familiar way, and justifies the need for a rigorous definition of real numbers. The mathematical climax of the story it tells is the Intermediate Value Theorem, which justifies the notion that the real numbers are sufficient for solving all geometric problems. • Concentrates solely on designing proofs by placing instruction on proof writing on top of discussions of specific mathematical subjects • Departs from traditional guides to proofs by incorporating elements of both real analysis and algebraic representation • Written in an engaging narrative style to tell the story of proof and its meaning, function, and construction • Uses a particular mathematical idea as the focus of each type of proof presented • Developed from material that has been class-tested and fine-tuned over thirty years in university introductory courses An Introduction to Proof through Real Analysis is the ideal introductory text to proofs for second and third-year undergraduate mathematics students, especially those who have completed a calculus sequence, students learning real analysis for the first time, and those learning proofs for the first time. Daniel J. Madden, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Mathematics at The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. He has taught a junior level course introducing students to the idea of a rigorous proof based on real analysis almost every semester since 1990. Dr. Madden is the winner of the 2015 Southwest Section of the Mathematical Association of America Distinguished Teacher Award. Jason A. Aubrey, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Director, Mathematics Center of the University of Arizona.
For over 100 years the Poincare Conjecture, which proposes a topological characterization of the 3-sphere, has been the central question in topology. Since its formulation, it has been repeatedly attacked, without success, using various topological methods. Its importance and difficulty were highlighted when it was chosen as one of the Clay Mathematics Institute's seven Millennium Prize Problems. In 2002 and 2003 Grigory Perelman posted three preprints showing how to use geometric arguments, in particular the Ricci flow as introduced and studied by Hamilton, to establish the Poincare Conjecture in the affirmative. This book provides full details of a complete proof of the Poincare Conjecture following Perelman's three preprints. After a lengthy introduction that outlines the entire argument, the book is divided into four parts. The first part reviews necessary results from Riemannian geometry and Ricci flow, including much of Hamilton's work. The second part starts with Perelman's length function, which is used to establish crucial non-collapsing theorems. Then it discusses the classification of non-collapsed, ancient solutions to the Ricci flow equation. The third part concerns the existence of Ricci flow with surgery for all positive time and an analysis of the topological and geometric changes introduced by surgery. The last part follows Perelman's third preprint to prove that when the initial Riemannian 3-manifold has finite fundamental group, Ricci flow with surgery becomes extinct after finite time. The proofs of the Poincare Conjecture and the closely related 3-dimensional spherical space-form conjecture are then immediate. The existence of Ricci flow with surgery has application to 3-manifolds far beyond the Poincare Conjecture. It forms the heart of the proof via Ricci flow of Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture. Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture, which classifies all compact 3-manifolds, will be the subject of a follow-up article. The organization of the material in this book differs from that given by Perelman. From the beginning the authors present all analytic and geometric arguments in the context of Ricci flow with surgery. In addition, the fourth part is a much-expanded version of Perelman's third preprint; it gives the first complete and detailed proof of the finite-time extinction theorem. With the large amount of background material that is presented and the detailed versions of the central arguments, this book is suitable for all mathematicians from advanced graduate students to specialists in geometry and topology. Clay Mathematics Institute Monograph Series The Clay Mathematics Institute Monograph Series publishes selected expositions of recent developments, both in emerging areas and in older subjects transformed by new insights or unifying ideas.
Author: Douglas Smith,Maurice Eggen,Richard St. Andre
Publisher: Cengage Learning
A TRANSITION TO ADVANCED MATHEMATICS helps students to bridge the gap between calculus and advanced math courses. The most successful text of its kind, the 8th edition continues to provide a firm foundation in major concepts needed for continued study and guides students to think and express themselves mathematically—to analyze a situation, extract pertinent facts, and draw appropriate conclusions. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
An Episodic History of Mathematics will acquaint students and readers with mathematical language, thought, and mathematical life by means of historically important mathematical vignettes. It will also serve to help prospective teachers become more familiar with important ideas of in the history of mathematicsboth classical and modern.Contained within are wonderful and engaging stories and anecdotes about Pythagoras and Galois and Cantor and Poincar, which let readers indulge themselves in whimsy, gossip, and learning. The mathematicians treated here were complex individuals who led colorful and fascinating lives, and did fascinating mathematics. They remain interesting to us as people and as scientists.This history of mathematics is also an opportunity to have some fun because the focus in this text is also on the practicalgetting involved with the mathematics and solving problems. This book is unabashedly mathematical. In the course of reading this book, the neophyte will become involved with mathematics by working on the same problems that, for instance, Zeno and Pythagoras and Descartes and Fermat and Riemann worked on.This is a book to be read, therefore, with pencil and paper in hand, and a calculator or computer close by. All will want to experiment; to try things; and become a part of the mathematical process.
BACKGROUND Sir Isaac Newton hrought to the world the idea of modeling the motion of physical systems with equations. It was necessary to invent calculus along the way, since fundamental equations of motion involve velocities and accelerations, of position. His greatest single success was his discovery that which are derivatives the motion of the planets and moons of the solar system resulted from a single fundamental source: the gravitational attraction of the hodies. He demonstrated that the ohserved motion of the planets could he explained hy assuming that there is a gravitational attraction he tween any two ohjects, a force that is proportional to the product of masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The circular, elliptical, and parabolic orhits of astronomy were v INTRODUCTION no longer fundamental determinants of motion, but were approximations of laws specified with differential equations. His methods are now used in modeling motion and change in all areas of science. Subsequent generations of scientists extended the method of using differ ential equations to describe how physical systems evolve. But the method had a limitation. While the differential equations were sufficient to determine the behavior-in the sense that solutions of the equations did exist-it was frequently difficult to figure out what that behavior would be. It was often impossible to write down solutions in relatively simple algebraic expressions using a finite number of terms. Series solutions involving infinite sums often would not converge beyond some finite time.
Imre Lakatos's Proofs and Refutations is an enduring classic, which has never lost its relevance. Taking the form of a dialogue between a teacher and some students, the book considers various solutions to mathematical problems and, in the process, raises important questions about the nature of mathematical discovery and methodology. Lakatos shows that mathematics grows through a process of improvement by attempts at proofs and critiques of these attempts, and his work continues to inspire mathematicians and philosophers aspiring to develop a philosophy of mathematics that accounts for both the static and the dynamic complexity of mathematical practice. With a specially commissioned Preface written by Paolo Mancosu, this book has been revived for a new generation of readers.
Basic textbook covers theory of matrices and its applications to systems of linear equations and related topics such as determinants, eigenvalues, and differential equations. Includes numerous exercises.
This book is designed to be an introduction to some of the basic ideas in the field of algebraic topology. In particular, it is devoted to the foundations and applications of homology theory. The only prerequisite for the student is a basic knowledge of abelian groups and point set topology. The essentials of singular homology are given in the first chapter, along with some of the most important applications. In this way the student can quickly see the importance of the material. The successive topics include attaching spaces, finite CW complexes, the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms, cohomology products, manifolds, Poincare duality, and fixed point theory. Throughout the book, the approach is as illustrative as possible, with numerous examples and diagrams. Extremes of generality are sacrificed when they are likely to obscure the essential concepts involved. The book is intended to be easily read by students as a textbook for a course or as a source for individual study. This second edition has been expanded to include a new chapter on covering spaces, as well as additional illuminating exercises. The conceptual approach is again used to show how lifting problems give rise to the fundamental group and its properties.
This introduction to probability-based modeling covers basic stochastic tools used in physics, chemistry, engineering and the life sciences. Topics covered include conditional expectations, stochastic processes, Langevin equations, and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. The applications include data assimilation, prediction from partial data, spectral analysis and turbulence. A special feature is the systematic analysis of memory effects.
The inclusion in practically every chapter of new material on how to read and understand proofs as they are typically presented in class lectures, textbooks, and other mathematical literature. The goal is to provide sufficient examples (and exercises) to give students the ability to learn mathematics on their own.
The notion of proof is central to mathematics yet it is one of the most difficult aspects of the subject to teach and master. In particular, undergraduate mathematics students often experience difficulties in understanding and constructing proofs. Understanding Mathematical Proof describes the nature of mathematical proof, explores the various techniques that mathematicians adopt to prove their results, and offers advice and strategies for constructing proofs. It will improve students’ ability to understand proofs and construct correct proofs of their own. The first chapter of the text introduces the kind of reasoning that mathematicians use when writing their proofs and gives some example proofs to set the scene. The book then describes basic logic to enable an understanding of the structure of both individual mathematical statements and whole mathematical proofs. It also explains the notions of sets and functions and dissects several proofs with a view to exposing some of the underlying features common to most mathematical proofs. The remainder of the book delves further into different types of proof, including direct proof, proof using contrapositive, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction. The authors also discuss existence and uniqueness proofs and the role of counter examples.
The Dyscalculia Assessment is a tool for investigating pupils' numeracy abilities. It is designed to inform a personalised teaching programme for individuals or small groups of pupils who have difficulties with numbers. The assessment was devised at Emerson House, a specialist centre in London supporting pupils with difficulties in numeracy and literacy. The bestselling first edition of the book, written by Jane Emerson and Patricia Babtie, was the winner of the ERA Best Special Educational Needs Resource 2011. This fully revised and updated second edition features a brand new design, making the step-by-step assessment even easier to navigate and use, wither by SENCOs or those with no specific special needs training, The suggested script for each stage of the investigation that runs alongside the photocopiable assessment sheets, make this book an extremely user-friendly, accessible teaching and learning resource. This book also includes: - an introduction to dyscalculia and co-occuring conditions - guidance on how to conduct the assessment, including tips on behaviours to look out for - information on the equipment you need and how to use it - instructions on how to interpret the results of each stage of the assessment and how to produce a personalised teaching plan - games and activities to engage the pupils and reinforce numeracy skills. The Dyscalculia Assessment is ideal for use with primary school children, but can easily be adapted for older students, and is invaluable for SENCOs, TAs, educational psychologists and mainstream teachers keen to support students with numeracy difficulties in their class.
Leonhard Euler's polyhedron formula describes the structure of many objects--from soccer balls and gemstones to Buckminster Fuller's buildings and giant all-carbon molecules. Yet Euler's formula is so simple it can be explained to a child. Euler's Gem tells the illuminating story of this indispensable mathematical idea. From ancient Greek geometry to today's cutting-edge research, Euler's Gem celebrates the discovery of Euler's beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. In 1750, Euler observed that any polyhedron composed of V vertices, E edges, and F faces satisfies the equation V-E+F=2. David Richeson tells how the Greeks missed the formula entirely; how Descartes almost discovered it but fell short; how nineteenth-century mathematicians widened the formula's scope in ways that Euler never envisioned by adapting it for use with doughnut shapes, smooth surfaces, and higher dimensional shapes; and how twentieth-century mathematicians discovered that every shape has its own Euler's formula. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, Richeson presents the formula's many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map. Filled with a who's who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem's development, Euler's Gem will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast.