The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems. * The "List of Symbols" has been extended. * Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises. * Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"
The notion of proof is central to mathematics yet it is one of the most difficult aspects of the subject to teach and master. In particular, undergraduate mathematics students often experience difficulties in understanding and constructing proofs. Understanding Mathematical Proof describes the nature of mathematical proof, explores the various techniques that mathematicians adopt to prove their results, and offers advice and strategies for constructing proofs. It will improve students’ ability to understand proofs and construct correct proofs of their own. The first chapter of the text introduces the kind of reasoning that mathematicians use when writing their proofs and gives some example proofs to set the scene. The book then describes basic logic to enable an understanding of the structure of both individual mathematical statements and whole mathematical proofs. It also explains the notions of sets and functions and dissects several proofs with a view to exposing some of the underlying features common to most mathematical proofs. The remainder of the book delves further into different types of proof, including direct proof, proof using contrapositive, proof by contradiction, and mathematical induction. The authors also discuss existence and uniqueness proofs and the role of counter examples.
This straightforward guide describes the main methods used to prove mathematical theorems. Shows how and when to use each technique such as the contrapositive, induction and proof by contradiction. Each method is illustrated with step-by-step examples.
This annual anthology brings together the year's finest mathematics writing from around the world. Featuring promising new voices alongside some of the foremost names in the field, The Best Writing on Mathematics 2013 makes available to a wide audience many articles not easily found anywhere else--and you don't need to be a mathematician to enjoy them. These writings offer surprising insights into the nature, meaning, and practice of mathematics today. They delve into the history, philosophy, teaching, and everyday occurrences of math, and take readers behind the scenes of today's hottest mathematical debates. Here Philip Davis offers a panoramic view of mathematics in contemporary society; Terence Tao discusses aspects of universal mathematical laws in complex systems; Ian Stewart explains how in mathematics everything arises out of nothing; Erin Maloney and Sian Beilock consider the mathematical anxiety experienced by many students and suggest effective remedies; Elie Ayache argues that exchange prices reached in open market transactions transcend the common notion of probability; and much, much more. In addition to presenting the year's most memorable writings on mathematics, this must-have anthology includes a foreword by esteemed mathematical physicist Roger Penrose and an introduction by the editor, Mircea Pitici. This book belongs on the shelf of anyone interested in where math has taken us--and where it is headed.
A thorough and comprehensive tutorial introduction to Z. The author uses case studies to vividly illustrate all aspects of Z. With practical exercises and clear descriptions and explanations throughout, this updated edition will be required reading for all students and software engineers learning Z.
This book presents an introduction to modern (abstract) algebra covering the basic ideas of groups, rings, and fields. The first part of the book treats ideas that are important but neither abstract nor complicated, and provides practice in handling mathematical statements - their meaning, quantification, negation, and proof. This edition features a new section to give more substance to the introduction to Galois theory, updated lists of references and discussions of topics such as Fermat's Last Theorem and the finite simple groups.
The Way of Analysis gives a thorough account of real analysis in one or several variables, from the construction of the real number system to an introduction of the Lebesgue integral. The text provides proofs of all main results, as well as motivations, examples, applications, exercises, and formal chapter summaries. Additionally, there are three chapters on application of analysis, ordinary differential equations, Fourier series, and curves and surfaces to show how the techniques of analysis are used in concrete settings.