The Middle East

A Cultural Psychology

Author: Gary S. Gregg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195346756

Category: Political Science

Page: 472

View: 4828

For over a decade the Middle East has monopolized news headlines in the West. Journalists and commentators regularly speculate that the region's turmoil may stem from the psychological momentum of its cultural traditions or of a "tribal" or "fatalistic" mentality. Yet few studies of the region's cultural psychology have provided a critical synthesis of psychological research on Middle Eastern societies. Drawing on autobiographies, literary works, ethnographic accounts, and life-history interviews, The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology, offers the first comprehensive summary of psychological writings on the region, reviewing works by psychologists, anthropologists, and sociologists that have been written in English, Arabic, and French. Rejecting stereotypical descriptions of the "Arab mind" or "Muslim mentality,' Gary Gregg adopts a life-span- development framework, examining influences on development in infancy, early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence as well as on identity formation in early and mature adulthood. He views patterns of development in the context of recent work in cultural psychology, and compares Middle Eastern patterns less with Western middle class norms than with those described for the region's neighbors: Hindu India, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Mediterranean shore of Europe. The research presented in this volume overwhelmingly suggests that the region's strife stems much less from a stubborn adherence to tradition and resistance to modernity than from widespread frustration with broken promises of modernization--with the slow and halting pace of economic progress and democratization. A sophisticated account of the Middle East's cultural psychology, The Middle East provides students, researchers, policy-makers, and all those interested in the culture and psychology of the region with invaluable insight into the lives, families, and social relationships of Middle Easterners as they struggle to reconcile the lure of Westernized life-styles with traditional values.

Culture and Identity in a Muslim Society

Author: Gary S. Gregg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198042358

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 7779

In the last fifteen years, psychologists have rediscovered culture and its influence on emotion, thought, and self. Many researchers have come to the conclusion that the world's cultures can be ranked according to the degree to which they are individualist or collectivist, with Western cultures falling at the individualist end and non-Western cultures at the collectivist end. These scholars argue that while individualist cultures give rise to "independent" selves, leading Westerners to think and act autonomously, collectivist cultures foster "interdependent" selves, leading non-Westerners, embedded in social-relationships, to think and act relationally. Culture and Identity in a Muslim Society presents an alternative to the individualist- collectivist approach to identity. Unlike most psychological and anthropological studies of culture and self, Gary Gregg's work directly investigates individuals, using "study of lives"-style interviews with young adults living in villages and small towns in southern Morocco. Analyzing these young adults' life-narratives, Gregg builds a theory of culture and identity that differs from prevailing psychological and anthropological models in important respects. In contrast to modernist theories of identity as unified, the life-narratives show individuals to articulate a small set of shifting identities. In contrast to post-modern theories that claim people have a kaleidoscopic multiplicity of fluid identities, the narratives show that the identities are integrated by repeated use of culturally-specific self-symbols, metaphors, and story-plots. Most importantly, the life-narratives show these young Moroccans' self-representations to be pervasively shaped by the volatile cultural struggle between Western-style "modernity" and authentic Muslim "tradition." Offering a new approach to the study of identity, the volume will be of interest to cross-cultural psychologists, anthropologists, scholars of Middle-East societies, and researchers specializing in the study of lives.

Handbook of Cultural Psychology

Author: Shinobu Kitayama,Dov Cohen

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1606236113

Category: Psychology

Page: 894

View: 9868

Bringing together leading authorities, this definitive handbook provides a comprehensive review of the field of cultural psychology. Major theoretical perspectives are explained, and methodological issues and challenges are discussed. The volume examines how topics fundamental to psychology?identity and social relations, the self, cognition, emotion and motivation, and development?are influenced by cultural meanings and practices. It also presents cutting-edge work on the psychological and evolutionary underpinnings of cultural stability and change. In all, more than 60 contributors have written over 30 chapters covering such diverse areas as food, love, religion, intelligence, language, attachment, narratives, and work.

Cultural Psychology

A Once and Future Discipline

Author: Michael Cole

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674179561

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 4194

In a rare synthesis of the theory and empirical work shaping the field, distinguished psychologist Michael Cole, known for his pioneering work in literacy, cognition, and human development, offers a multi-faceted account of what cultural psychology is, what it has been, and what it can be.

Culture in Mind

Toward a Sociology of Culture and Cognition

Author: Karen A. Cerulo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135956421

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 8694

What is thought and how does one come to study and understand it? How does the mind work? Does cognitive science explain all the mysteries of the brain? This collection of fourteen original essays from some of the top sociologists in the country, including Eviatar Zerubavel, Diane Vaughan, Paul Dimaggio and Gary Alan Fine, among others, opens a dialogue between cognitive science and cultural sociology, encouraging a new network of scientific collaboration and stimulating new lines of social scientific research. Rather than considering thought as just an individual act, Culture in Mind considers it in a social and cultural context. Provocatively, this suggests that our thoughts do not function in a vacuum: our minds are not alone. Covering such diverse topics as the nature of evil, the process of storytelling, defining mental illness, and the conceptualizing of the premature baby, these essays offer fresh insights into the functioning of the mind. Leaving the MRI behind, Culture in Mind will uncover the mysteries of how we think.

Cultural Processes

A Social Psychological Perspective

Author: Angela K.-y. Leung,Chi-yue Chiu,Ying-yi Hong

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521758413

Category: Psychology

Page: 320

View: 1177

"This book shows how culturally shared knowledge is used to structure social transactions, and it lays the groundwork for a new science of cultural processes.ûCarol Dweck, Stanford University "Treating culture as process the book describes most recent research findings, theorize about cultural representations and functions, and apply this framework to pressing contemporary research questions, such as cultural differences in self-enhancement, subjective well-being, work teams, and conflict resolution, as well as intercultural processes of negation and communication. This volume is simultaneously a cogent argument for a dynamic perspective on culture, a searching analysis of cultural dynamics.'ûYoshi Kashima, The University of Melbourne Angela K.-y. Leung is Assistant Professor of Psychology in the School of Social Sciences at the Singapore Management University (SMU). Chi-yue Chiu is Professor of Management and Marketing at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Ying-yi Hong is currently Professor at the Business School of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Handbook of Biblical Social Values, Third Edition

Author: John J. Pilch,Bruce J. Malina

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1498289657

Category: Religion

Page: 266

View: 1277

Values are culturally specific. This handbook explains select biblical social values in their Mediterranean cultural contexts. Some examples of values are altruism, freedom, family-centeredness, obedience, parenting, and power. Though the English words for the values described here would be familiar to readers (e.g., altruism) the meanings of such words differ between cultures. In the Mediterranean world, for instance, altruism is a duty incumbent upon anyone who has surplus. It is interpersonal and group specific. In the West, especially in the United States, altruism is impersonal and universally oriented generosity that operates in a highly organized context. This handbook not only presents the Mediterranean meanings of these value words but also contrasts those meanings with Western ones.

The Role of Trust in Conflict Resolution

The Israeli-Palestinian Case and Beyond

Author: Ilai Alon,Daniel Bar-Tal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319433555

Category: Psychology

Page: 345

View: 7900

Built on the premise that trust is one of the most important factors in intergroup relations, conflict management and resolution at large, this volume explores trust and its mechanisms and operations especially in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Significantly, this volume focuses not only on the nature of trust and distrust in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but it also explores how it is possible to build and increase trust on both sides in the conflict, a necessity in order to advance the stalled peace process. As trust is a concept that is interdisciplinary by nature, so are this volume’s contributors: sociologists, philosophers, sociologists, social psychologists, political scientists, as well as experts in the Middle East, Islam, Judaism and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict bring together real multidisciplinary perspectives that complement each other and then provide a comprehensive picture about the nature of trust and distrust and its ramification and implications for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Divided into five thematic parts, the volume begins with by examining the theoretical basis of trust research from multiple perspectives. Then, it presents chapters on trust, distrust, and trust-building in other conflicts around the world. The third part is a unique feature of this volume as it takes a contextual approach: it emphasizes the importance of particular cultural and religious considerations on both sides of the conflict. The thrust of the book is examined in the next section. Part IV discusses and analyses various aspects of trust, and specifically distrust, in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Significantly, the chapters of this part take the perspectives of the participants in the conflict: Israeli Jews, Palestinians and Israeli Arabs. Finally, the volume concludes by providing an integrative conceptual perspective based on the principles of social and political psychology. An important goal of this volume is to not only explore trust and distrust in an intractable conflict, but also to provide practical multi-disciplinary outlooks and implications to advance trust building in two conflict ridden societies—Israeli and Palestinian, and other societies around the world.

Understanding Indian Movies

Culture, Cognition, and Cinematic Imagination

Author: Patrick Colm Hogan

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292779550

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 305

View: 4102

Indian movies are among the most popular in the world. However, despite increased availability and study, these films remain misunderstood and underappreciated in much of the English-speaking world, in part for cultural reasons. In this book, Patrick Colm Hogan sets out through close analysis and explication of culturally particular information about Indian history, Hindu metaphysics, Islamic spirituality, Sanskrit aesthetics, and other Indian traditions to provide necessary cultural contexts for understanding Indian films. Hogan analyzes eleven important films, using them as the focus to explore the topics of plot, theme, emotion, sound, and visual style in Indian cinema. These films draw on a wide range of South Asian cultural traditions and are representative of the greater whole of Indian cinema. By learning to interpret these examples with the tools Hogan provides, the reader will be able to take these skills and apply them to other Indian films. But this study is not simply culturalist. Hogan also takes up key principles from cognitive neuroscience to illustrate that all cultures share perceptual, cognitive, and emotional elements that, when properly interpreted, can help to bridge gaps between seemingly disparate societies. Hogan locates the specificity of Indian culture in relation to human universals, and illustrates this cultural-cognitive synthesis through his detailed interpretations of these films. This book will help both scholars and general readers to better understand and appreciate Indian cinema.

A Cognitive Theory of Cultural Meaning

Author: Claudia Strauss,Naomi Quinn,American Anthropological Association. Meeting

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521595414

Category: Psychology

Page: 323

View: 4151

"Culture" and "meaning" are central to anthropology, but anthropologists do not agree on what they are. Claudia Strauss and Naomi Quinn propose a new theory of cultural meaning, one that gives priority to the way people's experiences are internalized. Drawing on "connectionist" or "neural network" models as well as other psychological theories, they argue that cultural meanings are not fixed or limited to static groups, but neither are they constantly revised or contested. Their approach is illustrated by original research on understandings of marriage and ideas of success in the United States.

Cultural Issues in Psychology

A Student's Handbook

Author: Andrew Stevenson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135239843

Category: Psychology

Page: 296

View: 6723

Does our cultural background influence the way we think and feel about ourselves and others? Does our culture affect how we choose our partners, how we define intelligence and abnormality and how we bring up our children? Psychologists have long pondered the relationship between culture and a range of psychological attributes. Cultural Issues In Psychology is an all round student guide to the key studies, theories and controversies which seek to explore human behaviour in a global context. The book explores key controversies in global psychology, such as: Culture: what does it mean and how has it been researched? Relativism and universalism: are they compatible approaches in global research? Ethnocentrism: is psychological research dominated by a few regions of the world? Indigenous psychologies: what are the diverse research traditions from around the world? Research methods and perspectives: how can we compare and contrast cross-cultural psychology and cultural psychology? The book also includes detailed examinations of global research into mainstream areas of psychology, such as social, cognitive and developmental psychology, as well as abnormal psychology. With insightful classroom activities and helpful pedagogical features, this detailed, yet accessibly written book gives introductory-level psychology students access to a concise review of key research, issues, controversies and diverse approaches in the area of culture and psychology.

The Intercultural Mind

Connecting Culture, Cognition, and Global Living

Author: Joseph Shaules

Publisher: Nicholas Brealey

ISBN: 1941176011

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 8884

A pioneering look at the new world of cultural neuroscience and how intercultural experiences can change the way we think.

Cognitive Development

Its Cultural and Social Foundations

Author: Aleksandr Romanovich Luriia,Michael Cole

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674137325

Category: Psychology

Page: 175

View: 1716

Alexander Romanovich Luria, one of the most influential psychologists of the twentieth century, is best known for his pioneering work on the development of language and thought, mental retardation, and the cortical organization of higher mental processes. Virtually unnoticed has been his major contribution to the understanding of cultural differences in thinking. In the early 1930s young Luria set out with a group of Russian psychologists for the steppes of central Asia. Their mission: to study the impact of the socialist revolution on an ancient Islamic cotton-growing culture and, no less, to establish guidelines for a viable Marxist psychology. Lev Vygotsky, Luria's great teacher and friend, was convinced that variations in the mental development of children must be understood as a process including historically determined cultural factors. Guided by this conviction, Luria and his colleagues studied perception, abstraction, reasoning, and imagination among several remote groups of Uzbeks and Kirghizâe"from cloistered illiterate women to slightly educated new friends of the central government. The original hypothesis was abundantly supported by the data: the very structure of the human cognitive process differs according to the ways in which social groups live out their various realities. People whose lives are dominated by concrete, practical activities have a different method of thinking from people whose lives require abstract, verbal, and theoretical approaches to reality. For Luria the legitimacy of treating human consciousness as a product of social history legitimized the Marxian dialectic of social development. For psychology in general, the research in Uzbekistan, its rich collection of data and the penetrating observations Luria drew from it, have cast new light on the workings of cognitive activity. The parallels between individual and social development are still being explored by researchers today. Beyond its historical and theoretical significance, this book represents a revolution in method. Much as Piaget introduced the clinical method into the study of children's mental activities, Luria pioneered his own version of the clinical technique for use in cross-cultural work. Had this text been available, the recent history of cognitive psychology and of anthropological study might well have been very different. As it is, we are only now catching up with Luria's procedures.

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Research and Applications

Author: John W. Berry,Seger M. Breugelmans,Ype H. Poortinga,Athanasios Chasiotis,David L. Sam

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521745209

Category: Psychology

Page: 626

View: 4382

Third edition of leading textbook offering an advanced overview of all major perspectives of research in cross-cultural psychology.

Evolution, Culture, and the Human Mind

Author: Mark Schaller,Ara Norenzayan,Steven J. Heine,Toshio Yamagishi,Tatsuya Kameda

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136950494

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 3162

An enormous amount of scientific research compels two fundamental conclusions about the human mind: The mind is the product of evolution; and the mind is shaped by culture. These two perspectives on the human mind are not incompatible, but, until recently, their compatibility has resisted rigorous scholarly inquiry. Evolutionary psychology documents many ways in which genetic adaptations govern the operations of the human mind. But evolutionary inquiries only occasionally grapple seriously with questions about human culture and cross-cultural differences. By contrast, cultural psychology documents many ways in which thought and behavior are shaped by different cultural experiences. But cultural inquires rarely consider evolutionary processes. Even after decades of intensive research, these two perspectives on human psychology have remained largely divorced from each other. But that is now changing - and that is what this book is about. Evolution, Culture, and the Human Mind is the first scholarly book to integrate evolutionary and cultural perspectives on human psychology. The contributors include world-renowned evolutionary, cultural, social, and cognitive psychologists. These chapters reveal many novel insights linking human evolution to both human cognition and human culture – including the evolutionary origins of cross-cultural differences. The result is a stimulating introduction to an emerging integrative perspective on human nature.

Roots of Human Sociality

Culture, Cognition and Interaction

Author: Nicholas J. Enfield,Stephen C. Levinson

Publisher: Berg Publishers

ISBN: 9781845203948

Category: Social Science

Page: 530

View: 1404

Exploring the underlying properties of social interaction viewed from across many disciplines, this work examines their origin in infant development and in human evolution.

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications, Sixth Edition

Author: Eric B. Shiraev,David A. Levy

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1134871317

Category: Psychology

Page: 428

View: 5967

Written in a conversational style that transforms complex ideas into accessible ones, this international best-seller provides an interdisciplinary review of the theories and research in cross‐cultural psychology. The book’s unique critical thinking framework, including Critical Thinking boxes, helps to develop analytical skills. Exercises interspersed throughout promote active learning and encourage class discussion. Case in Point sections review controversial issues and opinions about behavior in different cultural contexts. Cross‐Cultural Sensitivity boxes underscore the importance of empathy in communication. Numerous applications better prepare students for working in various multicultural contexts such as teaching, counseling, health care, and social work. The dynamic author team brings a diverse set of experiences in writing this book. Eric Shiraev was raised in the former Soviet Union and David Levy is from Southern California. Sensation, perception, consciousness, intelligence, human development, emotion, motivation, social perception, interaction, psychological disorders, and applied topics are explored from cross‐cultural perspectives. New to the 6th Edition: Over 200 recent references, particularly on studies of non-western regions such as the Middle East, Africa, Asia, & Latin America as well as the US and Europe. New chapter on personality and the self with an emphasis on gender identity. New or revised chapter opening vignettes that draw upon current events. More examples related to the experiences of international students in the US and indigenous people. Many more figures and tables that appeal to visual learners. New research on gender, race, religious beliefs, parenting styles, sexual orientation, ethnic identity and stereotypes, conflict resolution, immigration, intelligence, physical abuse, states of consciousness, DSM-5, cultural customs, evolutionary psychology, treatment of psychological disorders, and acculturation. Revised methodology chapter with more attention to issues related specifically to cross-cultural research and more on qualitative and mixed methods. A companion website at www.routledge.com/9781138668386 where instructors will find a test bank containing multiple choice, true and false, short answer, and essay questions and answers for each chapter, and a complete set of tables and figures from the text; and students will find chapter outlines, flashcards of key terms, and links to further resources and the authors' Facebook page. Intended as a text for courses on cross-cultural psychology, multicultural psychology, cultural psychology, cultural diversity, and the psychology of ethnic groups and a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators who work in multicultural environments.

The Geography of Thought

Author: Richard Nisbett

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1857884191

Category: Psychology

Page: 288

View: 7846

When Richard Nisbett showed an animated underwater scene to his American students, they zeroed in on a big fish swimming among smaller fish. Japanese subjects, on the other hand, made observations about the background environment...and the different "seeings" are a clue to profound underlying cognitive differences between Westerners and East Asians. As Professor Nisbett shows in The Geography of Thought people actually think - and even see - the world differently, because of differing ecologies, social structures, philosophies, and educational systems that date back to ancient Greece and China, and that have survived into the modern world. As a result, East Asian thought is "holistic" - drawn to the perceptual field as a whole, and to relations among objects and events within that field. By comparison to Western modes of reasoning, East Asian thought relies far less on categories, or on formal logic; it is fundamentally dialectic, seeking a "middle way" between opposing thoughts. By contrast, Westerners focus on salient objects or people, use attributes to assign them to categories, and apply rules of formal logic to understand their behaviour.

Rethinking Religion

Connecting Cognition and Culture

Author: E. Thomas Lawson,Robert N. McCauley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521438063

Category: Philosophy

Page: 194

View: 7479

This book develops a cognitive approach to religion. Focusing particularly on ritual action, it borrows analytical methods from linguistics and other cognitive sciences. The authors provide a lucid, critical review of established approaches to the study of religion, and make a strong plea for the combination of interpretation and explanation. Often represented as competitive approaches, they are, rather, complementary and equally vital to the study of symbolic systems. Rethinking Religion deals with the relationship between cognition and culture in a novel manner, and introduces a method of analysis that will have many applications.

Psychology and Culture

Thinking, Feeling and Behaving in a Global Context

Author: Lisa Vaughn

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136980318

Category: Psychology

Page: 280

View: 7535

With increasing globalization, countries face social, linguistic, religious and other cultural changes that can lead to misunderstandings in a variety of settings. These changes can have broader implications across the world, leading to changing dynamics in identity, gender, relationships, family, and community. This book addresses the subsequent need for a basic understanding of the cultural dimensions of psychology and their application to everyday settings. The book discusses the basis of culture and presents related theories and concepts, including a description of how cognition and behavior are influenced by different sociocultural contexts. The text explores a broad definition of culture and provides practical models to improve intercultural relations, communication, and cultural competency. Each chapter contains an introduction, a concise overview of the topic, a practical application of the topic using current global examples, and a brief summary. This up to date overview of psychology and culture is ideal reading for undergraduate and graduate students and academics interested in culturally related topics and issues.