For over a decade the Middle East has monopolized news headlines in the West. Journalists and commentators regularly speculate that the region's turmoil may stem from the psychological momentum of its cultural traditions or of a "tribal" or "fatalistic" mentality. Yet few studies of the region's cultural psychology have provided a critical synthesis of psychological research on Middle Eastern societies. Drawing on autobiographies, literary works, ethnographic accounts, and life-history interviews, The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology, offers the first comprehensive summary of psychological writings on the region, reviewing works by psychologists, anthropologists, and sociologists that have been written in English, Arabic, and French. Rejecting stereotypical descriptions of the "Arab mind" or "Muslim mentality,' Gary Gregg adopts a life-span- development framework, examining influences on development in infancy, early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence as well as on identity formation in early and mature adulthood. He views patterns of development in the context of recent work in cultural psychology, and compares Middle Eastern patterns less with Western middle class norms than with those described for the region's neighbors: Hindu India, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Mediterranean shore of Europe. The research presented in this volume overwhelmingly suggests that the region's strife stems much less from a stubborn adherence to tradition and resistance to modernity than from widespread frustration with broken promises of modernization--with the slow and halting pace of economic progress and democratization. A sophisticated account of the Middle East's cultural psychology, The Middle East provides students, researchers, policy-makers, and all those interested in the culture and psychology of the region with invaluable insight into the lives, families, and social relationships of Middle Easterners as they struggle to reconcile the lure of Westernized life-styles with traditional values.
In the last fifteen years, psychologists have rediscovered culture and its influence on emotion, thought, and self. Many researchers have come to the conclusion that the world's cultures can be ranked according to the degree to which they are individualist or collectivist, with Western cultures falling at the individualist end and non-Western cultures at the collectivist end. These scholars argue that while individualist cultures give rise to "independent" selves, leading Westerners to think and act autonomously, collectivist cultures foster "interdependent" selves, leading non-Westerners, embedded in social-relationships, to think and act relationally. Culture and Identity in a Muslim Society presents an alternative to the individualist- collectivist approach to identity. Unlike most psychological and anthropological studies of culture and self, Gary Gregg's work directly investigates individuals, using "study of lives"-style interviews with young adults living in villages and small towns in southern Morocco. Analyzing these young adults' life-narratives, Gregg builds a theory of culture and identity that differs from prevailing psychological and anthropological models in important respects. In contrast to modernist theories of identity as unified, the life-narratives show individuals to articulate a small set of shifting identities. In contrast to post-modern theories that claim people have a kaleidoscopic multiplicity of fluid identities, the narratives show that the identities are integrated by repeated use of culturally-specific self-symbols, metaphors, and story-plots. Most importantly, the life-narratives show these young Moroccans' self-representations to be pervasively shaped by the volatile cultural struggle between Western-style "modernity" and authentic Muslim "tradition." Offering a new approach to the study of identity, the volume will be of interest to cross-cultural psychologists, anthropologists, scholars of Middle-East societies, and researchers specializing in the study of lives.
Family remains the most powerful social idiom and one of the most powerful social structures throughout the Arab world. To engender love of nation among its citizens, national movements portray the nation as a family. To motivate loyalty, political leaders frame themselves as fathers, mothers, brothers, or sisters to their clients, parties, or the citizenry. To stimulate production, economic actors evoke the sense of duty and mutual commitment of family obligation. To sanctify their edicts, clerics wrap religion in the moralities of family and family in the moralities of religion. Social and political movements, from the most secular to the most religious, pull on the tender strings of family love to recruit and bind their members to each other. To call someone family is to offer them almost the highest possible intimacy, loyalty, rights, reciprocities, and dignity. In recognizing the significance of the concept of family, this state-of-the-art literature review captures the major theories, methods, and case studies carried out on Arab families over the past century. The book offers a country-by-country critical assessment of the available scholarship on Arab families. Sixteen chapters focus on specific countries or groups of countries; seven chapters offer examinations of the literature on key topical issues. Joseph’s volume provides an indispensable resource to researchers and students, and advances Arab family studies as a critical independent field of scholarship.
This book evaluates the potential for the transformative mediation framework to be adopted in a non-western context. Inspired by the premise that mediator ideology exists and has deep impact on process, Robert A. Baruch Bush and Joseph P. Folger articulated the transformative mediation model which itself evolved from a culture of individualism and problem-solving. This theory of conflict transformation has engaged scholars and practitioners across North America, Europe and Australia. The question remains: is the Transformative Mediation Framework relevant outside of the “West”? Through qualitative interviewing with Palestinian practitioners of the traditional conflict resolution process sulha and in-depth research analysis, this study outlines what distinguishes the ideologies and practices of transformative mediation and Palestinian sulha.
Thomas McNamara, in Evolution, Culture, and Consciousness, presents the first comprehensive theory of human perception and consciousness based on the generally accepted principles of evolutionary psychology. This theory, building on the best evolutionary research, explains that just a few simple neurological changes in the primate brain account for human speech, self-consciousness and the creation of meaning out of experience. All primates can learn, but our species evolved a new instinct for learning, which makes childhood learning just as powerful as the other biological instincts found in all other primates. McNamara shows that children are genetically programmed to learn not just what to think, but how to think, shaping the preconscious process for creating meaning out of experience. However, because our environment has changed radically since our origin, this archaic form of consciousness has become a major block to human development and success. After explaining how we have all been programmed to preconsciously create meaning out of experience, McNamara shows how we can create a new and more successful way of thinking and feeling, resulting in a happier, more productive, stress free life.
Author: Fred Luthans,Carolyn M. Youssef-Morgan,Bruce J. Avolio
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Although there are as many answers to the question of how organizations can gain competitive advantage in today's global economy as there are books and experts, one lesson seems very clear: traditional answers and resources are no longer sufficient. This seminal book offers not only an answer regarding how to gain competitive advantage through people, but also a brand new, untapped human resource--psychological capital, or simply PsyCap. Generated from both the positive-psychology movement and the authors' pioneering work on positive organizational behavior, PsyCap is a rigorous concept: to be included in PsyCap, a given positive construct must be based on theory, research, and valid measurement, must be open to development, and must have measurable performance impact. The positive constructs that have been determined to best meet these PsyCap criteria--efficacy (confidence), hope, optimism, and resiliency--are covered in separate chapters in Psychological Capital and Beyond. Following an exploration of other potential positive constructs such as creativity, wisdom, well-being, flow, humor, gratitude, forgiveness, emotional intelligence, spirituality, authenticity, and courage, the authors summarize the research demonstrating the performance impact of PsyCap. They go on to provide the PsyCap Questionnaire (PCQ) as a measurement tool, and the PsyCap Intervention (PCI) as a development aid. Psychological Capital and Beyond provides theory, research, measurements, and methods of application for psychological capital, a resource that can be developed and sustained for competitive advantage. Each copy includes a complimentary PsyCap online self-assessment.
Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications, Sixth Edition
Author: Eric B. Shiraev,David A. Levy
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Written in a conversational style that transforms complex ideas into accessible ones, this international best-seller provides an interdisciplinary review of the theories and research in cross‐cultural psychology. The book’s unique critical thinking framework, including Critical Thinking boxes, helps to develop analytical skills. Exercises interspersed throughout promote active learning and encourage class discussion. Case in Point sections review controversial issues and opinions about behavior in different cultural contexts. Cross‐Cultural Sensitivity boxes underscore the importance of empathy in communication. Numerous applications better prepare students for working in various multicultural contexts such as teaching, counseling, health care, and social work. The dynamic author team brings a diverse set of experiences in writing this book. Eric Shiraev was raised in the former Soviet Union and David Levy is from Southern California. Sensation, perception, consciousness, intelligence, human development, emotion, motivation, social perception, interaction, psychological disorders, and applied topics are explored from cross‐cultural perspectives. New to the 6th Edition: Over 200 recent references, particularly on studies of non-western regions such as the Middle East, Africa, Asia, & Latin America as well as the US and Europe. New chapter on personality and the self with an emphasis on gender identity. New or revised chapter opening vignettes that draw upon current events. More examples related to the experiences of international students in the US and indigenous people. Many more figures and tables that appeal to visual learners. New research on gender, race, religious beliefs, parenting styles, sexual orientation, ethnic identity and stereotypes, conflict resolution, immigration, intelligence, physical abuse, states of consciousness, DSM-5, cultural customs, evolutionary psychology, treatment of psychological disorders, and acculturation. Revised methodology chapter with more attention to issues related specifically to cross-cultural research and more on qualitative and mixed methods. A companion website at www.routledge.com/9781138668386 where instructors will find a test bank containing multiple choice, true and false, short answer, and essay questions and answers for each chapter, and a complete set of tables and figures from the text; and students will find chapter outlines, flashcards of key terms, and links to further resources and the authors' Facebook page. Intended as a text for courses on cross-cultural psychology, multicultural psychology, cultural psychology, cultural diversity, and the psychology of ethnic groups and a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators who work in multicultural environments.
This volume contains contributions from 24 internationally known scholars covering a broad spectrum of interests in cross-cultural theory and research. This breadth is reflected in the diversity of the topics covered in the volume, which include theoretical approaches to cross-cultural research, the dimensions of national cultures and their measurement, ecological and economic foundations of culture, cognitive, perceptual and emotional manifestations of culture, and bicultural and intercultural processes. In addition to the individual chapters, the volume contains a dialog among 14 experts in the field on a number of issues of concern in cross-cultural research, including the relation of psychological studies of culture to national development and national policies, the relationship between macro structures of a society and shared cognitions, the integration of structural and process models into a coherent theory of culture, how personal experiences and cultural traditions give rise to intra-cultural variation, whether culture can be validly measured by self-reports, the new challenges that confront cultural psychology, and whether psychology should strive to eliminate culture as an explanatory variable.
How Asians and Westerners Think Differently - and Why
Author: Richard E. Nisbett
Publisher: Hachette UK
When Richard Nisbett showed an animated underwater scene to his American students, they zeroed in on a big fish swimming among smaller fish. Japanese subjects, on the other hand, made observations about the background environment...and the different "seeings" are a clue to profound underlying cognitive differences between Westerners and East Asians. As Professor Nisbett shows in The Geography of Thought people actually think - and even see - the world differently, because of differing ecologies, social structures, philosophies, and educational systems that date back to ancient Greece and China, and that have survived into the modern world. As a result, East Asian thought is "holistic" - drawn to the perceptual field as a whole, and to relations among objects and events within that field. By comparison to Western modes of reasoning, East Asian thought relies far less on categories, or on formal logic; it is fundamentally dialectic, seeking a "middle way" between opposing thoughts. By contrast, Westerners focus on salient objects or people, use attributes to assign them to categories, and apply rules of formal logic to understand their behaviour.
Author: Yueh-Ting Lee,Clark R. McCauley,Juris G. Draguns
Publisher: Psychology Press
Neither human nature nor personality can be independent of culture. Human beings share certain social norms or rules within their cultural groups. Over 2000 years ago, Aristotle held that man is by nature a social animal. Similarly, Xun Kuang (298-238 B.C.), a Chinese philosopher, pointed out that humans in social groups can not function without shared guidance or rules. This book is designed to provide readers with a perspective on how people are different from, and similar to, each other --both within and across cultures. One of its goals is to offer a practical guide for people preparing to interact with those whose cultural background is different from their own.
Francisco A. Villarruel,Gustavo Carlo,Josefina M. Grau,Margarita Azmitia,Natasha J. Cabrera,T. Jaime Chahin
Author: Francisco A. Villarruel,Gustavo Carlo,Josefina M. Grau,Margarita Azmitia,Natasha J. Cabrera,T. Jaime Chahin
Congratulations to Aida Hurtado and Karina Cervantez- winners of the 2009 Women of Color Psychologies Award! This award, given by the Association of Women in Psychology Association, is voted on by AWP members for contributions of new knowledge and importance to the advancement of the psychology of women of color. Offering broad coverage of all U.S. Latino groups, this volume synthesizes cutting-edge research and methodological advances and provides culturally sophisticated information that can be used by researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. The editors and contributing authors summarize theories and conceptual models that can further our understanding of the development and adaptation of U.S. Latino populations. In addition, they focus on the importance of cultural sensitivity and competence in research and intervention approaches and how to achieve it. Key Features • Highlights the normative development and strengths of U.S. Latino populations • Elaborates on the heterogeneity of Latinos in that it does not assume that all Latino populations, and the contexts of their development, are identical. • Emphasizes on cultural sensitivity and competence at all levels • Focuses on the importance of cultural identity amongst Latinos and its contribution to healthy developmental outcomes.
"In Neuropsychological Practice with Veterans, Bush endeavors to compile a comprehensive account of how neuropsychological research, assessment, and treatment of veterans are impacted by military status. He succeeds brilliantly with this undertaking...[T]his is an essential text for those working with active duty service members and veterans, and is highly recommended to all those seeking new perspectives."--Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society "In Neuropsychological Practice with Veterans, Dr. Shane S. Bush provides a multifaceted overview of neuropsychological assessments and treatments associated with war veterans who have suffered from traumatic brain injury (TBI) during their service."--Somatic Psychotherapy Today Traumatic brain injury (TBI), afflicting approximately one third of injured veterans returning from duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, is considered the signature injury in these conflicts. In addition to TBI, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression often afflict these veterans and contribute to neurological symptoms. This is the first volume to provide a comprehensive overview of neuropsychologically grounded assessment, treatment, training, and trends for clinicians who work with this population. Encompassing the writings of clinicians and researchers experienced in working with the Veterans Administration (VA) population, the book is grounded in an understanding of the unique culture of the veteran with its specialized service delivery methods and procedures. In addition to its focus on veterans with TBI, the text also addresses the assessment and treatment of aging veterans of previous military conflicts and of combat and non-combat veterans with neurological and emotional problems related to aging, substance abuse, HIV/hepatitis, psychiatric disorders, and other problems. Key Features: Addresses the growing need for neuropsychological assessment and treatment of returning veterans as well as aging veterans of earlier conflicts Focuses on traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression Discusses assessment of malingering (faking); benefits, pension, return-to-work evaluations; polytrauma management; and training concerns Written by clinicians and researchers experienced in working with veterans Edited by a neuropsychology specialist who is well known in the VA community
The long shadow of September 11 has awakened a widespread desire to understand more about Arab and Islamic cultures. As an Arab who learned western psychology, Marwan Dwairy has first-hand experience with the dilemmas involved in adapting western psychotherapy to the needs of Arab and Muslim clients. Drawing from his 25 years of clinical and educational experience, this original volume will help to deepen knowledge and avoid stereotyping among counselors, therapists, social workers, and other mental health professionals.
Many factors in the world today, such as globalization and a rise in immigration, are increasing the need for mental health practitioners to acquire the ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures. This text will be the most comprehensive volume to address this need to date, exploring the history, philosophy, processes, and trends in counseling and psychotherapy in countries from all regions of the globe. Organized by continent and country, each chapter is written by esteemed scholars drawing on intimate knowledge of their homelands. They explore such topics as their countries’ demographics, counselor education programs, current counseling theories and trends, and significant traditional and indigenous treatment and healing methods. This consistent structure facilitates quick and easy comparisons and contrasts across cultures, offering an enhanced understanding of diversity and multicultural competencies. Overall, this text is an invaluable resource for practitioners, researchers, students, and faculty, showing them how to look beyond their own borders and cultures to enhance their counseling practices.
The only book currently available that focuses and multicultural, cross-cultural and international perspectives of stress and coping A very comprehensive resource book on the subject matter Contains many groundbreaking ideas and findings in stress and coping research Contributors are international scholars, both well-established authors as well as younger scholars with new ideas Appeals to managers, missionaries, and other professions which require working closely with people from other cultures
Paul B. Pedersen,Walter J. Lonner,Juris G. Draguns,Joseph E. Trimble,Maria R. Scharron-del Rio
Author: Paul B. Pedersen,Walter J. Lonner,Juris G. Draguns,Joseph E. Trimble,Maria R. Scharron-del Rio
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Category: Social Science
Offering a primary focus on North American cultural and ethnic diversity while addressing global questions and issues, Counseling Across Cultures, Seventh Edition, edited by Paul B. Pederson, Walter J. Lonner, Juris G. Draguns, Joseph E. Trimble, and María R. Scharrón-del Río, draws on the expertise of 48 invited contributors to examine the cultural context of accurate assessment and appropriate interventions in counseling diverse clients. The book’s chapters highlight work with African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos/as, American Indians, refugees, individuals in marginalized situations, international students, those with widely varying religious beliefs, and many others. Edited by pioneers in multicultural counseling, this volume articulates the positive contributions that can be achieved when multicultural awareness is incorporated into the training of counselors.