Author: Pavel Arazim,Michal Dancak
This volume of the Logica Yearbook series brings together articles presented at the annual international symposium Logica 2015, Hejnice, the Czech Republic. The articles range over mathematical and philosophical logic, history and philosophy of logic, and the analysis of natural language.
Author: Pavel Arazim,Tomas Lavicka
Publisher: College Publications
This volume of the Logica Yearbook series brings together articles presented at the annual international symposium Logica 2017, Hejnice, the Czech Republic. The articles range over mathematical and philosophical logic, history and philosophy of logic, and the analysis of natural language.
Author: Vit Puncochar,Petr Svarny
This volume of the Logica Yearbook series brings together articles presented at the annual international symposium Logica 2012, Hejnice, the Czech Republic. The articles range over mathematical and philosophical logic, history and philosophy of logic, and the analysis of natural language.
Author: Thomas Piecha,Peter Schroeder-Heister
This volume is the first ever collection devoted to the field of proof-theoretic semantics. Contributions address topics including the systematics of introduction and elimination rules and proofs of normalization, the categorial characterization of deductions, the relation between Heyting's and Gentzen's approaches to meaning, knowability paradoxes, proof-theoretic foundations of set theory, Dummett's justification of logical laws, Kreisel's theory of constructions, paradoxical reasoning, and the defence of model theory. The field of proof-theoretic semantics has existed for almost 50 years, but the term itself was proposed by Schroeder-Heister in the 1980s. Proof-theoretic semantics explains the meaning of linguistic expressions in general and of logical constants in particular in terms of the notion of proof. This volume emerges from presentations at the Second International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics in Tübingen in 2013, where contributing authors were asked to provide a self-contained description and analysis of a significant research question in this area. The contributions are representative of the field and should be of interest to logicians, philosophers, and mathematicians alike.
Foundations and Applications of Transparent Intensional Logic
Author: Marie Du#í,Bjorn Jespersen,Pavel Materna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The book is about logical analysis of natural language. Since we humans communicate by means of natural language, we need a tool that helps us to understand in a precise manner how the logical and formal mechanisms of natural language work. Moreover, in the age of computers, we need to communicate both with and through computers as well. Transparent Intensional Logic is a tool that is helpful in making our communication and reasoning smooth and precise. It deals with all kinds of linguistic context in a fully compositional and anti-contextual way.
Author: Katalin Bimbó
This book celebrates and expands on J. Michael Dunn’s work on informational interpretations of logic. Dunn, in his Ph.D. thesis (1966), introduced a semantics for first-degree entailments utilizing the idea that a sentence can provide positive or negative information about a topic, possibly supplying both or neither. He later published a related interpretation of the logic R-mingle, which turned out to be one of the first relational semantics for a relevance logic. An incompatibility relation between information states lends itself to a definition of negation and it has figured into Dunn's comprehensive investigations into representations of various negations. The informational view of semantics is also a prominent theme in Dunn’s research on other logics, such as quantum logic and linear logic, and led to the encompassing theory of generalized Galois logics (or "gaggles"). Dunn’s latest work addresses informational interpretations of the ternary accessibility relation and the very nature of information. The book opens with Dunn’s autobiography, followed by a list of his publications. It then presents a series of papers written by respected logicians working on different aspects of information-based logics. The topics covered include the logic R-mingle, which was introduced by Dunn, and its applications in mathematical reasoning as well as its importance in obtaining results for other relevance logics. There are also interpretations of the accessibility relation in the semantics of relevance and other non-classical logics using different notions of information. It also presents a collection of papers that develop semantics for various logics, including certain modal and many-valued logics. The publication of this book is well timed, since we are living in an "information age.” Providing new technical findings, intellectual history and careful expositions of intriguing ideas, it appeals to a wide audience of scholars and researchers.
A Plaidoyer for the Play Level
Author: Shahid Rahman,Zoe McConaughey,Ansten Klev,Nicolas Clerbout
This monograph proposes a new way of implementing interaction in logic. It also provides an elementary introduction to Constructive Type Theory (CTT). The authors equally emphasize basic ideas and finer technical details. In addition, many worked out exercises and examples will help readers to better understand the concepts under discussion. One of the chief ideas animating this study is that the dialogical understanding of definitional equality and its execution provide both a simple and a direct way of implementing the CTT approach within a game-theoretical conception of meaning. In addition, the importance of the play level over the strategy level is stressed, binding together the matter of execution with that of equality and the finitary perspective on games constituting meaning. According to this perspective the emergence of concepts are not only games of giving and asking for reasons (games involving Why-questions), they are also games that include moves establishing how it is that the reasons brought forward accomplish their explicative task. Thus, immanent reasoning games are dialogical games of Why and How.
Essays in Honour of Jan Wolenski on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday
Author: Jaakko Hintikka
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
On the occasion of bis sixtieth birthday, we dedicate this volume to Jan Wo leriski-s-our teacher, our colleague, our friend. Both of us are particularly indebted to Jan not only with regards to profes sional matters, but some private ones as well. Hence, we hope that he forgives us an occasional lapse into fondness and affection. That said, may the list of bis personalmerits remain shrouded in mystery; rather than unveil them, we open here by appraising Jan's presence from a broader perspective. Tonote that Jan was not always a part of our lives would not evoke surprise. However, to imagine the Institute of Pbilosophy on Grodzka Street or Krakow pbilosophy without him in it would be a harder task-at least for us, Nonethe less, we do remember the days when he was commuting to Krakow as a guest lecturer. Is there anything about those days which particularly comes to mind? To shed light on the story which follows, one must begin by stating that the early 1980s when we were studying philosophy was not a bright period. The great masters of Krakow philosophy-Ingarden, Mehlberg, Zawirski, or Dambska-> were either dead or, for political reasons, kept silent. The years following Martial Law (1981-1983) were intellectually very blighted and barren. In the midst of all this we were attending Jan's course on general methodology.
Author: Rosalie Iemhoff,Jan Van Eijck,Joost J Joosten
During his scientific life Albert Visser has contributed to a great variety of disciplines in logic, ranging from provability logics, interpretability, and formal arithmetic to philosophy, linguistics and formal language semantics. This Liber Amicorum is in honour of his long and distinguised career, and nicely bears tribute to the diversity of Albert Visser's interests. Filled with contriubitons from his colleagues, the book illustrates the important role that Albert Visser plays and has played as a logician in the Netherlands and abroad.
Author: Laura Bonelli,Fabio Paglieri,Silvia Felletti
Arguments have often been a topic of interest in the psychology of communication, typically with an emphasis on their persuasive features - an emphasis largely shared by at least one of the classical disciplines in argumentation studies, namely, rhetoric. Nonetheless, contemporary argumentation theory has mostly steered clear of psychological contributions, with only few (albeit notable) exceptions. While there are both historical and theoretical reasons for this lack of interaction, many nowadays seem to think it is past time we bury the hatchet for good, and recent years have witnessed a flourish of cognitive approaches to the study of argument. This volume aims to take stock of these recent developments, as well as paving the way to new promising directions of inquiry. In doing so, it also manages to organize this rich landscape around five main sub-themes: socio-cognitive models of argumentation, issues of rationality (or lack thereof), the study of biases and fallacies, the role of argumentation in persuasion (and vice versa), and how learning and development affect our argumentative attitudes.
Author: Kees Doets,Jan van Eijck,Jan Eijck
Publisher: Kings College Publications
Long ago, when Alexander the Great asked the mathematician Menaechmus for a crash course in geometry, he got the famous reply There is no royal road to mathematics. Where there was no shortcut for Alexander, there is no shortcut for us. Still, the fact that we have access to computers and mature programming languages means that there are avenues for us that were denied to the kings and emperors of yore. The purpose of this book is to teach logic and mathematical reasoning in practice, and to connect logical reasoning with computer programming in Haskell. Haskell emerged in the 1990s as a standard for lazy functional programming, a programming style where arguments are evaluated only when the value is actually needed. Haskell is a marvelous demonstration tool for logic and maths because its functional character allows implementations to remain very close to the concepts that get implemented, while the laziness permits smooth handling of infinite data structures. This book does not assume the reader to have previous experience with either programming or construction of formal proofs, but acquaintance with mathematical notation, at the level of secondary school mathematics is presumed. Everything one needs to know about mathematical reasoning or programming is explained as we go along. After proper digestion of the material in this book, the reader will be able to write interesting programs, reason about their correctness, and document them in a clear fashion. The reader will also have learned how to set up mathematical proofs in a structured way, and how to read and digest mathematical proofs written by others. This is the updated, expanded, and corrected second edition of a much-acclaimed textbook. Praise for the first edition: Doets and van Eijck s The Haskell Road to Logic, Maths and Programming is an astonishingly extensive and accessible textbook on logic, maths, and Haskell. Ralf Laemmel, Professor of Computer Science, University of Koblenz-Landau
Why Rules Matter
Author: J. Peregrin
In this study two strands of inferentialism are brought together: the philosophical doctrine of Brandom, according to which meanings are generally inferential roles, and the logical doctrine prioritizing proof-theory over model theory and approaching meaning in logical, especially proof-theoretical terms.
New Historical and Epistemological Insights. Homage to Gottfried W. Leibniz 1646-1716
Author: Raffaele Pisano,Michel Fichant,Paolo Bussotti
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) has a prominent worldwide place in the history of scientific thought, from mathematics, logic, and physics to astronomy and engineering. In 2016, both his birth and death have been commemorated. Given the influence by Leibniz on Western sciences and philosophies and his polyhedric scientific activities, this special book chooses to focus on Leibniz's scientific works. In particular, we explore Leibniz's intellectual matrix and heritage within interdisciplinary fields, and present contributions from leading experts on the subject. The book offers much-needed insights into the subject from scientific, historical, philosophical and nature of science perspectives. It also provides authoritative introductions to scholarly contributions, which are often dispersed in journals and books not easily accessible to every reader. Therefore, this volume also contains excellent chapters on topics which, generally speaking, have their place in any rounded science, history or philosophy topic. It provides an absorbing and significant read for historians, philosophers and scientists alike. Editors Raffaele Pisano is full professor at the Lille University, France. Michel Fichant is Emeritus professor at the Sorbonne University, France. Paolo Bussotti is senior lecturer-researcher at the Udine University, Italy. Agamenon R. E. Oliveira is full professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Foreword Eberhard Knobloch is Emeritus professor at the Berlin University of Technology, Germany.
Author: Hans van Ditmarsch,Joseph Y. Halpern,Wiebe van der Hoek
Epistemic logic and, more generally, logics of knowledge and belief, originated with philosophers such as Jaakko Hintikka and David Lewis in the early 1960s. Since then, such logics have played a significant role not only in philosophy, but also in computer science, artificial intelligence, and economics. This handbook reports significant progress in a field that, while more mature, continues to be very active. This book should make it easier for new researchers to enter the field, and give experts a chance to appreciate work in related areas. The book starts with a gentle introduction to the logics of knowledge and belief; it gives an overview of the area and the material covered in the book. The following eleven chapters, each written by a leading researcher (or researchers), cover the topics of only knowing, awareness, knowledge and probability, knowledge and time, the dynamics of knowledge and of belief, model checking, game theory, agency, knowledge and ability, and security protocols. The chapters have been written so that they can be read independently and in any order. Each chapter ends with a section of notes that provides some historical background, including references, and a detailed bibliography.
A Systems Perspective
Author: Ian Abbott-Donnelly,Harold "Bud" Lawson
This book brings together some of the best thinking about how cities work in today's technology-enabled world. It reveals insight from many system perspectives to show in detail how cities can become smarter, be understood and meet the needs of the citizens. It explains how cities can sustain themselves under the increasing pressures of change. An important thread between the authors is that from whatever point of view you start from in the city it is vital to be able to see the city as a complex adaptive system. Cities are extremely complex in their nature, being highly connected socially, economically and environmentally. The systems perspective allows underlying patterns, threats and opportunities to be understood and worked with in a constructive manner. All of the systems perspectives recognise that people form the true fabric of the city. The architecture, the technology and the systems are transient and need constant management and renewal to continue to improve the lives of the citizens. The city is a diverse system of systems that attracts the majority of the planets population. It is wholly dependent on the natural systems in which it resides to supply it with clean air, usable water, food, energy and a valuable quality of life. Without a systems perspective cities quickly become unsustainable. For the first time technology is now able to integrate the systems within cities making them more efficient and more effective while using resources wisely. Increasingly cities are working together across the globe to learn how make good use of technology to improve the lives of citizens. This book explains how this can be done. A must read for people who operate city systems, design city policy and provide products and services to cities that aim to improve the quality of city life.
Author: Josep Maria Font
Abstract algebraic logic is the more general and abstract side of algebraic logic, the branch of mathematics that studies the connections between logics and their algebra-based semantics. This emerging subfield of mathematical logic consolidated since the 1980s, and is considered as the algebraic logic of the twenty-first century; as such it is increasingly becoming an indispensable tool to approach the algebraic study of any (mainly sentential) logic in a systematic way. This book is an introductory textbook on abstract algebraic logic, and takes a bottom-up approach, treating first logics with a simpler algebraic study, such as Rasiowa's implicative logics, and then guides readers, by means of successive steps of generalization and abstraction, to meet more and more complicated algebra-based semantics. An entire chapter is devoted to Blok and Pigozzi's theory of algebraizable logics, proving the main theorems and incorporating later developments by other scholars. After a chapter with the basics of the classical theory of matrices, one chapter is devoted to an in-depth exposition of the semantics of generalized matrices. There are also two more avanced chapters providing introductions to the two hierachies that organize the logical landscape according to the criteria of abstract algebraic logic, the Leibniz hierarchy and the Frege hierarchy. All throughout the book, particular care is devoted to the presentation and classification of dozens of examples of particular logics. The book is addressed to mathematicians and logicians with little or no previous exposure to algebraic logic. Some acquaintance with examples of non-classical logics is desirable in order to appreciate the extremely general theory. The book is written with students (or beginners in the field) in mind, and combines a textbook style in its main sections, including more than 400 carefully graded exercises, with a survey style in the exposition of some research directions. The book includes scattered historical notes and numerous bibliographic references.
Author: Donald Gillies
This book presents detailed criticisms of existing systems for organising research, and outlines a new approach based on different principles. Part 1 criticizes the research assessment exercise (RAE) which has been used in the UK from 1986 to 2008. It is argued that the RAE is both very costly, and likely to reduce the quality of research produced. The UK government has decided that, from 2009, the RAE should be replaced by a system based on metrics. In Part 2 this system is criticized and it is argued that it is certainly no better, and probably worse, than the RAE. In Part 3 of the book, the proposed alternative system is outlined, and it is argued that it would produce better quality research at a much lower cost than either the RAE or the system based on metrics. The arguments are illustrated by a variety of examples of excellent research, taken from different fields. These include Einstein's discovery of Special Relativity, Fleming's discovery of penicillin, Frege's introduction of modern mathematical logic, and Wittgenstein's work on his masterpiece: Philosophical Investigations. The Author: Donald Gillies is Professor in the Department of Science and Technology Studies, University College London.