The Protection of Legitimate Expectations, Good Faith Interpretation and Fair Dispute Settlement
Author: Marion Panizzon
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
What does the concept of good faith express? This book is the first to discuss what good faith means in international trade law. As a reference guide for scholars and practitioners it analyses the case law of WTO dispute settlement practice. The book describes how, why and when the concept of good faith links the WTO Agreements with other public international norms. The concept of good faith appears frequently in treaties and customary rules, but is most often considered a general principle of law. WTO law uses the corrolaries of pacta sunt servanda, the prohibition of abus de droit and the protection of legitimate expectation alongside the principle of good faith. An analysis of GATT 1947 and WTO case law reveals that the function of good faith varies. The Panel reports and the Appellate Body decisions make different use of it. The Appellate Body is prepared to apply the principle to WTO provisions only, while Panels use it more freely and substantively; that is, they apply good faith to fill lacunae in any of the WTO covered agreements. Also, adjudicators use the principle differently, depending on whether it relates to the agreements covered by the WTO or the procedural law of WTO dispute settlement. As it applies to the former, good faith is used to strike a balance between, on the one hand, the obligation to liberalise trade, and on the other hand, the right to invoke an exception to trade liberalisation for the protection of the environment, culture, public morals, human life or health. In this way, good faith safeguards the gains of multilateral trade liberalisation against unlawful interests such as disguised protectionism. The book also introduces the novel field of WTO procedural law governing trade dispute litigation. In the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), good faith appears in the standard of review, rules of evidence and fact-finding, standing, duty of prior consultation, right of establishment of a panel, ex officio investigations, withdrawal of notices of appeal, and the raising of objections. In all these areas it ensures that the rules of dispute resolution are not abused. The Appellate Body has even gone so far as to derive a new standard from the principle of good faith that demands that disputes are settled fairly, promptly and effectively. Insights into good faith in WTO law are not only important for trade law professionals. Current applications and future operations of the principle are likely to be of strategic value for answering the increasingly pressing question of how WTO law and other international agreements ought to be reconciled.
The growing body of WTO jurisprudence is of profound significance for the development of the general body of international law. With this in mind, Environmental Sovereignty and the WTO succinctly examines how the WTO law can contribute to achieving coherence between general international law, international environmental law and international trade law and avoid conflicts between trade liberalization and global environmental protection. Professor Condon argues that these three branches of law are generally consistent with each other in the area of international law where they intersect. However, WTO jurisprudence can benefit from a more explicit analysis, provided here, of the way that panel decisions fit into the general framework of international law. No law reforms are currently needed to facilitate this task. As the text shows, it is a matter of using the current WTO rules to resolve conflicts between treaties such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) and to determine the circumstances in which unilateral trade measures should be permitted. The topics addressed in Environmental Sovereignty and the WTO will be of considerable interest to a broad audience given the global political controversy over American unilateralism, the fairness of WTO rules to poor countries, and the effect of trade rules on efforts to protect the global environment. However, the book addresses these controversial issues without sacrificing academic rigour and will appeal to a scholarly and professional audience seeking new approaches to addressing the problems raised by the globalization of law. Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.
John Howard Jackson,Royal Institute of International Affairs
The obligations of international trade law hinge upon the question of what constitute "like products". Trade disputes will often involve an examination of whether the products in question are in competition with one another. The most common term used for this test is to ask whether they are "like products" - that is to ask whether products are sufficiently similar for consumers to see them as substitutable - and thus whether they are subject to the rules of the WTO and GATT. The central thesis of this book is that despite the centrality of the principle of 'like products' to the WTO, it has not been consistently interpreted, and therefore the risk of discriminatory practice remains. The author, through analyzing legal and economic arguments, sets about defining the concept of 'like products' in such a way as to consistently give effect to WTO aims.
The WTO Secretariat reports that during the period from 1995 to June 30, 2007 WTO members initiated 3097 anti-dumping investigations. Of these, 474 were put forward by India, which made it the largest user of this measure among WTO Members. The traditional argument of developing countries was that loopholes or absence of clear definitions in the anti-dumping rules have increased the possibility of abuses and discretionary practices against them. Now, many developing countries like India have become frequent users of this measure. For a better understanding of the various provisions of the WTO's Anti-dumping Agreement (ADA) a critical investigation of the resulting jurisprudence is a necessity. To that end, this timely work has a fivefold aim: and• To explore the jurisprudence that has emerged around the anti-dumping regime and how it affected developing countries; and• To assess how effectively and to what extent the WTO's Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) is able to analyze the violations of ADA provisions; and• To examine domestic compliance with DSB decisions; and• To study the Indian cases which come before the nation's Customs, Excise andamp; Sales Tax Appellate Tribunal, various High Courts and the Supreme Court of India; and and• To offer recommendations for the improvement of the anti-dumping regime from a developing country perspective.
Retaining the signature clarity and depth that made it an instant classic, this new fourth edition of The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization examines both the institutional and substantive law of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Fully updated to incorporate all new developments in the WTO's body of case law, this market-leading text offers readers a clear introduction to the basic principles of the multilateral trading system and a detailed examination of the law of the WTO. With integrated questions and assignments which allow readers to easily assess and reinforce their understanding and develop their analytical skills, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization is essential reading for all WTO law students and practitioners. Suitable for postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students, this classic text is also the ideal resource for practitioners, diplomats and policymakers looking for an introduction to the law of the WTO.
International trade rules have significant impacts on environmental law and policy, at the domestic, regional and global levels. At the World Trade Organization (WTO), dispute settlement tribunals are increasingly called to decide on environment- and health-related questions. Can governments treat products differently based on environmental considerations? Can they block the import of highly carcinogenic asbestos-containing products or genetically modified crops? Does the WTO allow governments to protect dolphins or endangered sea turtles through the use of import restrictions on certain products? How can civil society participate in WTO dispute settlement? This Guide, authored by five world leaders on international environmental and trade law at the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL), is an accessible, comprehensive, one-of-a-kind compendium of environment and trade jurisprudence under the WTO. Providing an overview for both experts and non-experts of the major themes relevant to environment and trade, it also analyses how WTO tribunals have approached these themes in concrete disputes and provides selected excerpts of the most significant cases.
In this very thorough but highly accessible book an eminent legal scholar clearly explains today's system of international trade law and international economic relations as it has evolved over the last six decades. Focusing inevitably on the major innovations that came with the inception in 1994 of the World Trade Organization (WTO) with its various agreements, the analysis also provides in-depth commentary on the intense debate over important matters than remain unsettled. Among the aspects of the subject treated in depth are the following: the WTO dispute settlement mechanism; services the General Agreement on Trade in Services (OATS); investments the Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS); intellectual property rights -the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS): areas still covered by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1947; the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) concept; special provisions relating to agriculture and textiles; sanitary and phytosanitary measures: technical barriers to trade; pre-shipment inspection: and import licensing procedures. The author describes all the major precedent-setting cases in WTO jurisprudence and analyzes their effect to date and the trends they have set in motion, particularly as they relate to perceived discrimination against developing nations which must balance their WTO commitments with the structural adjustments demanded by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) regimes. Arguments within the WTO and among scholars over such controversial matters as regulation of competition, setting of labour standards, and environmental controls as well as thorny concerns raised by enforcement of intellectual property rights and limitation on investments are held up to close scrutiny for their legal merits. This rigorous approach, in addition to its uncompromising detail and revealing clarity, assure this book of a place in the practice library of lawyers, officials, and policymakers in the field for many years to come.
In its ten years of existence, the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement system has continued to differentiate itself in many ways from more conventional international judicial proceedings such as those before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or regional integration courts. The regular participation of third parties, the emphasis at all levels of the ?ordinary meaning? of the text of WTO rules, and the raft of proposed amendments to the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) all characterise WTO jurisprudence. In twenty-six incisive contributions, this book covers both the ?legislative? and ?(quasi) judicial? activities encompassed by the WTO dispute settlement system. Essays concerned with rules emphasise proposed improvements and clarifications in such areas as special and differential treatment of less-developed countries, surveillance of implementation, compensation, and suspension of concessions. Other contributions discuss such jurisprudential and practical issues as discrimination, trade-related environmental measures, subsidies and countervailing measures, and trade-related intellectual property rights. The authors refer frequently to the panel, Appellate Body and arbitration reports, a chronological list of which appears as an annex. The contributors include WTO arbitrators, members of the WTO Appellate Body, WTO panelists, and academics from a broad spectrum of countries engaged as legal advisers by the WTO, by governments, or by non-governmental organisations. More than a mere snapshot of the current status of the WTO dispute settlement system, this outstanding work represents a comprehensive analysis that brings a fast-moving and crucially significant body of international law into sharp focus.
In this reissued edition of the classic work Developing Countries in the GATT Legal System, Robert E. Hudec's clear insight on the situation of developing countries within the international trade system is once again made available. Hudec is regarded as one of the most prominent commentators on the evolution of the current international trade regime, and this long out-of-print book offers his analysis of the dynamics playing out between developed and developing nations. A significant contribution when the book was first published, this work continues to serve as a thoughtful and important guide to how current and future trade policy must seriously adapt to the demands of the developing world. This new edition includes a new introduction by J. Michael Finger that examines Hudec's work to understand how the GATT got into its current historical-institutional predicament and the lasting impact of his work on current research on international trade systems.
Law and Policy of International Economic Relations
Author: John Howard Jackson
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Business & Economics
Since the first edition of The World Trading System was published in 1989, the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations has been completed, and most governments have ratified and are in the process of implementing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In the Uruguay Round, more than 120 nations negotiated for over eight years, to produce a document of some 26,000 pages. This new edition of The World Trading System takes account of these and other developments. Like the first edition, however, its treatment of topical issues is grounded in the fundamental legal, constitutional, institutional, and political realities that mold trade policy. Thus the book continues to serve as an introduction to the study of trade law and policy.Two basic premises of The World Trading System are that economic concerns are central to foreign affairs, and that national economies are growing more interdependent. The author presents the economic principles of international trade policy and then examines how they operate under real- world constraints. In particular, he examines the extremely elaborate system of rules that governs international economic relations. Until now, the bulk of international trade policy has addressed trade in goods; issues inadequately addressed by policy include trade in services, intellectual property rights, certain investment measures, and agriculture.The author highlights the tension between legal rules, designed to create predictability and stability, and the governments need to make exceptions to solve short-term problems. He also looks at weaknesses of international trade policy, especially as it applies to developing countries and economies in transition. He concludes with a look at issues that will shape international trade policy well into the twenty-first century.
The study presents a critical review on the problems stemming from the nature and scope of the WTO remedies, and highlights in a comparative perspective the lacunas and inadequacies in the substantive and procedural aspects of WTO dispute settlement system.
Author: Amrita Narlikar,Martin Daunton,Robert M. Stern
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Business & Economics
This handbook provides a holistic understanding of what the World Trade Organization does, how it goes about fulfilling its tasks, its achievements and problems, and how it might contend with some critical challenges.
The World Trade Organization—backbone of today's international commercial relations—requires member countries to self-enforce exporters' access to foreign markets. Its dispute settlement system is the crown jewel of the international trading system, but its benefits still fall disproportionately to wealthy nations. Could the system be doing more on behalf of developing countries? In Self-Enforcing Trade, Chad P. Bown explains why the answer is an emphatic "yes." Bown argues that as poor countries look to the benefits promised by globalization as part of their overall development strategy, they increasingly require access to the WTO dispute settlement process to protect their trading interests. Unfortunately, the practical realities of WTO dispute settlement as it currently stands create a number of hurdles that prevent developing countries from enjoying the trading system's full benefits. This book confronts these challenges. Self-Enforcing Trade examines the WTO's "extended litigation process," highlighting the tangle of international economics, law, and politics that participants must master. He identifies the costs that prevent developing countries from disentangling the self-enforcement process and fully using the WTO system as part of their growth strategies. Bown assesses recent efforts to help developing countries overcome those costs, including the role of the Advisory Centre on WTO Law and development focused NGOs. Bown's proposed Institute for Assessing WTO Commitments tackles the largest remaining obstacle currently limiting developing country engagement in the WTO's selfenforcement process—a problematic lack of information, monitoring, and surveillance.
Thomas Cottier,Petros C. Mavroidis,Patrick Blatter
The WTO dispute settlement system has become one of the most dynamic, effective and successful international dispute settlement systems in the world over the past twenty years. This second edition of A Handbook on the WTO Dispute Settlement System has been compiled by the dispute settlement lawyers of the WTO Secretariat with a view to providing a practice-oriented account of the system. In addition to describing the existing rules and procedures, this accessibly written handbook explains how those rules and procedures have been interpreted by dispute settlement panels and the Appellate Body, and how they have evolved over time. The handbook provides practical information to help various audiences understand the day-to-day operation of the WTO dispute settlement system.