In its ten years of existence, the World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement system has continued to differentiate itself in many ways from more conventional international judicial proceedings such as those before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) or regional integration courts. The regular participation of third parties, the emphasis at all levels of the ?ordinary meaning? of the text of WTO rules, and the raft of proposed amendments to the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) all characterise WTO jurisprudence. In twenty-six incisive contributions, this book covers both the ?legislative? and ?(quasi) judicial? activities encompassed by the WTO dispute settlement system. Essays concerned with rules emphasise proposed improvements and clarifications in such areas as special and differential treatment of less-developed countries, surveillance of implementation, compensation, and suspension of concessions. Other contributions discuss such jurisprudential and practical issues as discrimination, trade-related environmental measures, subsidies and countervailing measures, and trade-related intellectual property rights. The authors refer frequently to the panel, Appellate Body and arbitration reports, a chronological list of which appears as an annex. The contributors include WTO arbitrators, members of the WTO Appellate Body, WTO panelists, and academics from a broad spectrum of countries engaged as legal advisers by the WTO, by governments, or by non-governmental organisations. More than a mere snapshot of the current status of the WTO dispute settlement system, this outstanding work represents a comprehensive analysis that brings a fast-moving and crucially significant body of international law into sharp focus.
The WTO Secretariat reports that during the period from 1995 to June 30, 2007 WTO members initiated 3097 anti-dumping investigations. Of these, 474 were put forward by India, which made it the largest user of this measure among WTO Members. The traditional argument of developing countries was that loopholes or absence of clear definitions in the anti-dumping rules have increased the possibility of abuses and discretionary practices against them. Now, many developing countries like India have become frequent users of this measure. For a better understanding of the various provisions of the WTO's Anti-dumping Agreement (ADA) a critical investigation of the resulting jurisprudence is a necessity. To that end, this timely work has a fivefold aim: and• To explore the jurisprudence that has emerged around the anti-dumping regime and how it affected developing countries; and• To assess how effectively and to what extent the WTO's Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) is able to analyze the violations of ADA provisions; and• To examine domestic compliance with DSB decisions; and• To study the Indian cases which come before the nation's Customs, Excise andamp; Sales Tax Appellate Tribunal, various High Courts and the Supreme Court of India; and and• To offer recommendations for the improvement of the anti-dumping regime from a developing country perspective.
The Protection of Legitimate Expectations, Good Faith Interpretation and Fair Dispute Settlement
Author: Marion Panizzon
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
What does the concept of good faith express? This book is the first to discuss what good faith means in international trade law. As a reference guide for scholars and practitioners it analyses the case law of WTO dispute settlement practice. The book describes how, why and when the concept of good faith links the WTO Agreements with other public international norms. The concept of good faith appears frequently in treaties and customary rules, but is most often considered a general principle of law. WTO law uses the corrolaries of pacta sunt servanda, the prohibition of abus de droit and the protection of legitimate expectation alongside the principle of good faith. An analysis of GATT 1947 and WTO case law reveals that the function of good faith varies. The Panel reports and the Appellate Body decisions make different use of it. The Appellate Body is prepared to apply the principle to WTO provisions only, while Panels use it more freely and substantively; that is, they apply good faith to fill lacunae in any of the WTO covered agreements. Also, adjudicators use the principle differently, depending on whether it relates to the agreements covered by the WTO or the procedural law of WTO dispute settlement. As it applies to the former, good faith is used to strike a balance between, on the one hand, the obligation to liberalise trade, and on the other hand, the right to invoke an exception to trade liberalisation for the protection of the environment, culture, public morals, human life or health. In this way, good faith safeguards the gains of multilateral trade liberalisation against unlawful interests such as disguised protectionism. The book also introduces the novel field of WTO procedural law governing trade dispute litigation. In the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), good faith appears in the standard of review, rules of evidence and fact-finding, standing, duty of prior consultation, right of establishment of a panel, ex officio investigations, withdrawal of notices of appeal, and the raising of objections. In all these areas it ensures that the rules of dispute resolution are not abused. The Appellate Body has even gone so far as to derive a new standard from the principle of good faith that demands that disputes are settled fairly, promptly and effectively. Insights into good faith in WTO law are not only important for trade law professionals. Current applications and future operations of the principle are likely to be of strategic value for answering the increasingly pressing question of how WTO law and other international agreements ought to be reconciled.
The study presents a critical review on the problems stemming from the nature and scope of the WTO remedies, and highlights in a comparative perspective the lacunas and inadequacies in the substantive and procedural aspects of WTO dispute settlement system.
The obligations of international trade law hinge upon the question of what constitute "like products". Trade disputes will often involve an examination of whether the products in question are in competition with one another. The most common term used for this test is to ask whether they are "like products" - that is to ask whether products are sufficiently similar for consumers to see them as substitutable - and thus whether they are subject to the rules of the WTO and GATT. The central thesis of this book is that despite the centrality of the principle of 'like products' to the WTO, it has not been consistently interpreted, and therefore the risk of discriminatory practice remains. The author, through analyzing legal and economic arguments, sets about defining the concept of 'like products' in such a way as to consistently give effect to WTO aims.
This book examines the regulation of services within the WTO. It examines the problem of reconciling a liberal system of trade in services with national governments' ability to protect social values through service regulation. The book analyses the existing legal framework and assesses the potential of ongoing trade negotiations.
International investment law is one of the fastest growing areas of international law. It has led to the signing of thousands of agreements, mostly in the form of investment contracts and bilateral investment treaties. Also, in the last two decades, there has been an exponential growth in the number of disputes being resolved by investment arbitration tribunals. Yet the legal principles at the basis of international investment law and arbitration remain in a state of flux. Perhaps the best illustration of this phenomenon is the wide disagreement among investment tribunals on some of the core concepts underpinning the regime, such as investment, property, regulatory powers, scope of jurisdiction, applicable law, or the interactions with other areas of international law. The purpose of this book is to revisit these conceptual foundations in order to shed light on the practice of international investment law. It is an attempt to bridge the growing gap between the theory and the practice of this thriving area of international law. The first part of the book focuses on the 'infrastructure' of the investment regime or, more specifically, on the structural arrangements that have been developed to manage foreign investment transactions and the potential disputes arising from them. The second part of the book identifies the common conceptual bases of an array of seemingly unconnected practical problems in order to clarify the main stakes and offer balanced solutions. The third part addresses the main sources of 'regime stress' as well as the main legal mechanisms available to manage such challenges to the operation of the regime. Overall, the book offers a thorough investigation of the conflicting theoretical positions underlying international investment law, testing their worth by reference to concrete issues that have arisen in the jurisprudence. It demonstrates that many of the most important practical questions arising in practice can be addressed by a carefully dosed resort to theory.