This book presents a comprehensive, authoritative and independent account of the rules, institutions and procedures governing the international climate change regime. Its detailed yet user-friendly description and analysis covers the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol, and all decisions taken by the Conference of the Parties up to 2003, including the landmark Marrakesh Accords. Mitigation commitments, adaptation, the flexibility mechanisms, reporting and review, compliance, education and public awareness, technology transfer, financial assistance and climate research are just some of the areas that are reviewed. The book also explains how the regime works, including a discussion of its political coalitions, institutional structure, negotiation process, administrative base, and linkages with other international regimes. In short, this book is the only current work that covers all areas of the climate change regime in such depth, yet in such a uniquely accessible and objective way.
The greenhouse effect is a vital process which is responsible for the heat on the earth?s surface. By consuming fossil fuels, clearing forests etc. humans aggravate this natural process. As additionally trapped heat exceeds the earth?s intake capacity this consequently leads to global warming. The current concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is already 30% higher compared to pre-industrial levels and unmanaged this development is likely to result in an increase of up to 6.4ø C towards the end of the century. Especially the poorest regions of the world are facing a double inequity as they a) will be hit earliest and hardest by the adverse impacts of climate change, and b) are least responsible for the stock of current concentrations in the atmosphere. Seeing this the application of the precautionary principle telling us ?to better be safe than sorry? appears to be imperative and makes traditional cost-benefit analysis become obsolete. Thus combating global warming has become one of the most important issues facing the world in the 21st century. The international climate regime is the main platform to further cooperation between nations and to tackle this problem. Since the first world climate conference in 1979 the international community of states pursues the goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. In 2009, the 15th COP of the UNFCCC aimed at achieving the final breakthrough with regard to framing new long-term mitigation commitments. However, the regime theory tells us that states behave as rational egoists and solely follow selfishly defined interests to maximize own profits. So it not only has to be assumed that just states with a favourable benefit-cost ratio will take the role of a ?pusher? in international climate negotiations but also that powerful states are more likely to reach a favourable outcome. Indeed the highly ineffective Kyoto Protocol, which amongst others had to deal with the exit of the United States, the creation of ?hot air? reductions and an overall lack of compliance incentives, has already shown the difficulties of creating an effective climate regime. In Copenhagen it became obvious that influential actors still do not seem to have an interest to significantly change their energy consumption patterns in order to reduce emissions. The majority of developing countries, politically prioritize the protection of their economic development which heavily depends on the use of cheap energy from fossil fuels. Especially China by no means intends to cut its impressive GDP growth figures to please international crowds. Meanwhile the hands of the US President on the international stage were once again tied by domestic restrictions. However, although it seemed that the long prevailing differences of interests between industrial and developing countries are more than ever insuperable, there is hope. A ?global race? towards renewable energy and related jobs has already started. Nations and international corporations are positioning themselves to take advantage of the inevitable transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. This could be the starting point for a sustainable bottom-up policy architecture on the international level replacing the current top-down approach.
Inhaltsangabe:Introduction: For more than two decades, scientific and political communities have debated whether and how to act on climate change. This discussion moved on. Today science is very clear about the magnitude of the risks imposed by unmanaged climate change: What we are doing is redifining where people could live and if we do that as a world than hundreds of million of people will move. Probably billions will move. We are talking about gambling the planet, we are talking about a radical change of the way in which human beings could live and where they could live and, indeed, how many of them. With regard to these risks the application of the precautionary principle telling us to better be safe than sorry appears to be imperative and makes traditional cost-benefit analysis become obsolete. Thus combating global warming has become one of the most important issues facing the world in the 21. century. As nobody would be immune from the transformation the planet faces, avoiding this gamble should, in theory, be in the interest of all nations. Unfortunately, a common response in the scale necessary is hard to organize. While the industrialized countries fear the costs of the transformation from a high-carbon to a low-carbon economy, it is the poorest people who are facing a double unequity as they 1. will be hit earliest and hardest by the adverse impacts of climate change, and 2. are least responsible for the stock of current concentrations in the atmosphere. This inequity consequently leads to a great sense of injustice in developing countries being asked cut emission, while knowing, that the developed world got rich on high-carbon growth. Without any doubt the outcome of this is a historical responsibility of industrialized countries to take over leadership in reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, bearing in mind that by 2050, approximately eight out of nine billion people in the world will be living in developing nations, it is impossible to get down to emission levels needed without at the same time covering the developing world as well. Against this background international climate protection is a sociopolitical, economical, and ethical challenge, concerning all nations, which have to understand that they are a community based on the principle of mutual solidarity. The international climate regime is regarded as the main platform to further cooperation between nations in order to succesfully combat global [...]
Climate change is an environmental problem of unprecedented complexity, not just in terms of its physical, social, economic and political impacts, but particularly in terms of the range of policy instruments being designed by countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Climate Change and Carbon Markets aims to provide an accessible and practical guide to cutting edge market-based mechanisms which will reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This book is a guide for national and international policy-makers and industry professionals, who need to understand the carbon markets established pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol, one of the most complex agreements ever negotiated. The book sets out how carbon markets will function by explaining the rules, institutions and procedures of the Kyoto mechanisms, including: emissions trading, joint implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It also provides an in-depth explanation of the EU Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme, emerging mechanisms in the US and developing countries, and how these will link up.For policy-makers, researchers and scholars; industry practitioners, companies, market service providers, technical and legal consultants, NGOs and all stakeholder organizations engaged in the Kyoto markets, this is the authoritative and comprehensive practical guide to this rapidly evolving area.Contains the full text of the key European Union documents setting up the EU Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme and the Linking Directive.
This book is the first comprehensive assessment of the legal duties of states with regard to human induced climate change damage. By discussing the current state of climate science in the context of binding international law, it convincingly argues that compensation for such damage could indeed be recoverable. The author analyses legal duties requiring states to prevent climate change damage, and discusses to what extent a breach of these duties will give rise to state responsibility (international liability). The analysis includes the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, but also various nature/ biodiversity protection and law of the sea instruments, as well as the no-harm-rule as a key provision of customary international law. The challenge in applying the different aspects of the law on state responsibility, including causation and standard of proof, are discussed in three case studies, and the questions raised by multiple polluters explored in depth. Against this background, the author advocates an internationally negotiated solution to the issue of climate change damage.
A systematic examination by the best writers in a variety of fields working on issues of how climate change affects society, and how social, economic, and political systems can, do, and should respond.
This book seeks to enrich and refine global administrative law and EU administrative law analytical tools by examining their manifold relations. Its aim is to begin to explore the complex reality of the interactions between EU administrative law and global administrative law, to provide a preliminary map of such legal and institutional reality, and to review it. The book is the first attempt to analyze a dense area of new legal issues. The first part of the book contains core elements of a general theory of the relationships between global and EU administrative law: comparative inquiries, exchanges of legal principles, and developing linkages. The second part is devoted to special regulatory regimes, in which global and European law coexist, though not always peacefully. Several sectors are considered: cultural heritage, medicines, climate change, antitrust, accounting and auditing, banking supervision, and public procurement.
A tool to help negotiators of Multilateral Environmental Agreements to prepare strategies and to participate more effectively in the negotiations and focus on environmental issues, their creation of binding international law, and their inclusion.
Assessing EU Participation in United Nations Human Rights and Environmental Fora
Author: Hans Bruyninckx
Category: Political Science
An interdisciplinary approach to the study of the EU in UN human rights and environmental governance which addresses the legal and political science dimensions. With contributions from academics and policy-makers, this volume is a comprehensive analysis of how the challenges it faces impact on the EU's position in UN fora.
The New Carbon Economy provides a critical understanding ofthe carbon economy. It offers key insights into the constitution,governance and effects of the carbon economy, across a variety ofgeographical settings. Examines different dimensions of the carbon economy from arange of disciplinary angles in a diversity of settings Provides ways for researchers to subject claims ofnewness and uniqueness to critical scrutiny Historicizes claims of the 'newness' of the carbon economy Covers a range of geographical settings including Europe, theUS and Central America