The Impact of China's 1989 Tiananmen Massacre

Author: Jean-Philippe Béja

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136906843

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 7148

The 1989 pro-democracy movement in China constituted a huge challenge to the survival of the Chinese communist state, and the efforts of the Chinese Communist party to erase the memory of the massacre testify to its importance. This consisted of six weeks of massive pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing and over 300 other cities, led by students, who in Beijing engaged in a hunger strike which drew wide public support. Their actions provoked repression from the regime, which - after internal debate - decided to suppress the movement with force, leading to a still-unknown number of deaths in Beijing and a period of heightened repression throughout the country. This book assesses the impact of the movement, and of the ensuing repression, on the political evolution of the People’s Republic of China. The book discusses what lessons the leadership learned from the events of 1989, in particular whether these events consolidated authoritarian government or facilitated its adaptation towards a new flexibility which may, in time, lead to the transformation of the regime. It also examines the impact of 1989 on the pro-democracy movement, assessing whether its change of strategy since has consolidated the movement, or if, given it success in achieving economic growth and raising living standards, it has become increasingly irrelevant. It also examines how the repression of the movement has affected the economic policy of the Party, favoring the development of large State Enterprises and provoking an impressive social polarisation. Finally, Jean-Philippe Béja discusses how the events of 1989 are remembered and have affected China’s international relations and diplomacy; how human rights, law enforcement, policing, and liberal thought have developed over two decades.

Tiananmen

China's struggle for democracy : its prelude, development, aftermath, and impact

Author: Winston L. Y. Yang,Hungdah Chiu,University of Maryland at Baltimore. School of Law

Publisher: Occasional Papers Reprints

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 314

View: 6729

The People's Republic of Amnesia

Tiananmen Revisited

Author: Louisa Lim

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199347727

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 1613

Finalist for the 2015 Helen Bernstein Book Award for Excellence in Journalism Longlisted for the Lionel Gelber Award for the Best Non-Fiction book in the world on Foreign Affairs An Economist Book of the Year, 2014 A New York Times Book Review Editor's Choice "One of the best analyses of the impact of Tiananmen throughout China in the years since 1989." --The New York Times Book Review On June 4, 1989, People's Liberation Army soldiers opened fire on unarmed civilians in Beijing, killing untold hundreds of people. A quarter-century later, this defining event remains buried in China's modern history, successfully expunged from collective memory. In The People's Republic of Amnesia, Louisa Lim charts how the events of June 4th changed China, and how China changed the events of June 4th by rewriting its own history. Lim reveals new details about those fateful days, including how one of the country's most senior politicians lost a family member to an army bullet, as well as the inside story of the young soldiers sent to clear Tiananmen Square. She also introduces us to individuals whose lives were transformed by the events of Tiananmen Square, such as a founder of the Tiananmen Mothers, whose son was shot by martial law troops; and one of the most important government officials in the country, who post-Tiananmen became one of its most prominent dissidents. And she examines how June 4th shaped China's national identity, fostering a generation of young nationalists, who know little and care less about 1989. For the first time, Lim uncovers the details of a brutal crackdown in a second Chinese city that until now has been a near-perfect case study in the state's ability to rewrite history, excising the most painful episodes. By tracking down eyewitnesses, discovering US diplomatic cables, and combing through official Chinese records, Lim offers the first account of a story that has remained untold for a quarter of a century. The People's Republic of Amnesia is an original, powerfully gripping, and ultimately unforgettable book about a national tragedy and an unhealed wound.

The Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989

Author: Jeff Hay

Publisher: Greenhaven Publishing LLC

ISBN: 0737751304

Category: Young Adult Nonfiction

Page: 192

View: 2423

Readers will examine the historical events leading up to and following China's 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. This volume looks at issues surrounding the incident such as the impact on democracy, the relationship between economic and political reform in China, and the legitimacy of the Tiananmen Papers of 2001. It also offers personal perspectives from people affected by the protests.

Mandate of Heaven

The Legacy of Tiananmen Square and the Next Generation of China's Leaders

Author: Orville Schell

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0684804476

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 4450

Discusses China's political, social, and economic situation

Behind the Tiananmen Massacre

social, political, and economic ferment in China

Author: Chu-yüan Cheng

Publisher: Westview Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 3398

The Tiananmen Papers

Author: Liang Zhang,Andrew J. Nathan,Perry Link,Orville Schell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780786725472

Category: History

Page: 580

View: 3601

On the night of June 3-4, 1989, Chinese troops violently crushed the largest pro-democracy demonstrations in the history of the communist regime. In this extraordinary collection of hundreds of internal government and Communist Party documents, secretly smuggled out of China, we learn how these events came to pass from behind the scenes. The material reveals how the most important decisions were made; and how the turmoil split the ruling elite into radically opposed factions. The book includes the minutes of the crucial meetings at which the Elders decided to cashier the pro-reform Party secretary Zhao Ziyang and to replace him with Jiang Zemin, to declare martial law, and finally to send the troops to drive the students from the Square. Just as the Pentagon Papers laid bare the secret American decision making behind the Vietnam War and changed forever our view of the nation's political leaders, so too has The Tiananmen Papers altered our perception of how and why the events of June 4 took the shape they did. Its publication has proven to be a landmark event in Chinese and world history.

Tiananmen Exiles

Voices of the Struggle for Democracy in China

Author: Perry Link,Rowena Xiaoqing He

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137438320

Category: Political Science

Page: 212

View: 367

In the spring of 1989, millions of citizens across China took to the streets in a nationwide uprising against government corruption and authoritarian rule. What began with widespread hope for political reform ended with the People's Liberation Army firing on unarmed citizens in the capital city of Beijing, and those leaders who survived the crackdown became wanted criminals overnight. Among the witnesses to this unprecedented popular movement was Rowena Xiaoqing He, who would later join former student leaders and other exiles in North America, where she has worked tirelessly for over a decade to keep the memory of the Tiananmen Movement alive. This moving oral history interweaves He's own experiences with the accounts of three student leaders exiled from China. Here, in their own words, they describe their childhoods during Mao's Cultural Revolution, their political activism, the bitter disappointments of 1989, and the profound contradictions and challenges they face as exiles. Variously labeled as heroes, victims, and traitors in the years after Tiananmen, these individuals tell difficult stories of thwarted ideals and disconnection, but that nonetheless embody the hope for a freer China and a more just world.

Beyond Tiananmen

The Politics of U.S.-China Relations 1989-2000

Author: Robert L. Suettinger

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815782087

Category: Political Science

Page: 556

View: 8728

It has been thirteen years since soldiers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) raced into the center of Beijing, ordered to recover "at any cost" the city's most important landmark, Tiananmen Square, from student demonstrators. The U.S. and other Western countries recoiled in disgust after the horrific incident, and the relationship between the U.S. and China went from amity and strategic cooperation to hostility, distrust, and misunderstanding. Time has healed many of the wounds from those terrible days of June 1989, and bilateral strains have been eased in light of the countries' joint opposition to international terrorism. Yet China and U.S. remain locked in opposition, as strategic thinkers and military planners on both sides plot future conflict scenarios with the other side as principal enemy. Polls indicate that most Americans consider China an "unfriendly" country, and anti-American sentiment is growing in China. According to Robert Suettinger, the calamity in Tiananmen Square marked a critical turning point in U.S.-China affairs. In Beyond Tiananmen, Suettinger traces the turbulent bilateral relationship since that time, with a particular focus on the internal political factors that shaped it. Through a series of candid anecdotes and observations, Suettinger sheds light on the complex and confused decision-making process that affected relations between the U.S. and China between 1989 and the end of the Clinton presidency in 2000. By illuminating the way domestic political ideas, beliefs, and prejudices affect foreign policymaking, Suettinger reveals policy decisions as outcomes of complex processes, rather than the results of grand strategic trends. He also refutes the view that strategic confrontation between the superpowers is inevitable. Suettinger sees considerable opportunity for cooperation and improvement in what is likely to be the single most important bilateral relationship of the twenty-first century. He cautions, however, that routine misperceptions of goals and policies between the two countries—unfortunate legacies of Tiananmen—could lead to an increasing level of hostility, with tragic consequences.

The Perils of Protest

State Repression and Student Activism in China and Taiwan

Author: Teresa Wright

Publisher: University of Hawaii Press

ISBN: 9780824824013

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 1544

China's student movement of 1989 ushered in an era of harsh political repression, crushing the hopes of those who desired a more democratic future. Communist Party elites sealed the fate of the movement, but did ill-considered choices by student leaders contribute to its tragic outcome? To answer this question, Teresa Wright centers on a critical source of information that has been largely overlooked by the dozens of works that have appeared in the past decade on the Democracy Movement: the students themselves. Drawing on interviews and little-known first-hand accounts, Wright offers the most complete and representative compilation of thoughts and opinions of the leaders of this student action. She compares this closely studied movement with one that has received less attention, Taiwan's Month of March Movement of 1990, introducing for the first time in English a narrative of Taiwan's largest student demonstration to date. Despite their different outcomes (the Taiwan action ended peacefully and resulted in the government addressing student demands), both movements similarly maintained a strict separation between student and non-student participants and were unstable and conflict-ridden. This comparison allows for a thorough assessment of the origins and impact of student behavior in 1989 and provides intriguing new insights into the growing literature on political protest in non-democratic regimes.

香港研究博士论文注释书目

1900-1997

Author: Frank Joseph Shulman,Anna See Ping Leon Shulman

Publisher: Hong Kong University Press

ISBN: 9789622093973

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 823

View: 5591

A descriptively annotated, multidisciplinary, cross-referenced and extensively indexed guide to 2,395 dissertations that are concerned either in whole or in part with Hong Kong and with Hong Kong Chinese students and emigres throughout the world.

Tiananmen

The Crisis and Its Impact

Author: Andrew J. Nathan,Lucian W. Pye

Publisher: Council on Foreign Relations Press

ISBN: 9780876093078

Category: Political Science

Page: 90

View: 3410

Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China

Author: Ezra F. Vogel

Publisher: Belknap Press

ISBN: 9780674725867

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 876

View: 5967

No one in the twentieth century had a greater impact on world history than Deng Xiaoping. And no scholar is better qualified than Ezra Vogel to disentangle the contradictions embodied in the life and legacy of China's boldest strategist-the pragmatic, disciplined force behind China's radical economic, technological, and social transformation.

Tiananmen Square

Massacre Crushes China's Democracy Movement

Author: Andrew Langley

Publisher: Capstone

ISBN: 0756541018

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 96

View: 6498

Tiananmen Square is a Capstone Press publication.

The People's Republic of Amnesia

Tiananmen Revisited

Author: Louisa Lim

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199347727

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 2429

Finalist for the 2015 Helen Bernstein Book Award for Excellence in Journalism Longlisted for the Lionel Gelber Award for the Best Non-Fiction book in the world on Foreign Affairs An Economist Book of the Year, 2014 A New York Times Book Review Editor's Choice "One of the best analyses of the impact of Tiananmen throughout China in the years since 1989." --The New York Times Book Review On June 4, 1989, People's Liberation Army soldiers opened fire on unarmed civilians in Beijing, killing untold hundreds of people. A quarter-century later, this defining event remains buried in China's modern history, successfully expunged from collective memory. In The People's Republic of Amnesia, Louisa Lim charts how the events of June 4th changed China, and how China changed the events of June 4th by rewriting its own history. Lim reveals new details about those fateful days, including how one of the country's most senior politicians lost a family member to an army bullet, as well as the inside story of the young soldiers sent to clear Tiananmen Square. She also introduces us to individuals whose lives were transformed by the events of Tiananmen Square, such as a founder of the Tiananmen Mothers, whose son was shot by martial law troops; and one of the most important government officials in the country, who post-Tiananmen became one of its most prominent dissidents. And she examines how June 4th shaped China's national identity, fostering a generation of young nationalists, who know little and care less about 1989. For the first time, Lim uncovers the details of a brutal crackdown in a second Chinese city that until now has been a near-perfect case study in the state's ability to rewrite history, excising the most painful episodes. By tracking down eyewitnesses, discovering US diplomatic cables, and combing through official Chinese records, Lim offers the first account of a story that has remained untold for a quarter of a century. The People's Republic of Amnesia is an original, powerfully gripping, and ultimately unforgettable book about a national tragedy and an unhealed wound.

Never Forget National Humiliation

Historical Memory in Chinese Politics and Foreign Relations

Author: Zheng Wang

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231148917

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 7050

How could the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) not only survive but even thrive, regaining the support of many Chinese citizens after the Tiananmen Square crackdown of 1989? Why has popular sentiment turned toward anti-Western nationalism despite the anti-dictatorship democratic movements of the 1980s? And why has China been more assertive toward the United States and Japan in foreign policy but relatively conciliatory toward smaller countries in conflict? Offering an explanation for these unexpected trends, Zheng Wang follows the Communist governmentÕs ideological reeducation of the public, which relentlessly portrays China as the victim of foreign imperialist bullying during Òone hundred years of humiliation.Ó By concentrating on the telling and teaching of history in todayÕs China, Wang illuminates the thinking of the young patriots who will lead this rising power in the twenty-first century. Wang visits ChinaÕs primary schools and memory sites and reads its history textbooks, arguing that ChinaÕs rise should not be viewed through a single lens, such as economics or military growth, but from a more comprehensive perspective that takes national identity and domestic discourse into account. Since it is the prime raw material for constructing ChinaÕs national identity, historical memory is the key to unlocking the inner mystery of the Chinese. From this vantage point, Wang tracks the CCPÕs use of history education to glorify the party, reestablish its legitimacy, consolidate national identity, and justify one-party rule in the post-Tiananmen and postÐCold War era. The institutionalization of this manipulated historical consciousness now directs political discourse and foreign policy, and Wang demonstrates its important role in ChinaÕs rise.

Bad Elements

Chinese Rebels from Los Angeles to Beijing

Author: Ian Buruma

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 1400033322

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 4231

Who speaks for China? Is it the old men of the politbureau or an activist like Wei Jingshsheng, who spent eighteen years in prison for writing a democratic manifesto? Is China’s future to be found amid the boisterous sleaze of an electoral campaign in Taiwan or in the maneuvers by which ordinary residents of Beijing quietly resist the authority of the state? These are among the questions that Ian Buruma poses in this enlightening and often moving tour of Chinese dissidence. Moving from the quarrelsome exile communities of the U. S. to Singapore and Hong Kong and from persecuted Christians to Internet “hacktivists,” Buruma captures an entire spectrum of opposition to the orthodoxies of the Communist Party. He explores its historical antecedents its conflicting notions of freedom and the paradoxical mix of courage and cussedness that inspires its members. Panoramic and intimate, disturbing and inspiring, Bad Elements is a profound meditation on the themes of national identity and political struggle. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Japan's Security Relations with China since 1989

From Balancing to Bandwagoning?

Author: Reinhard Drifte

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134406665

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 5937

Japan's Security Relations with China since 1989 raises the crucial question of whether Japan's political leadership which is still preoccupied with finding a new political constellation and with overcoming a deep economic crisis is able to handle such a complex policy in the face of an increasingly assertive China and a US alliance partner with strong swings between engaging and containing China's power. This study of the highly topical bilateral relationship will be of great interest to students and researchers in Japanese and Chinese Studies, Politics, International Relations and Security Studies.

Evening Chats in Beijing

Probing China's Predicament

Author: Perry Link

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393310658

Category: History

Page: 321

View: 2061

A collection of conversations by Chinese writers, journalists, scientists, professors, and officials covers such important issues as resistance, individual responsibility, official tyranny, and the Tiananmen Square massacre

China's Foreign Policy

Author: Stuart Harris

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745684238

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 9227

China’s inexorable rise as a major world power is one of the defining features of the contemporary political landscape. But should we heed the warnings of a so-called ‘China threat?’ Is China set to become the next superpower? Or will its ambitions be tempered by economic and political realities both at home and abroad? In this insightful and balanced analysis, noted China expert Stuart Harris explores China’s present foreign policy and its motivations, focusing in particular on the extent to which China will co-operate with the West in years to come. He considers what factors, international or domestic, will influence the foreign policies being shaped in Beijing, including how far the Chinese regime will adhere to existing global norms and the evolving international system. In contemplating this uncertain future, Harris assesses the considerable challenges and vulnerabilities likely to impact on Chinese foreign policy, leading it to be cautious and hesitant or assertive and aggressive on the international stage. Concise and authoritative, this book will be essential reading for anyone seeking a clearer understanding of the international relations of one of the world’s most important powers.