Starburst regions in nearby and distant galaxies have a profound impact on our understanding of the early universe. This new, substantially updated and extended edition of Norbert Schulz’s unique book "From Dust to Stars" describes complex physical processes involved in the creation and early evolution of stars. It illustrates how these processes reveal themselves from radio wavelengths to high energy X-rays and gamma–rays, with special reference towards high energy signatures. Several sections devoted to key analysis techniques demonstrate how modern research in this field is pursued and new chapters are introduced on massive star formation, proto-planetary disks and observations of young exoplanets. Recent advances and contemporary research on the theory of star formation are explained, as are new observations, specifically from the three great observatories of the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory which all now operate at the same time and make high resolution space based observing in its prime. As indicated by the new title two new chapters have been included on proto-planetary disks and young exoplanets. Many more colour images illustrate attractive old and new topics that have evolved in recent years. The author gives updates in theory, fragmentation, dust, and circumstellar disks and emphasizes and strengthens the targeting of graduate students and young researchers, focusing more on computational approaches in this edition.
Rotation is ubiquitous at each step of stellar evolution, from star formation to the final stages, and it affects the course of evolution, the timescales and nucleosynthesis. Stellar rotation is also an essential prerequisite for the occurrence of Gamma-Ray Bursts. In this book the author thoroughly examines the basic mechanical and thermal effects of rotation, their influence on mass loss by stellar winds, the effects of differential rotation and its associated instabilities, the relation with magnetic fields and the evolution of the internal and surface rotation. Further, he discusses the numerous observational signatures of rotational effects obtained from spectroscopy and interferometric observations, as well as from chemical abundance determinations, helioseismology and asteroseismology, etc. On an introductory level, this book presents in a didactical way the basic concepts of stellar structure and evolution in "track 1" chapters. The other more specialized chapters form an advanced course on the graduate level and will further serve as a valuable reference work for professional astrophysicists.
Life As we Know It covers several aspects of Life, ranging from the prebiotic level, origin of life, evolution of prokaryotes to eukaryotes and finally to various affairs of human beings. Although Life is hard to define, one can characterize it and describe its features. The information presented here on the various phenomena of Life were all written by highly qualified authors including scientists, a professional athlete and three Nobel Laureates.
Eine erste Einführung in die Kosmologie und die fundamentalen Wechselwirkungen
Author: Ulrich Ellwanger
Das Buch stellt die Grundlagen der modernen Elementarteilchenphysik und Kosmologie, sowie die aktuellen offenen Fragen bis zur Stringtheorie dar. Es enthält elementare Einführungen in die spezielle und allgemeine Relativitätstheorie, die klassische und Quanten-Feldtheorie. Die wesentlichen Aspekte dieser Konzepte und viele Phänomene werden mit Hilfe einfacher Rechnungen verstanden, wobei keine höheren mathematischen oder physikalischen Kenntnisse vorausgesetzt werden. Ebenfalls behandelt werden unter anderem der Big Bang, dunkle Materie und dunkle Energie, sowie die Funktionsweise des Beschleunigers LHC. Neu in dieser dritten Auflage ist die Beschreibung der Entdeckung des Higgs-Bosons und dessen Produktions- und Zerfallsprozesse.
'Protostars and Planets V' builds on the latest results from recent advances in ground and space-based astronomy and in numerical computing techniques to offer the most detailed and up-to-date picture of star and planet formation - including the formation and early evolution of our own solar system.
Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astrophysics as well as to active researchers in the field.
Detection, Formation and Habitability of Extrasolar Planets
Author: Marc Ollivier,Thérèse Encrenaz,Francoise Roques,Franck Selsis,Fabienne Casoli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Over the past ten years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has opened a new field of astronomy, and this area of research is rapidly growing, from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The presence of many giant exoplanets in the close vicinity of their star shows that these newly discovered planetary systems are very different from the solar system. New theoretical models are being developed in order to understand their formation scenarios, and new observational methods are being implemented to increase the sensitivity of exoplanet detections. In the present book, the authors address the question of planetary systems from all aspects. Starting from the facts (the detection of more than 300 extraterrestrial planets), they first describe the various methods used for these discoveries and propose a synthetic analysis of their global properties. They then consider the observations of young stars and circumstellar disks and address the case of the solar system as a specific example, different from the newly discovered systems. Then the study of planetary systems and of exoplanets is presented from a more theoretical point of view. The book ends with an outlook to future astronomical projects, and a description of the search for life on exoplanets. This book addresses students and researchers who wish to better understand this newly expanding field of research.
The purpose of this book is to give a detailed description of the planetary nebulae including the relevant astronomical observations and their interpretation. Considerable attention is given to the evolution of these objects as well as to their physical characteristics. I t is hoped that the book be useful to both advanced research workers and to students with some background in astronomy. In this regard, the book should serve as a text as well as a reference work. The many tables included are expected to be useful for both purposes. The references are generally not included in the text except for historical purposes in an effort to improve readability. References are given at the end of each chapter together with sufficient text to describe their content. No attempt has been made to make the list of references complete; on the contrary it has generally been limited to the most recent literature on the subject which in turn refers to earlier research. Again, exceptions have been made for references of historical interest.
P. Ehrenfreund,W.M. Irvine,T. Owen,Luann Becker,Jen Blank,J.R. Brucato,Luigi Colangeli,Sylvie Derenne,Anne Dutrey,Didier Despois,Antonio Lazcano,Francois Robert
Author: P. Ehrenfreund,W.M. Irvine,T. Owen,Luann Becker,Jen Blank,J.R. Brucato,Luigi Colangeli,Sylvie Derenne,Anne Dutrey,Didier Despois,Antonio Lazcano,Francois Robert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Astrobiology, a new exciting interdisciplinary research field, seeks to unravel the origin and evolution of life wherever it might exist in the Universe. The current view of the origin of life on Earth is that it is strongly connected to the origin and evolution of our planet and, indeed, of the Universe as a whole. We are fortunate to be living in an era where centuries of speculation about the two ancient and fundamental problems: the origin of life and its prevalence in the Universe are being replaced by experimental science. The subject of Astrobiology can be approached from many different perspectives. This book is focused on abiogenic organic matter from the viewpoint of astronomy and planetary science and considers its potential relevance to the origins of life on Earth and elsewhere. Guided by the review papers in this book, the concluding chapter aims to identify key questions to motivate future research and stimulate astrobiological applications of current and future research facilities and space missions. Today’s rich array of new spacecraft, telescopes and dedicated scientists promises a steady flow of discoveries and insights that will ultimately lead us to the answers we seek.
Guiding the reader through all the stages that lead to the formation of a star such as our Sun, this advanced textbook provides students with a complete overview of star formation. It examines the underlying physical processes that govern the evolution from a molecular cloud core to a main-sequence star, and focuses on the formation of solar-mass stars. Each chapter combines theory and observation, helping readers to connect with and understand the theory behind star formation. Beginning with an explanation of the interstellar medium and molecular clouds as sites of star formation, subsequent chapters address the building of typical stars and the formation of high-mass stars, concluding with a discussion of the by-products and consequences of star formation. This is a unique, self-contained text with sufficient background information for self-study, and is ideal for students and professional researchers alike.
This authoritative volume provides a comprehensive review of the origin and evolution of planetary nebulae. It covers all the stages of their evolution, carefully synthesizes observations from across the spectrum, and clearly explains all the key physical processes at work. Particular emphasis is placed on observations from space, using the Hubble Space Telescope, the Infrared Space Observatory, and the ROSAT satellite. This book presents a thoroughly modern understanding of planetary nebulae, integrating developments in stellar physics with the dynamics of nebular evolution. It also describes exciting possibilities such as the use of planetary nebulae in determining the cosmic distance scale, the distribution of dark matter and the chemical evolution of galaxies. This book provides graduate students with an accessible introduction to planetary nebulae, and researchers with an authoritative reference. It can also be used as an advanced text on the physics of the interstellar medium.
This is a comprehensive and richly illustrated textbook on the astrophysics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium--the gas and dust, as well as the electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, and magnetic and gravitational fields, present between the stars in a galaxy and also between galaxies themselves. Topics include radiative processes across the electromagnetic spectrum; radiative transfer; ionization; heating and cooling; astrochemistry; interstellar dust; fluid dynamics, including ionization fronts and shock waves; cosmic rays; distribution and evolution of the interstellar medium; and star formation. While it is assumed that the reader has a background in undergraduate-level physics, including some prior exposure to atomic and molecular physics, statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism, the first six chapters of the book include a review of the basic physics that is used in later chapters. This graduate-level textbook includes references for further reading, and serves as an invaluable resource for working astrophysicists. Essential textbook on the physics of the interstellar and intergalactic medium Based on a course taught by the author for more than twenty years at Princeton University Covers radiative processes, fluid dynamics, cosmic rays, astrochemistry, interstellar dust, and more Discusses the physical state and distribution of the ionized, atomic, and molecular phases of the interstellar medium Reviews diagnostics using emission and absorption lines Features color illustrations and detailed reference materials in appendices Instructor's manual with problems and solutions (available only to teachers)
This new edition of Allen's classic "Astrophysical Quantities" belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and updated by a team of internationally renowned team of astronomers and astrophysicists. Topics covered include: * General constants and units * Atoms, molecules, and spectra * Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos * Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies * The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics * Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae * Theoretical stellar evolution * Circumstellar and interstellar material * Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei * Clusters and groups of galaxies * Cosmology
The underlying astrophysical mechanisms of the objects known as asymptotic giant branch stars - the structures that occur during the dramatic period prior to a star's death - is the main theme of this text. Over the past three decades, asymptotic giant branch stars have become a topic of their own, and the contributions to this volume all focus on these entities themselves, rather than their connections to other fields of astronomy. Among the many topics covered are new methods of high- quality infrared observation and the more detailed and realistic simulations made possible by increasingly fast computers. This collection should be useful to graduate students who work in the field, teachers who want to address the subject in their courses, and to astronomers from various backgrounds who are interested in the astrophysics of AGB stars.
In this third corrected and revised edition students and lecturers in astronomy and planetary science as well as planet observers will find a mine of up-to-date information on the solar system and its interaction with the interplanetary medium, its various objects, comparative planetology, discussion of questions for further research and future space exploration.
A Powerful Window into Cosmic Evolution Terahertz (THz) observations of interstellar atoms, molecules, and dust serve as powerful probes of the conditions within the interstellar medium that permeates our galaxy, providing insights into the origins of stars, planets, galaxies, and the Universe. Taking a cross-disciplinary approach to the subject, Terahertz Astronomy explores THz astrophysics and the technologies that make this rapidly evolving field possible. The first four chapters of the book discuss the origin and interpretation of THz light in astrophysical sources. The remaining five chapters present an overview of the technologies used to collect and detect THz light. Every chapter contains worked-out examples and exercises. The author explains each topic as intuitively as possible and includes the equations needed for real-life astrophysical applications. In just a few years, the number of active THz researchers has substantially grown due to increased interest in terrestrial remote sensing at THz frequencies. This book provides researchers with both the background science and technology to interpret THz observations and design, build, and deploy THz astronomical instrumentation.