Hittite is the earliest attested Indo-European language and was the language of a state which flourished in Asia Minor in the second millennium BC. This exciting and accessible introductory course, which can be used in both trimester and semester systems, offers in ten lessons a comprehensive introduction to the grammar of the Hittite language with ample exercises both in transliteration and in cuneiform. It includes a separate section of paradigms, a grammatical index, as well as a list of every cuneiform sign used in the book. A full glossary can be found at the back. The book has been designed so that the cuneiform is not essential and can be left out of any course if so desired. The introduction provides the necessary cultural and historical background, with suggestions for further reading, and explains the principles of the cuneiform writing system.
auf der Suche nach dem sagenhaften Großreich der Hethiter
Author: Andreas Schachner
Category: Boğazköy (Turkey)
Am 28. Juli 1834 steht der französische Architekt und Archäologe Charles Texier in den monumentalen Ruinen einer längst untergegangenen Stadt in Zentralanatolien. Er vermutet, dass die gewaltigen Mauern zu dem von dem griechischen Historiker Herodot im 5. Jahrhundert erwähnten medischen Pteria gehören. Rufen Texiers Entdeckungen in Europa auch allseits Erstaunen hervor, so ahnt doch niemand die wahre Sensation: Der Franzose ist auf die Hauptstadt der Hethiter gestossen - jenes uralten Volkes, von dem man bis dato nur aus versprengten Nachrichten im Alten Testament wusste. Erst die akkadischen Texte, die der Sprachwissenschaftler Hugo Winckler und der Archäologe Theodor Makridi in Hattuscha entdecken (1906), entschleiern das Jahrtausende alte Geheimnis der Ruinen. Im Jahr 1915 schliesslich gelingt Friedrich Hrozny auch die Entschlüsselung der hethitischen Keilschrifttafeln - und damit der ältesten schriftlichen Dokumente einer indoeuropäischen Kultur.Seit über 100 Jahren wird nun Hattuscha und das Reich der Hethiter unter massgeblicher Beteiligung des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts erforscht. Das Wissen, das dank dieser langen Grabungstradition über jene frühe Hochkultur und ihre Hauptstadt zusammengetragen werden konnte, stellt in dem vorliegenden Band der Vorderasiatische Archäologe und Grabungsleiter in Hattuscha, Andreas Schachner, vor. Er beschreibt in diesem mit über 150 Plänen und farbigen Abbildungen reich ausgestatteten Buch anschaulich und kompetent Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Architektur, Infrastruktur, Wirtschaft und Kultur der Hethiter und ihrer Hauptstadt. Andreas Schachner ist Privatdozent für Vorderasiatische Archäologie und leitet im Auftrag des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts seit 2006 die Ausgrabungen in Hattuscha-Bogazköy.
This book presents a comprehensive history of the Late Bronze Age kingdom of the Hittites, and the role it played within the context of the ancient Near Eastern world. From their capital, Hattusa, in central Anatolia, the Hittite kings ruled a vast network of subject territories and vassalstates reaching from the Aegean coast of Anatolia through Syria to the river Euphrates. In the fourteenth century BC the Hittites became the supreme political and military power in the Near East. How did they achieve their supremacy? How successful were they in maintaining it? What brought abouttheir collapse and disappearance? In seeking to answer these questions, the book begins with an account of the Hittites predecessors in Anatolia, particularly in the early centuries of the second millennium, traces the rise and development of the Hittite kingdom over a period of some five hundredyears, and ends with the events which followed in the wake of the kingdoms collapse. Translations from the original texts are a particular feature of the book; thus on many issues the Hittites and their contemporaries are allowed to speak to the modern reader for themselves.
This overview of the Pentateuch reviews the various historical-critical attempts to read it that arise from notions about the social evolution of Israel's religion and culture. Is the Pentateuch an accumulation of folk traditions, a work of ancient historiography, a document legitimizing religious reform? The present book, in dialogue with competing views, advocates a compositional model that recognizes the social and historical diversity of the literary strata. It argues that a proto-Pentateuchal author created a comprehensive history from Genesis to Numbers that was written as a prologue to the Deuteronomistic History (Deuteronomy to 2 Kings) in the exilic period and later expanded by a Priestly writer to make it the foundational document of the Jerusalem temple community.
Technical Data - History - Processing - Applications
Author: Per Enghag
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Famous for its history of numerous element discoverers, Sweden is the origin of this comprehensive encylopedia of the elements. It provides both an important database for professionals as well as detailed reading ranging from historical facts, discoverers' portraits, colour plates of mineral types, natural occurrences, and industrial figures to winning and refining processes, biological roles and applications in modern chemistry, engineering and industry. Elemental data is presented in fact tables which include numerous physical and thermodynamic properties, isotope lists, radiation absorption characteristics, NMR parameters, and others. Further pertinent data is supplied in additional tables throughout the text. Published in Swedish in three volumes from 1998 to 2000, the contents have been revised and expanded by the author for this English edition.
When this innovative textbook first appeared in 1984 it rapidly became a great success throughout the world and has already been translated into several European and Asian languages. Now the authors have completely revised and updated the text, including more than 2000 new literature references to work published since the first edition. No page has been left unaltered but the novel features which proved so attractive have been retained. The book presents a balanced, coherent and comprehensive account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. This crucial central area of chemistry is full of ingenious experiments, intriguing compounds and exciting new discoveries. The authors specifically avoid the term `inorganic chemistry' since this evokes an outmoded view of chemistry which is no longer appropriate in the final decade of the 20th century. Accordingly, the book covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic, bio-inorganic and other cognate areas of chemistry. The authors have broken with recent tradition in the teaching of their subject and adopted a new and highly successful approach based on descriptive chemistry. The chemistry of the elements is still discussed within the context of an underlying theoretical framework, giving cohesion and structure to the text, but at all times the chemical facts are emphasized. Students are invited to enter the exciting world of chemical phenomena with a sound knowledge and understanding of the subject, to approach experimentation with an open mind, and to assess observations reliably. This is a book that students will not only value during their formal education, but will keep and refer to throughout their careers as chemists. Completely revised and updated Unique approach to the subject More comprehensive than competing titles
The second edition of Sport and Spectacle in the AncientWorld updates Donald G. Kyle’s award-winning introductionto this topic, covering the Ancient Near East up to the late RomanEmpire. • Challenges traditional scholarship on sport andspectacle in the Ancient World and debunks claims that there wereno sports before the ancient Greeks • Explores the cultural exchange of Greek sport and Romanspectacle and how each culture responded to the other’sentertainment • Features a new chapter on sport and spectacle during theLate Roman Empire, including Christian opposition to pagan gamesand the Roman response • Covers topics including violence, professionalism insport, class, gender and eroticism, and the relationship ofspectacle to political structures
How the Bible Broke with Ancient Political Thought
Author: Joshua A. Berman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
In Created Equal, Joshua Berman engages the text of the Hebrew Bible from a novel perspective, considering it as a document of social and political thought. He proposes that the Pentateuch can be read as the earliest prescription on record for the establishment of an egalitarian polity. What emerges is the blueprint for a society that would stand in stark contrast to the surrounding cultures of the ancient Near East -- Egypt, Mesopotamia, Ugarit, and the Hittite Empire - in which the hierarchical structure of the polity was centered on the figure of the king and his retinue. Berman shows that an egalitarian ideal is articulated in comprehensive fashion in the Pentateuch and is expressed in its theology, politics, economics, use of technologies of communication, and in its narrative literature. Throughout, he invokes parallels from the modern period as heuristic devices to illuminate ancient developments. Thus, for example, the constitutional principles in the Book of Deuteronomy are examined in the light of those espoused by Montesquieu, and the rise of the novel in 18th-century England serves to illuminate the advent of new modes of storytelling in biblical narrative.
This Very Short Introduction traces the history and cultural impact of the elements on humankind, and examines why people have long sought to identify the substances around them. Looking beyond the Periodic Table, the author examines our relationship with matter, from the uncomplicated vision of the Greek philosophers, who believed there were four elements - earth, air, fire, and water - to the work of modern-day scientists in creating elements such as hassium and meitnerium. Packed with anecdotes, The Elements is a highly engaging and entertaining exploration of the fundamental question: what is the world made from? ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Peterson engages the identities and provenances of the authors of the various “editions” of the Deteronomistic History. Peterson asks where we might locate a figure with both motive and opportunity to draw up a proto-narrative including elements of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and the first part of 1 Kings. Peterson identifies a particular candidate in the time of David qualified to write the first edition. He then identifies the particular circle of custodians of the Deuteronomistic narrative and supplies successive redactions down to the time of Jeremiah.
What was unearthed in Solomon’s great cities? Where did archaeologists learn about the great flood? How do these discoveries reveal secrets about King Herod? The events of the Bible may have happened long ago and far away, but they happened to real people living in real places. Modern archaeologists have made stunning finds over the past century or so that validate the historical accuracy of the Bible. These finds allow us to understand Scriptures better by helping Bible people and places come alive in our imaginations. Come along on an archaeological journey through the Old and New Testaments. Here are some of the best finds that illustrate Bible history, presented in beautiful full-color images accompanied by clear explanations free of technical jargon. You don’t even have to get your hands dirty!
In the early 12th century, the Late Bronze Age Hittite empire collapsed during a series of upheavals which swept the Greek and Near Eastern worlds. In the subsequent Iron Age, numerous cities and states emerged in south-eastern Anatolia and northern Syria, which are generally known today as the 'Neo-Hittite kingdoms'. Bryce's volume gives an account of the military and political history of these kingdoms, moving beyond the Neo-Hittites themselves to the broader Near Eastern world and the states which dominated it during the Iron Age. Divided into three sections, The World of Neo-Hittite Kingdoms looks at the last decades of the empire and the features of these kingdoms and their subsequent treatment under their Anatolian successors. Through a closer look at the individual Neo-Hittite kingdoms and their rulers and a comparison with the contemporary Aramaean states and the other kingdoms of the age - notably the Neo-Assyrian empire - it concludes with a historical synthesis of the Neo-Hittites when the last kingdom was absorbed into the Assyrian provincial administration.
In this volume Michael D. Matlock analyses five lengthy biblical prose prayers from the exilic and post-exilic period: Solomon's prayer (1 Kings 8.14-61), Ezra's prayer (Ezra 9.5-15), Nehemiah's prayer (Nehemiah 1.4-11), the Levites' prayer (Nehemiah 9.4-37), and the prayer of Daniel (Daniel 9:3-19). He also examines prayers from Second Temple literature including texts from the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, the writings of Philo and Josephus and texts from Qumran, and discusses the Septuagintal versions of the five biblical prayers and Targum Jonathan's treatment of Solomon's prayer. He offers a new English translation of each prayer, examines the prayers' rhetorical characteristics, and demonstrates how each prayer draws upon and reinterprets traditional images and materials. Matlock describes how each prayer relates to its larger narrative context and examines its functions within that context. Finally, he appraises the various similarities and differences in these prayers in terms of their different contexts in the Second Commonwealth period noting particular theologies and ideologies.
This book represents the first attempt of its kind to present a detailed, systematic analysis of the upamana dharmas (Tertia comparationis) of the various objects of comparison found in the Mahabharata. An attempt is made here to present a detailed account of what we may call poetic expressions of the corpus. It is not a rhetorical discussion of the soul of the poetry of the Mahabharata. It rather aims at enumerating the symbolic, alliterative, paronomastic, or repetitive linguistic features that beautify the body of the Mahabharata. Chapter 1 deals with the similes (upama) of the corpus; the arrangement of the sections is based on the fields from which the objects of comparison (upamana) are collected. Chapters 2 throught 8 deal with the metaphors. Chapter 9 presents some specimens of popular idioms found in the corpus, arranged again according to the fields from which they are collected. Chapter 10 is the compilation of the passages representing typical figures of sound (sabdalamkaras). To complete the study, Chapter 11 analyzes passages representing the techniques of oral poetry.
Reading Joshua can be, frankly, a jarring experience. Serious, troubling questions about God’s attitude toward his created peoples arise, questions with noeasy answer. But the book of Joshua presents itself, warts (and wars!) and all, and asks readers to let it tell its story from its point of view and out of its ancient context. It asks them to give it the benefit of the doubt and permit it to speak to them. This commentary aims to give its voice a clear hearing — to translate its ancient cultural form in such a way that it freely speaks about the life of faith today. Basically, the book of Joshua tells how biblical Israel navigated a major historical transition early in its national life. The book shows that guiding these changes is Israel’s God, Yahweh, through his chosen servant, Joshua. The introductory sections to follow set the scene for entering the book of Joshua and the ancient world about which it reports. Most Bible commentaries take us on a one-way trip from our world to the world of the Bible. But they leave us there, assuming that we can somehow make thereturn journey on our own. They focus on the original meaning of the passage but don’t discuss its contemporary application. The information they offer is valuable — but the job is only half done! The NIV Application Commentary Series helps bring both halves of the interpretive task together. This unique, award-winning series shows readers how to bring an ancient message into our present-day context. Joshua helps readers learn how the message of Joshua can have the same powerful impact today that it did when it was first written.
A tribute to America's preeminent scholar of Hittite language and culture, Professor Harry A. Hoffner, Jr., of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. The thirty-four contributors, students, and colleagues treat topics as diverse as Hittite contacts with the Mycenaean Greeks, the topography of the Hittite capital, and various aspects of Hittite grammar and etymology.