This is a highly readable, completely revised and updated analytical account of the mechanics of the world trading system - how it works, what it does, and why. It provides insight into the basic economic rationale for international cooperation and the political economic forces that shape the global commercial environment and that determine the rules of the game and the commitments that governments agree to through WTO negotiations. Short case studies and specificdisputes are used to illustrate the workings of the institution in practice and the interest groups that drive the WTO processes. This edition highlights the increasing role of developing countries inthe WTO. This is a book that will be of interest to teachers and students of international economics and business, international relations and economic development, government officials and business people interested in the functioning of the multilateral trading system.
Law and Policy of International Economic Relations
Author: John Howard Jackson
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Business & Economics
Since the first edition of The World Trading System was published in 1989, the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations has been completed, and most governments have ratified and are in the process of implementing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In the Uruguay Round, more than 120 nations negotiated for over eight years, to produce a document of some 26,000 pages. This new edition of The World Trading System takes account of these and other developments. Like the first edition, however, its treatment of topical issues is grounded in the fundamental legal, constitutional, institutional, and political realities that mold trade policy. Thus the book continues to serve as an introduction to the study of trade law and policy. Two basic premises of The World Trading System are that economic concerns are central to foreign affairs, and that national economies are growing more interdependent. The author presents the economic principles of international trade policy and then examines how they operate under real- world constraints. In particular, he examines the extremely elaborate system of rules that governs international economic relations. Until now, the bulk of international trade policy has addressed trade in goods; issues inadequately addressed by policy include trade in services, intellectual property rights, certain investment measures, and agriculture. The author highlights the tension between legal rules, designed to create predictability and stability, and the governments need to make exceptions to solve short-term problems. He also looks at weaknesses of international trade policy, especially as it applies to developing countries and economies in transition. He concludes with a look at issues that will shape international trade policy well into the twenty-first century.
Jeffrey J. Schott,Institute for International Economics (U.S.)
Author: Jeffrey J. Schott,Institute for International Economics (U.S.)
Publisher: Peterson Institute
Category: Business & Economics
This text offers recommendations to deal with issues such as investment, environment, trade, labour standards, and accession to the WTO. It discusses: the Uruguay Round accords; the remaining barriers to trade; regional and multilateral initiatives; and the political support for negotiations.
International Trade Law Center,Arthur E. Appleton,Michael G. Plummer
Author: International Trade Law Center,Arthur E. Appleton,Michael G. Plummer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The editors have succeeded in bringing together an excellent mix of leading scholars and practitioners. No book on the WTO has had this wide a scope before or covered the legal framework, economic and political issues, current and would-be countries and a outlook to the future like these three volumes do. 3000 pages, 80 chapters in 3 volumes cover a very interdiscplinary field that touches upon law, economics and politics.
The dissipating multilateral trading system and splintering in a number of trading blocs and arrangements has been one of the most important issues in international economics, particularly after the establishment of the World Trade Organisation in 1995.
Regional trading arrangements have become a feature of international trade in the 1990s. 'The Economics of Regional Trading Arrangements' provides a unified analysis of policies which discriminate among trading partners.
This three-volume set presents the results of a research project initiated by the African Economic Research Consortium. The project intended to identify and examine the critical analytical and policy issues involved in Africa's economic links with the rest of the world, particularly in the context of the emerging global trading system. The project had two distinct but closely related component parts. The first was based on empirical, region-wide analysis and was designed to provide the framework for the menu of issues explored.
Bachelorarbeit aus dem Jahr 2008 im Fachbereich BWL - Wirtschaftspolitik, Note: 2,0, FernUniversität Hagen, 37 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: „No business which depends for existence on paying less than living wages to its workers has any right to continue in this country. By "business" I mean the whole of commerce as well as the whole of industry; by workers I mean all workers, the white collar class as well as the men in overalls; and by living wages I mean more than a bare subsistence level - I mean the wages of decent living.“ Dieses Zitat stammt aus einer von Franklin D. Roosevelt im Jahr 1933 gehaltenen Rede, in der er sich vor dem US-Kongress u.a. für einen „fairen Lohn“ einsetzte, der jedem Beschäftigten ein bestimmtes sozio-kulturelles Existenzminimum sichern soll. Ein solcher Lohn ist ein soziales Grundrecht, das sich in zahlreichen internationalen Vereinbarungen (z.B. Europäische Sozialcharta von 1960 oder EU-Gemeinschaftscharta der sozialen Grundrechte der Arbeitnehmer von 1989) wiederfindet. Heutzutage gehört die verbindliche Festlegung von Mindestlöhnen in einer Mehrzahl der weltweiten Staaten zu den etablierten Instrumenten bei der politischen Regulierung des Arbeitsmarkts. Ziel dieser Arbeit, ist es die grundlegende Theorie der Thematik Mindestlöhne zu analysieren und dabei verschiedenen Arbeitsmarkt-Modelle vorzustellen, die sowohl Gegnern als auch Befürwortern von Mindestlöhnen als Argumentationshilfe dienen. Die Ausführungen beginnen mit einer Definition des Begriffs Mindestlohn und dem Aufzeigen der historischen Entwicklung der Mindestlohn-Gesetzgebung.
Jagdish Bhagwati, one of the world's leading economists, offers a fascinating overview of the perils and promise facing the world trading system. That system is now being subjected to powerful centrifugal forces. Concerns with unfair trade are rampant, managed trade is increasingly popular, and regionalism is spreading. The United States, the traditional bulwark of multilateralism, has recently resorted to aggressive, unilateral tactics in trade policy. To a consideration of these developments, Bhagwati brings a unique blend of economic theory, historical scholarship, and familiarity with the institutions of world trade. Bhagwati refutes facile but fashionable criticisms of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Warning of the dangers of flouting the GATT's provisions, he shows that its underlying conception of trading by rules will be undermined if we extend accusations of "unfair trade" practices to areas as diverse as retail distribution systems, infrastructure spending, saving rates, and workers' rights. He challenges the economic and cultural stereotypes of Japan that fuel the sentiments supporting managed trade and aggressive unilateralism. In addition, he provides novel suggestions for rebuilding the GATT and with it the world trading system itself--suggestions that should prove useful at the Uruguay Round and beyond. Originally published in 1991. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
In this volume, some of the world's foremost authorities analyze the many challenges and opportunities confronting the WTO, addressing issues such as national policies, labor standards, and the environment. Presuming no technical background in economics, this is a comprehensive introduction to the WTO's place in the global economy and will appeal to anyone interested in world trade. "[T]his book is a tour de force, with consistently fine papers by leading experts, and it is worthy of any bookshelf." —Joel P. Trachtman, American Journal of International Law "This latest conference volume from the National Bureau of Economic Research is likely to be the definitive reference work on the WTO for years to come. . . . Specialists and non-specialists alike will gain a great deal from a careful reading of this impressive volume." —John Ravenhill, Australian Journal of Political Science "For anyone who is interested in the further development of the rule system for the world economy, this book is a must." —Horst Siebert, Review of World Economics
China is now the world's fourth largest economy and growing very fast. India's economic salience is also on the rise. Together these two countries will profoundly influence the pace and nature of global economic change. Drawing upon the latest research, this volume analyzes the influences on the rapid future development of these two countries and examines how their growth is likely to impinge upon other countries. It considers international trade, industrialization, foreign investment and capital flows, and the implications of their broadening environmental footprints. It also discusses how the two countries have tackled poverty, inequality and governance issues and whether progress in these areas will be a key to rapid and stable growth.
China's rise as an economic powerhouse raises a number of questions that are the subject of lively debate. How did the country do it? How applicable are the lessons of China's economic reform of the past thirty years to the challenges it faces in the next three decades? What does the detailed pattern of China's success and challenges look like the sub-sectoral and sub-national levels, and what does this mean for future policy? How will China's role as a global economic player evolve? This Oxford Companion to the Economics of China presents an original collection of perspectives on the Chinese economy's past, present and future. The contributors of these entries include: the best of young Chinese researchers based in China and outside; renowned academics from the top universities in China, Europe, and North America; present and past senior officials of international agencies like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; senior Chinese government officials from the Centre and the Provinces; and four recipients of the Nobel Prize in Economics. The Companion consists of 99 entries written by the leading China analysts of our time. The topics covered include: The China Model, Future Prospects for China , China and the Global Economy, Trade and the Chinese Economy, Macroeconomics and Finance, Urbanisation, Industry and Markets, Agriculture and Rural Development, Land, Infrastructure and Environment, Population and Labour, Dimensions of Wellbeing and Inequality, Health and Education, Gender Equity, Regional Divergence in China, and China's Provinces: Selected Perspectives. The Editors are four global leaders in Chinese economic analysis and policy who between them have held or hold the following positions: Director General, International Food Policy Research Institute; Co-Editor, China Economic Review; President Chinese Economists Society; Assistant Director of Research at the IMF; Principal Adviser to the Chief Economist of the World Bank; and Professors of Economics at Ivy League Universities.
Trade, along with the free movement of capital, is at the heart of today's international economy. But international trade is an intensely political and contested subject. In this book, Greg Buckman details possible future directions in global energy supplies and balance-of-payments imbalances. He argues that, just as current trading arrangements have been the product of past decisions emerging out of apparently unrelated considerations, so factors like future fossil fuel costs, global warming, and the economic imbalances between North and South are likely to impel a radical reshaping of the WTO and the principles enshrined in its agreements as well as the global trading system in general. A key contribution to thinking about possible trade policy reforms are the reforms and alternatives - themselves not always agreed or sufficiently thought through -- advocated by the global justice movement. This book outlines these diverse proposals to make global trade more sustainable in some detail. This book has been written to be both informative and empowering. It is an important contribution to clearer thinking, more effective campaigning, and fundamental policy reform in the field of international trade.
Despite its widely acknowledged contribution to global prosperity over the past half century, the movement toward further liberalization has increasingly been challenged. This collection of essays examine several key issues at the heart of the debate over the multilateral trading system.
World Trade Organization,Edward McWhinney,World Trade Organization. Secretariat,WTO Secretariat
Author: Amrita Narlikar,Martin Daunton,Robert M. Stern
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Political Science
The Oxford Handbook on the World Trade Organization provides an authoritative and cutting-edge account of the World Trade Organization. Its purpose is to provide a holistic understanding of what the WTO does, how it goes about fulfilling its tasks, its achievements and problems, and how it might contend with some critical challenges. The Handbook benefits from an interdisciplinary approach. The editorial team comprises a transatlantic partnership between a political scientist, a historian, and an economist. The distinguished and international team of contributors to the volume includes leading political scientists, historians, economists, lawyers, and practitioners working in the area of multilateral trade. All the chapters present original and state-of-the-art research material. They critically engage with existing academic and policy debates, and also contribute to the evolution of the field by setting the agenda for current and future WTO studies.The Handbook is aimed at research institutions, university academics, post-graduate students, and final-year undergraduates working in the areas of international organization, trade policy and negotiations, global economic governance, and economic diplomacy. As such, it should find an enthusiastic readership amongst students and scholars in History, Economics, Political Science, International Relations, Public Policy, and Law. Equally important, the book should have direct relevance for diplomats, international bureaucrats, government officials, and other policy-makers and practitioners in the area of trade and economic governance.