This is a highly readable, completely revised and updated analytical account of the mechanics of the world trading system - how it works, what it does, and why. It provides insight into the basic economic rationale for international cooperation and the political economic forces that shape the global commercial environment and that determine the rules of the game and the commitments that governments agree to through WTO negotiations. Short case studies and specificdisputes are used to illustrate the workings of the institution in practice and the interest groups that drive the WTO processes. This edition highlights the increasing role of developing countries inthe WTO. This is a book that will be of interest to teachers and students of international economics and business, international relations and economic development, government officials and business people interested in the functioning of the multilateral trading system.
The dissipating multilateral trading system and splintering in a number of trading blocs and arrangements has been one of the most important issues in international economics, particularly after the establishment of the World Trade Organisation in 1995.
Jagdish N. Bhagwati,Pravin Krishna,Arvind Panagariya
Author: Jagdish N. Bhagwati,Pravin Krishna,Arvind Panagariya
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Business & Economics
When the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) metamorphosed into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1994, it seemed that the third pillar of the international economic superstructure was finally in place. And yet with the failure of member countries to close the Doha Round of trade negotiations and the emergence of bilateral and plurilateral preferential trade arrangements (PTAs) such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the future of the multilateral WTO seems uncertain. In this volume, leading economists examine issues in trade policy that have arisen during this shift. The contributors discuss such topics as the effect of trade on poverty and inequality, PTAs and litigation between trading partners, the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, and the relationship of food security and trade liberalization. They also offer regional perspectives on the TPP and trans-Atlantic free trade. ContributorsRahel Aichele, Jagdish Bhagwati, Steve Charnovitz, Gabriel Felbermayr Dimitar Gueorguiev, Bernard Hoekman, Jonas Kasteng, Pravin Krishna, Mary Lovely, Petros Mavroidis, Devashish Mitra, Arvind Panagariya, Tom Prusa, Andre Sapir, Stefan Tangermann
Jeffrey J. Schott,Institute for International Economics (U.S.)
Author: Jeffrey J. Schott,Institute for International Economics (U.S.)
Publisher: Peterson Institute
Category: Business & Economics
This text offers recommendations to deal with issues such as investment, environment, trade, labour standards, and accession to the WTO. It discusses: the Uruguay Round accords; the remaining barriers to trade; regional and multilateral initiatives; and the political support for negotiations.
Author: Richard Baldwin,Masahiro Kawai,Ganeshan Wignaraja
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ø Policy makers will benefit from the expert knowledge and policy lessons presented in this book, and development economists and researchers will profit from its critical examination of the world trading system. Undergraduate and postgraduate studen
Law and Policy of International Economic Relations
Author: John Howard Jackson
Publisher: MIT Press
Category: Business & Economics
Since the first edition of The World Trading System was published in 1989, the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations has been completed, and most governments have ratified and are in the process of implementing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). In the Uruguay Round, more than 120 nations negotiated for over eight years, to produce a document of some 26,000 pages. This new edition of The World Trading System takes account of these and other developments. Like the first edition, however, its treatment of topical issues is grounded in the fundamental legal, constitutional, institutional, and political realities that mold trade policy. Thus the book continues to serve as an introduction to the study of trade law and policy.Two basic premises of The World Trading System are that economic concerns are central to foreign affairs, and that national economies are growing more interdependent. The author presents the economic principles of international trade policy and then examines how they operate under real- world constraints. In particular, he examines the extremely elaborate system of rules that governs international economic relations. Until now, the bulk of international trade policy has addressed trade in goods; issues inadequately addressed by policy include trade in services, intellectual property rights, certain investment measures, and agriculture.The author highlights the tension between legal rules, designed to create predictability and stability, and the governments need to make exceptions to solve short-term problems. He also looks at weaknesses of international trade policy, especially as it applies to developing countries and economies in transition. He concludes with a look at issues that will shape international trade policy well into the twenty-first century.
The Legal and Economic Analysis of the WTO/FTA System presents a collation of interdisciplinary studies covering a wide range of issues from WTO dispute settlement issues to trade remedy systems and FTA negotiations. The author applies legal as well as economic rationales and methods to analyze core issues in the world trading system and in doing so, sheds an interesting light on various trade issues. The interdisciplinary analysis on WTO and FTA issues provides a unique opportunity to reconsider many conventional trade topics. For instance, the author shows that third country dumping rarely used in the GATT/WTO system may have a new role with economic incentives in the context of FTAs. Contents:Dispute Settlement in the WTO System:Understanding Non-litigated Disputes in the WTO Dispute Settlement SystemKorea in the GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System: Legal Battle for Economic DevelopmentPractices and Theoretical Foundations of the Trade Remedy System:Alternative Approach to Causation Analysis in Trade Remedy Investigations: 'Cost of Production' TestThird Country Dumping: Origin, Evolution and ProspectRestructuring the WTO Safeguard Mechanism in The WTO Trade Remedy SystemFoe or Friend of GATT Article XXIV: Diversity in Trade Remedy RulesCountervailing Duty against China: Opening a Pandora's Box in the WTO System?United States — Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp and Diamond Sawblades from China: Never Ending Zeroing in the WTO?International Decisions: United States — Definitive Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products from ChinaInterrelation between Trade and Finance:Linkages between International Trade and Financial Institutions: IMF, World Bank and WTOWTO Disciplines Under the IMF Program: Congruence or Conflict?Is the Chinese Exchange-rate Regime 'WTO-legal'?Book Review: International Law in Financial Regulation and Monetary AffairsLegal and Economic Analysis of Free Trade Agreements:Dispute Settlement Systems in Asian FTAs: Issues and ProblemsAnalysis of Anti-dumping Use in Free Trade AgreementsLegal Issues for Korea's "Internal Trade" in the WTO System Readership: Researchers, students, and members of the public who are interested in international trade or economic law, international economics and international political economy.
Jagdish Bhagwati, the internationally renowned economist who uniquely combines a reputation as the leading scholar of international trade with a substantial presence in public policy on the important issues of the day, shines here a critical light on Preferential Trade Agreements, revealing how the rapid spread of PTAs endangers the world trading system. Numbering by now well over 300, and rapidly increasing, these preferential trade agreements, many taking the form of Free Trade Agreements, have re-created the unhappy situation of the 1930s, when world trade was undermined by discriminatory practices. Whereas this was the result of protectionism in those days, ironically it is a result of misdirected pursuit of free trade via PTAs today. The world trading system is at risk again, the author argues, and the danger is palpable. Writing with his customary wit, panache and elegance, Bhagwati documents the growth of these PTAs, the reasons for their proliferation, and their deplorable consequences which include the near-destruction of the non-discrimination which was at the heart of the postwar trade architecture and its replacement by what he has called the spaghetti bowl of a maze of preferences. Bhagwati also documents how PTAs have undermined the prospects for multilateral freeing of trade, serving as stumbling blocks, instead of building blocks, for the objective of reaching multilateral free trade. In short, Bhagwati cogently demonstrates why PTAs are Termites in the Trading System.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an incomplete contract among sovereign countries. Trade policy flexibility mechanisms are designed to deal with contractual gaps, which are the inevitable consequence of this contractual incompleteness. Trade policy flexibility mechanisms are backed up by enforcement instruments which allow for punishment of illegal extra-contractual conduct. This book offers a legal and economic analysis of contractual escape and punishment in the WTO. It assesses the interrelation between contractual incompleteness, trade policy flexibility mechanisms, contract enforcement, and WTO Members' willingness to co-operate and to commit to trade liberalization. It contributes to the body of WTO scholarship by providing a systematic assessment of the weaknesses of the current regime of escape and punishment in the WTO, and the systemic implications that these weaknesses have for the international trading system, before offering a reform agenda that is concrete, politically realistic, and systemically viable.
Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy,National Research Council
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is one of the most important international organizations in existence today. It contains a set of disciplines that affect the ability of governments to impose trade restrictions, and has helped to support the steady expansion of international trade since the 1950s. The WTO has been the focus of vociferous protests by anti-globalization activists and has experienced great difficulties in agreeing to new trade rules since its establishment. At the same time it has become the premier global forum for the settlement of trade disputes and has proven to provide a robust framework for international cooperation in the trade area. This book separates the facts from the propaganda and provides an accessible overview of the WTO’s history, structure and policies as well as a discussion of the future of the organization. It also confronts the criticisms of the WTO and assesses their validity. New to the second edition: discussion of legislative amendments to the WTO Agreement, in particular Aid for Trade, the Agreement on Trade Facilitation and the Bali Package evaluation of case law developments and major disputes since 2007, including analysis of the WTO and the financial crisis – in particular the trade policy responses of WTO Members and institutional response reflection on recent shifts to mega-regional agreements (TPP, TISA, TTIP) and their implications what next post Bali? Fully updated throughout, this book continues to be essential reading for students of international trade, international political economy, commercial law and international organizations as well as activists and others interested in a balanced account of a key global institution.
Offers comprehensive and analytical literature surveys of the central questions regarding the linkages between intellectual property protection, international trade and investment, and economic growth. This book covers such questions as policy coordination in IPR, dispute resolution, and markets for technology and technology transfer.
Trade Law, Domestic Regulation and Development is about the relationship between trade, regulation and development. By combining law and economics perspectives on the international trading system, Trachtman takes an interdisciplinary approach in analyzing the topic of globalization and economic development. In a developing economy, as globalization proceeds, a critical factor is the relationship between liberalization of movement of goods, services, and people, on the one hand, and the right to regulate, including the right to regulate for development, on the other hand. In the context of market access, all countries need the right to restrict imports of goods or services that may hurt consumers or the broader society, and developing countries sometimes need the ability to subsidize their own goods and services, or sometimes to restrict imports of goods or services, in order to promote development. Nonetheless, both developed and developing countries often fall into the trap of regulating for protectionist or corrupt reasons. Finding the right balance between market access and regulation is the subject of analysis in this collected volume of 16 papers by Trachtman, and presented in a manner that is accessible and interesting to both law and economics readers. In Trachtman's own words, "The purpose of [international] trade law in this context [globalization] seems to be to allow states to agree to avoid creating these inefficient policy externalities, not to force all states to dance to the same tune." Errata(s) Errata (24 KB) Contents:IntroductionTrade Law and Domestic Regulation:Philippines — Taxes on Distilled Spirits: Like Products and Market Definition (with Damien Neven)Brazil — Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres: A Balancing Act (with Chad P Bown)Continued Suspense: EC–Hormones and WTO Disciplines on Discrimination and Domestic Regulation (with Bernard Hoekman)Embedding Mutual Recognition at the WTOIncomplete Harmonization Contracts in International Economic Law: Report of the Panel, China — Measures Affecting the Protection and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights, WT/DS362/R, adopted 20 March 2009 (with Kamal Saggi)Canada–Wheat: Discrimination, Non-Commercial Considerations, and the Right to Regulate Through State Trading Enterprises (with Bernard Hoekman)Regulatory Jurisdiction and the WTOThe World Trading System, the International Legal System and Multilevel ChoiceTrade Law and Development:Incorporating Development among Diverse MembersDoing Justice: The Economics and Politics of International Distributive JusticeThe WTO and Development Policy in China and IndiaLegal Aspects of a Poverty Agenda at the WTO: Trade Law and 'Global Apartheid'Systemic Concerns Regarding WTO Law:The WTO CathedralJurisdiction in WTO Dispute SettlementNegotiations on Domestic Regulation and Trade in Services (GATS Article VI): A Legal Analysis of Selected Current IssuesToward Open Recognition? Standardization and Regional Integration under Article XXIV of GATT Readership: Advanced postgraduate students in law taking modules in international trade and developmental economics, and also vice versa. Key Features:Provides a unique economic analysis of legal problems of globalizationExamines the problem of the "right to regulate" in detailExplains the relationship between trade liberalization and developmentKeywords:Trade;WTO;International Law;Globalization;Right to Regulate;Development
Jagdish Bhagwati, one of the world's leading economists, offers a fascinating overview of the perils and promise facing the world trading system. That system is now being subjected to powerful centrifugal forces. Concerns with unfair trade are rampant, managed trade is increasingly popular, and regionalism is spreading. The United States, the traditional bulwark of multilateralism, has recently resorted to aggressive, unilateral tactics in trade policy. To a consideration of these developments, Bhagwati brings a unique blend of economic theory, historical scholarship, and familiarity with the institutions of world trade. Bhagwati refutes facile but fashionable criticisms of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Warning of the dangers of flouting the GATT's provisions, he shows that its underlying conception of trading by rules will be undermined if we extend accusations of "unfair trade" practices to areas as diverse as retail distribution systems, infrastructure spending, saving rates, and workers' rights. He challenges the economic and cultural stereotypes of Japan that fuel the sentiments supporting managed trade and aggressive unilateralism. In addition, he provides novel suggestions for rebuilding the GATT and with it the world trading system itself--suggestions that should prove useful at the Uruguay Round and beyond. Originally published in 1991. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
The World Division of Labor and the Method of Economics
Author: Roberto Mangabeira Unger
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Political Science
Free Trade Reimagined begins with a sustained criticism of the heart of the emerging world economy, the theory and practice of free trade. Roberto Mangabeira Unger does not, however, defend protectionism against free trade. Instead, he attacks and revises the terms on which the traditional debate between free traders and protectionists has been joined. Unger's intervention in this major contemporary debate serves as a point of departure for a proposal to rethink the basic ideas with which we explain economic activity. He suggests, by example as well as by theory, a way of understanding contemporary economies that is both more realistic and more revealing of hidden possibilities for transformation than are the established forms of economics. One message of the book is that we need not choose between accepting and rejecting globalization; we can have a different globalization. Traditional free trade doctrine rests on shaky empirical and theoretical ground. Unger takes a new approach to show when international trade is likely to be useful or harmful to the socially inclusive economic growth that every nation wants. Another message is that the movement of people and ideas is more important than the movement of things and money, and that freedom to change the institutions defining a market economy is just as important as freedom to exchange goods on the basis of those institutions. Free Trade Reimagined ranges broadly within and outside economics. Presenting technical issues in plain language, it appeals to the general reader. It puts a disciplined imagination in the service of rebellion against the dictatorship of no alternatives that characterizes life and thought today.
Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium
Author: Ronald Findlay,Kevin H. O'Rourke
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
International trade has shaped the modern world, yet until now no single book has been available for both economists and general readers that traces the history of the international economy from its earliest beginnings to the present day. Power and Plenty fills this gap, providing the first full account of world trade and development over the course of the last millennium. Ronald Findlay and Kevin O'Rourke examine the successive waves of globalization and "deglobalization" that have occurred during the past thousand years, looking closely at the technological and political causes behind these long-term trends. They show how the expansion and contraction of the world economy has been directly tied to the two-way interplay of trade and geopolitics, and how war and peace have been critical determinants of international trade over the very long run. The story they tell is sweeping in scope, one that links the emergence of the Western economies with economic and political developments throughout Eurasia centuries ago. Drawing extensively upon empirical evidence and informing their systematic analysis with insights from contemporary economic theory, Findlay and O'Rourke demonstrate the close interrelationships of trade and warfare, the mutual interdependence of the world's different regions, and the crucial role these factors have played in explaining modern economic growth. Power and Plenty is a must-read for anyone seeking to understand the origins of today's international economy, the forces that continue to shape it, and the economic and political challenges confronting policymakers in the twenty-first century.
The Oxford Handbook of International Trade Law explores the law of the World Trade Organization and its broader context. It examines the discipline of international trade law itself and also the outside face of international trade law and its intersection with states and with other aspects of the international system. It covers the economic and institutional context of the world trading system, the substantive law of the WTO, the WTO dispute settlement system,and the interaction between trade and other disciplines and fields of international law.