The Changing Politics of Organic Food in North America explores the political dynamics of the remarkable transition of organic food from a Ôfringe fadÕ in the 1960s to a multi-billion dollar industry in the 2000s. Taking a multidisciplinary, institutio
This three-volume work examines all facets of the modern U.S. food system, including the nation's most important food and agriculture laws, the political forces that shape modern food policy, and the food production trends that are directly impacting the lives of every American family. • Examines a breadth of contemporary food controversies and offers diverse viewpoints on them, placing these perspectives fairly into a broader historical context • Presents a multidisciplinary approach to the subject of food that highlights related issues in transportation, business, diet and nutrition, public health, the environment, and public policy • Includes primary documents that illuminate important laws, policies, and perspectives on the environmental, public health, and economic impact of food • Provides readers with the latest information about food controversies as well as extensive resources for further study on major food controversies
The Diffusion of State Organic Food and Agriculture Legislation, 1976–2010
Author: Samantha L. Mosier
Publisher: Lexington Books
Category: Political Science
The National Organic Program regulates the current U.S. organic food and agriculture market, but states started adopting organic regulations in the 1970s. This book examines the diffusion of state organic food and agriculture legislation from 1976–2010 and identifies the consequences for state involvement in this policy domain.
This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Environmentalism contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on important events, issues, organizations, ideas, and people shaping the direction of environmentalism worldwide.
This volume addresses the emergence of multiple legal and law-like arrangements that alter the interaction between states, their delegated agencies, international organizations and non-state actors in international and transnational politics. Political scientists and legal scholars have been addressing the ‘legalization’ of international regimes and international politics, and engaging in interdisciplinary research on the nature, the causes and the effects of the norm driven controls over different areas and dimensions of global governance. Written by leading contributors in the field, the book claims that the emergence and spread of legal and law-like arrangements contributes to the transformation of world politics, arguing that ‘legalization’ does not only mean that states co-operate in more or less precise, binding and independent regimes, but also that different types of non-state actors can engage in the framing, definition, implementation and enforcement of legal and law-like norms and rules. To capture these diverse observations, the volume provides an interpretative framework that includes the increase in international law-making, the variation of legal and legalized regimes and the differentiation of legal and law-like arrangements. Law and Legalization in Transnational Relations is of interest to students and researchers of international politics, international relations and law.
The industrial food system of the West is increasingly perceived as problematic. The physical, social and intellectual distance between consumers and their food stems from a food system that privileges quantity and efficiency over quality, with an underlying assumption that food is a commodity, rather than a source of nourishment and pleasure. In the wake of various food and health scares, there is a growing demand from consumers to change the food they eat, which in turn acts as a catalyst for the industry to adapt and for alternative systems to evolve. Drawing on a wealth of empirical research into mainstream and alternative North American food systems, this book discusses how sustainable, grass roots, local food systems offer a template for meaningful individual activism as a way to bring about change from the bottom up, while at the same time creating pressure for policy changes at all levels of government. This movement signals a shift away from market economy principles and reflects a desire to embody social and ecological values as the foundation for future growth.
Peter Andree,Jeffrey Ayres,Michael Bosia,Marie-Josee Massicotte
Global and Local Change in the New Politics of Food
Author: Peter Andree,Jeffrey Ayres,Michael Bosia,Marie-Josee Massicotte
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Political Science
In recent years, food sovereignty has emerged as a way of contesting corporate control of agricultural markets in pursuit of a more democratic, decentralized food system. The concept unites individuals, communities, civil society organizations, and even states in opposition to globalizing food regimes. This collection examines expressions of food sovereignty ranging from the direct action tactics of La Vía Campesina in Brazil to the consumer activism of the Slow Food movement and the negotiating stances of states from the global South at WTO negotiations. With each case, the contributors explore how claiming food sovereignty allows individuals to challenge the power of global agribusiness and reject neoliberal market economics. With perspectives drawn from Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa, and Australia, Globalization and Food Sovereignty is the first comparative collection to focus on food sovereignty activism worldwide.
The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.
Throughout American history, ingestion (eating) has functioned as a metaphor for interpreting and imagining this society and its political systems. Discussions of American freedom itself are pervaded with ingestive metaphors of choice (what to put in) and control (what to keep out). From the country’s founders to the abolitionists to the social activists of today, those seeking to form and reform American society have cast their social-change goals in ingestive terms of choice and control. But they have realized their metaphors in concrete terms as well, purveying specific advice to the public about what to eat or not. These conversations about “social change as eating” reflect American ideals of freedom, purity, and virtue. Drawing on social and political history as well as the history of science and popular culture, Dangerous Digestion examines how American ideas about dietary reform mirror broader thinking about social reform. Inspired by new scientific studies of the human body as a metabiome—a collaboration of species rather than an isolated, intact, protected, and bounded individual—E. Melanie DuPuis invokes a new metaphor—digestion—to reimagine the American body politic, opening social transformations to ideas of mixing, fermentation, and collaboration. In doing so, the author explores how social activists can rethink politics as inclusive processes that involve the inherently risky mixing of cultures, standpoints, and ideas.
How Genetic Engineering Is Changing What We Eat, How We Live, and the Global Politics of Food
Author: Bill Lambrecht
Biotech companies are racing to alter the genetic building blocks of the world's food. In the United States, the primary venue for this quiet revolution, the acreage of genetically modified crops has soared from zero to 70 million acres since 1996. More than half of America's processed grocery products-from cornflakes to granola bars to diet drinks-contain gene-altered ingredients. But the U.S., unlike Europe and other democratic nations, does not require labeling of modified food. Dinner at the New Gene Café expertly lays out the battle lines of the impending collision between a powerful but unproved technology and a gathering resistance from people worried about the safety of genetic change.
Robert G. Healy,Debora L. VanNijnatten,Marcela López-Vallejo
Approaches, Capacity, and the Management of Transboundary Issues
Author: Robert G. Healy,Debora L. VanNijnatten,Marcela López-Vallejo
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Political Science
This comprehensive analysis of key issues in North American environmental policy provides an overview of how the US, Mexico, and Canada differ in their environmental management approaches and capacity levels, and how these differences play into cross-border cooperation on environmental problems. The book offers insights into transboundary cooperation both before and after NAFTA, and presents a framework for making environmental interaction more effective in the future. The book is organized into two parts. The first, more general, section compares the national contexts for environmental management in each country—including economic conditions, sociocultural dynamics, and political decision-making frameworks— and shows how these have led to variations in policy approaches and levels of capacity. The authors argue that effective environmental governance in North America depends on the ability of transboundary institutions to address and mediate these differences. The book's second section illustrates this argument, using four case studies of environmental management in North America: biodiversity and protected areas, air pollution (smog); greenhouse gas reduction, and genetically modified crops.
In recent decades agricultural commodity surpluses in the developed world have contributed to a mantra of 'land surplus' in which set-aside, extensification, alternative land uses and 'wilding' have been key terms in debates over land. Quite suddenly all this has changed as a consequence of rapidly shifting commodity markets. Prices for cereals, oil seeds and other globally traded commodities have risen sharply. A contributor to this has been the shift to bioenergy cropping, fuelled by concerns over post-peak oil and climate change. Agricultural supply chain interests have embraced the 'new environmentalism' of climate change with enthusiasm, proudly proclaiming the readiness of the industry to produce both food and energy crops, and to do so with a neo-liberal confidence in markets to determine the balance between food and non-food crops in land use. But policy and politics have not necessarily caught up with these market and industry-led changes and some environmentalists are beginning to challenge the assumptions of the new 'productivism'. Is it necessarily the case, they ask, that agriculture's best contribution to tackling climate change is to grow bioenergy crops or invest in anaerobic-digesters or make land over for windfarms? Might not there be an equally important role in maximising the carbon sequestration or water-holding properties of biodiverse land? What is Land For? tackles these key cutting-edge issues of this new debate by setting out a baseline of evidence and ideas.
Popularized by Michael Pollan in his best-selling In Defense of Food, Gyorgy Scrinis's concept of nutritionism refers to the reductive understanding of nutrients as the key indicators of healthy food—an approach that has dominated nutrition science, dietary advice, and food marketing. Scrinis argues this ideology has narrowed and in some cases distorted our appreciation of food quality, such that even highly processed foods may be perceived as healthful depending on their content of "good" or "bad" nutrients. Investigating the butter versus margarine debate, the battle between low-fat, low-carb, and other weight-loss diets, and the food industry's strategic promotion of nutritionally enhanced foods, Scrinis reveals the scientific, social, and economic factors driving our modern fascination with nutrition. Scrinis develops an original framework and terminology for analyzing the characteristics and consequences of nutritionism since the late nineteenth century. He begins with the era of quantification, in which the idea of protective nutrients, caloric reductionism, and vitamins' curative effects took shape. He follows with the era of good and bad nutritionism, which set nutricentric dietary guidelines and defined the parameters of unhealthy nutrients; and concludes with our current era of functional nutritionism, in which the focus has shifted to targeted nutrients, superfoods, and optimal diets. Scrinis's research underscores the critical role of nutrition science and dietary advice in shaping our relationship to food and our bodies and in heightening our nutritional anxieties. He ultimately shows how nutritionism has aligned the demands and perceived needs of consumers with the commercial interests of food manufacturers and corporations. Scrinis also offers an alternative paradigm for assessing the healthfulness of foods—the food quality paradigm—that privileges food production and processing quality, cultural-traditional knowledge, and sensual-practical experience, and promotes less reductive forms of nutrition research and dietary advice.
For over a century, America's nutrition authorities have heralded milk as "nature's perfect food," as "indispensable" and "the most complete food." These milk "boosters" have ranged from consumer activists, to government nutritionists, to the American Dairy Council and its ubiquitous milk moustache ads. The image of milk as wholesome and body-building has a long history, but is it accurate? Recently, within the newest social movements around food, milk has lost favor. Vegan anti-milk rhetoric portrays the dairy industry as cruel to animals and milk as bad for humans. Recently, books with titles like, "Milk: The Deadly Poison," and "Don't Drink Your Milk" have portrayed milk as toxic and unhealthy. Controversies over genetically-engineered cows and questions about antibiotic residue have also prompted consumers to question whether the milk they drink each day is truly good for them. In Nature's Perfect Food Melanie Dupuis illuminates these questions by telling the story of how Americans came to drink milk. We learn how cow's milk, which was associated with bacteria and disease became a staple of the American diet. Along the way we encounter 19th century evangelists who were convinced that cow's milk was the perfect food with divine properties, brewers whose tainted cow feed poisoned the milk supply, and informal wetnursing networks that were destroyed with the onset of urbanization and industrialization. Informative and entertaining, Nature's Perfect Food will be the standard work on the history of milk.
This book examines the interaction of the dimensions of economy, society, and environment in the context of rural systems. It embraces a wide range of topics, including globalization and reregulation in sustainable food production, conservation and sustainability, the development of sustainable rural communities, and sustainable rural-urban interaction. It is relevant to advanced-level students, teachers, researchers, policymakers and agency workers.
Offering a different, more engaging approach to teaching and learning, Organic Chemistry: A Mechanistic Approach classifies organic chemistry according to mechanism rather than by functional group. The book elicits an understanding of the material, by means of problem solving, instead of purely requiring memorization. The text enables a deep understanding of underlying principles that can be applied to a wide range of problems and systems. It also teaches a way of thinking and analysis that will serve students well across many academic disciplines. Covering all the key aspects of organic chemistry, this text emphasizes the development of skills through a student-centered approach. In order to provide a contemporary feel to the subject, the author has included some of the more modern synthetic approaches. In addition, later chapters address the biological, environmental, industrial, and forensic aspects of organic chemistry. Pedagogical Features: Extensive review problems, which are the central means of integrating the material "Focus boxes" that highlight key points in the chapters An instructors’ website with full lecture notes in animated PowerPoint, a solutions manual in both Word and PowerPoint format, and additional problems for use in tests A student website with solutions to review problems, and additional challenging problems and solutions for the ambitious, in animated PowerPoint and text versions
This detailed analysis of the global food system looks at the way food is produced, distributed, and consumed in an effort to create a more equitable and healthful system worldwide. • Introduces political, economic, and cultural themes relevant to understanding the global food system • Offers various strategies for overcoming problems in the food system • Provides a multidisciplinary approach through the contributions of major scholars and activists in the fields of religion, ethics, agriculture, and human ecology • Includes the latest research initiatives and interviews from the United Food and Commercial Workers International Union • Features tables and charts covering implementation strategies for various food justice movements
The history of food and drink in America is an exciting tale of unexpected twists and turns filled with with hot-shot inventors, high-flying promoters, and hard-hitting advertisers. From the California coast to Coney Island, this book takes readers on a panoramic journey through American culinary history. 250 halftone illustrations.