Interest in physical geography has increased as the discipline has diversified, with greater consideration given to its approach, and its philosophy; at the same time there have been benefits from advances in technology. The subject has seen many changes since the impact of quantification and systems, with emphases upon environmental processes, landscape evolution and chronology, and the significance of human activity, as well as upon applications of physical geography. 'The Changing Nature of Physical geography' presents a review of progress in this discipline: providing an understanding of how it has evolved; introducing its research and technical literature; and outlining the contributions of the physical geographers who have shaped the study of physical geography. The book is arranged in three broadly chronological sections. The first section, covering 1850-1980, surveys the development of physical geography from its foundation to formative recent developments. Section two looks at current approaches to the discipline, and the final section considers trends into the next Millennium by drawing attention to new approaches at a global and a cultural level. The conclusion offers a perspective on future physical geography as a context for its further development. As a comprehensive and fluent introduction to the nature of this multifarious discipline, with its increasing focus upon environmental change and environmental management, it is a must for all students of physical geography.
This book is an introduction to the nature of geography. There are detailed sections on content, methods and purposes and an attempt is made to distinguish progress from those changes which are merely fashion and those which result in genuine progress. One of these, resulting partly from the adoption of quantitative techniques, is the improvement in the accuracy and the type of explanation which the geographer is now able to give. The new techniques have also helped in the bringing about of profound changes in geographical laws, the use of models and even the relevance of determinism.
Single chapter from the eBook Understanding Physical Geography
Author: Michael Pidwirny
Publisher: Our Planet Earth Publishing
IMPORTANT - This Google Play version is best viewed with a computer using Google Chrome, Firefox or Apple Safari browsers. Chapter 1: Introduction to Physical Geography of the eBook Understanding Physical Geography. This eBook was written for students taking introductory Physical Geography taught at a college or university.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary thought and practice in teaching geography. It is designed to support continuing professional development and reflective practice in geography education by: encouraging a critical understanding of the literature and concepts; stimulating teachers to continue with personal and professional development; and providing professionally relevant knowledge, understanding, skills and values. Drawn from a wide range of eminent geographers and experienced practitioners, the authors cover: progress in geography - changing viewpoints; the geography curriculum - development planning and issues; research and geography teaching - why and how research matters. Thi
Over the past twenty years, geography as an academic discipline has become more and more reflective, asking the key questions 'What are we doing?' 'Why are we doing it?'. These questions have, so far, been more enthusiastically taken up by human geography rather than physical geography. Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography aims to redress the balance. Written and edited by a distinguished group of physical geographers, Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography comprises of a collection of international writer's thoughts which reveal personal motivations, and look at tensions in the worlds of meaning in which physical geography is involved. How are the meanings of the physical environment derived? Is the future of physical geography one where the only, or at least the dominant, meanings are framed in the contexts of environmental issues. Covering a diverse and lively selection of topics, the contributors of this book offer guides to the contemporary debates in the philosophy of physical geography, and introduce the reader to its wider cultural significance. This book is an essential companion to anyone studying, or with an interest in, physical geography.
Key Methods in Geography is an introduction for undergraduates to the principal methodological issues involved in the collection, analysis and presentation of geographical information. It provides an accessible primer, which will be used by students as a reference throughout their degree, on all issues from research design to presentation. A unique feature of the book is that it provides definitions of terms from both human geography and physical geography. Organized into four parts: Getting Started in Geographical Research; Data Collection in Human Geography; Data Collection in Physical Geography; Analyzing and Representing Geographical Data. Each chapter is comprised of a short definition, a summary of the principal arguments, a substantive 5,000-word discussion, the use of real-life examples, and annotated notes for further reading. The teaching of research methods is integral in all geography courses. Key Methods in Geography identifies the key analytical and observational strategies with which all geography undergraduates should be conversant.
M. J. Clark,Kenneth John Gregory,Angela M. Gurnell
Author: M. J. Clark,Kenneth John Gregory,Angela M. Gurnell
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
'The authority of the contributors, the quality of production, and the bibliographic notes are first-rate. It is essential for basic earth science collections, and for any college library that supports geography or geology.'
Author: James Petersen,Dorothy Sack,Robert E. Gabler
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Cengage Learning's FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY brings course concepts to life with interactive learning, study, and exam preparation tools along with market leading text content for introductory physical geography courses. Whether you use a traditional printed text or all digital FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CourseMate alternative, it's never been easier to better understand the relationship between humans and physical geography, and how one impacts the other. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Featuring in-depth case studies this is a book which is intended for GCSE Geography. It provides enquiries and decision-making exercises with particular emphasis on topical issues throughout the UK, Europe and the world.
English summary: The only geographical description which has been preserved of the Hellenic and Roman world. Volume 4 (XIV-XVII: Text and translation): Asia Minor (continuation), Persia, India, Middle East, Egypt, North Africa. This volume completes the presentation of the greek text and of its translation. German description: Die auf zehn Bande angelegte Ausgabe enthalt einen aufgrund neuer Kollationierung der Haupthandschriften und unter Berucksichtigung der gesamten zu Strabon erschienenen Sekundarliteratur konstituierten Text mit kritischem und Testimonien-Apparat und deutscher Ubersetzung (Bande 1-4), einen Kommentar (Bande 5-8), eine Transkription der mittelalterlichen Strabon Epitome und Chrestomathie, die es erlaubt, jeweils mit einem Blick festzustellen, welche Teile des Strabontextes diese wichtigen Textzeugen enthalten (Band 9), und einen Registerband. Die Bande erscheinen jeweils im Abstand von etwa einem Jahr.
Municipalities and Petroleum Manufacturing in Southern Ontario, 1860-1960
Author: Timothy Cobban
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Political Science
Cities of Oil is the first sustained historical account of the development of the early Canadian petroleum refining and manufacturing industry. In it, Timothy W. Cobban documents the industry’s development in southern Ontario, from its beginnings in the 1850s to its later expansion on the outskirts of London, to Petrolia, and finally to Sarnia. He accounts for all of the industry’s important developments and innovations, particularly the role played by municipalities in fostering its growth. Using extensive archival research, Cobban concludes that municipalities can stimulate the accelerated, sustained development of local industry sectors, thus challenging the dominant view that the influence of municipalities on economic growth is marginal. Cities of Oil demonstrates the importance of accommodating the land and infrastructure needs of industry at critical junctures, and implementing land use policies that encourage the dense clustering of industries. This book will be essential reading for those seeking a greater understanding of industrial growth in the province of Ontario.
Geography is not what we have assumed it, we have conceived it and we have perceived it, but it is that what we have not imagined it-it is around us. It is a system in itself. Because, human behaviour becomes rational, when it acts individually, but is becomes rational, when it operates upon in a collective form. Therefore, it is very difficult to understand man and his behaviour in a given situation. So it is incredible to argue about the discipline, its past history and the methodological contents. It is a misconceived notion of set boundary and a goal of its own, in a multidimensional facets of the changing world complexes in which we are living. Geography in its manifestations begins with the land-scape evolution (Physical basis), interacts with the phenomena culminating in human relationships, (Cultural land-scape) of conceptual world of real and abstract, interactions and processes, conditions and relations of multivariate facets of elements. Geographers are thus, drawn to the illusion with perlex mind of geographical images. This perception has drawn geography and geographers both into a state of unending dilemma of academic jargon of puzzles i e. Whether it is founded on systems theory or simply an irrelevant distraction ? Science provides us very sharp tools. But any craftsman will tell you it is the sharp tool which cane do most damage or harm when misapplied. It is apparently observed that geographers are badly operationalised with their blunted tools. The present attempt is thus, to discuss all those problems arises due to multidimensional approaches of the past, present analysis and future methodologies, more particularly in the system analogy of systems theory, General Systems and the General Systems Theory, as all these notions have different connotations. How geography as a discipline is fitted well in the analogy of systems theory has been the main concerned to these volumes. Let us explore the possibilities-What Geography is? The first volume deals with the Systems Theory and Geography, whereas, the second interprets the Possible World of Geographer in Systems Theory. Contents Vol. I Part I- General Systems & Systems Theory; Chapter 1: General Systems Theory; Chapter 2: General Systems Theory: Specific Features; Chapter 3: General Systems Theory as a Metatheory; Chapter 4: Outline History of the Systems Theory; Chapter 5: The Systems Approach and its Development; Chapter 6: Classification of Systems into Open and Closed-Logic of Methodological Problems; Chapter 7: Systems Theory and Modern Sciences; Chapter 8: The Systems Approach in Social Sciences; Chapter 9: Paradox of Systems Analysis; Chapter 10: Prospects of the Systems Approach; Part II- Development of Nature of Geography; Chapter 11: Progress in Geography Through Ages; Chapter 12: German Contribution to Geography; Chapter 13: Geographers of the Second and Third Generation; Chapter 14: Leaders of the Fourth Generation; Chapter 15: French Geographers Contribution to Geography; Chapter 16: The Second Generation of French Geographers; Chapter 17: Geography in Indian Context; Chapter 18: Theories, Laws and Models: A Systematic Explanation in Geography; Vol. II Chapter 1: Nature of Geography; Chapter 2: Problem of Paradigm Shift: Conceptual Themes; Chapter 3: Geography and General Systems Theory; Chapter 4: American School and Geographers of the Time; Chapter 5: The Modern Perceptivism; Chapter 6: A Real World (Physical Geography) of Geographer; Chapter 7: Geographic Space Perception; Chapter 8: Environment as Perceived in Geography; Chapter 9: Diffusion Process in Geographic Research and Normative Values; Chapter 10: Welfare Geography of Economics; Chapter 11: In Search of Systematic Geography; Chapter 12: Geography in Systems Theory.
In the second half of the twentieth century, significant changes were occurring within the agricultural industry, including an increase in efficiency and government intervention, as well as expanded and more complicated patterns of trade. This comprehensive volume, first published in 1986, reflects how these developments challenged the field of agricultural geography. Considering agricultural innovations, farming systems, government policy and land ownership, this title provides an essential background to students with an interest in agricultural methods, distribution and reform.
Wie sich Weltpolitik anhand von 10 Karten erklären lässt
Author: Tim Marshall
Publisher: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag
Wie Geografie Geschichte macht Weltpolitik ist auch Geopolitik. Alle Regierungen, alle Staatschefs unterliegen den Zwängen der Geographie. Berge und Ebenen, Flüsse, Meere, Wüsten setzen ihrem Entscheidungsspielraum Grenzen. Um Geschichte und Politik zu verstehen, muss man selbstverständlich die Menschen, die Ideen, die Einstellungen kennen. Aber wenn man die Geographie nicht mit einbezieht, bekommt man kein vollständiges Bild. Zum Beispiel Russland: Von den Moskauer Großfürsten über Iwan den Schrecklichen, Peter den Großen und Stalin bis hin zu Wladimir Putin sah sich jeder russische Staatschef denselben geostrategischen Problemen ausgesetzt, egal ob im Zarismus, im Kommunismus oder im kapitalistischen Nepotismus. Die meisten Häfen frieren immer noch ein halbes Jahr zu. Nicht gut für die Marine. Die nordeuropäische Tiefebene von der Nordsee bis zum Ural ist immer noch flach. Jeder kann durchmarschieren. Russland, China, die USA, Europa, Afrika, Lateinamerika, der Nahe Osten, Indien und Pakistan, Japan und Korea, die Arktis und Grönland: In zehn Kapiteln zeigt Tim Marshall, wie die Geographie die Weltpolitik beeinflusst und beeinflusst hat.
This volume explores the climates, landscapes, ecosystems and hazards that comprise the Mediterranean world. It traces the development of the Mediterranean landscape over very long timescales and examines modern processes and key environmental issues in a wide range of settings. The Mediterranean is the only region on Earth where three continents meet and this interaction has produced a very distinctive Physical Geography. This book examines the landscapes and processes at the margins of these continents and the distinctive marine environment between them. Catastrophic earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions and devastating storms and floods are intimately bound up within the history and mythology of the Mediterranean world. This is a key region for the study of natural hazards because it offers unrivalled access to long records of hazard occurrence and impact through documentary, archaeological and geological archives. The Mediterranean is also a biodiversity hotspot; it has been a meeting place for plants, animals and humans from three continents throughout much of its history. The Quaternary records of these interactions are more varied and better preserved than in any other part of the world. These records have provided important new insights into the tempo of climate, landscape and ecosystem change in the Mediterranean region and beyond. The region is unique because of the very early and widespread impact of humans in landscape and ecosystem change - and the richness of the archaeological and geological archives that chronicle this impact. This book examines this history and these interactions and places current environmental issues in long term context. Contributors : Ramadan Husain Abu-Zied Harriet Allen Jacques Blondel Maria-Carmen Llasat James Casford Marc Castellnou Andrew Goudie Andrew Harding Angela Hayes Tom Holt Babette Hoogakker Philip Hughes Jos Lelieveld John Lewin Francisco Lloret Francisco Lopez-Bermudez Mark Macklin Jean Margat Anne Mather Frédéric Médail Christophe Morhange Clive Oppenheimer Jean Palutikof Gerassimos Papadopoulos Josep Piñol David Pyle Jane Reed Neil Roberts Eelco Rohling Iain Stewart Stathis Stiros John Thornes Chronis Tzedakis John Wainwright
Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Understanding the Contributions to Infectious Disease Emergence: Workshop Summary
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats
Publisher: National Academies Press
Long before the "germ theory" of disease was described, late in the nineteenth century, humans knew that climatic conditions influence the appearance and spread of epidemic diseases. Ancient notions about the effects of weather and climate on disease remain embedded in our collective consciousness-through expressions such as "cold" for rhinovirus infections; "malaria," derived from the Latin for "bad air;" and the common complaint of feeling "under the weather." Today, evidence is mounting that earth's climate is changing at a faster rate than previously appreciated, leading researchers to view the longstanding relationships between climate and disease with new urgency and from a global perspective. On December 4 and 5, 2007, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop in Washington, DC to consider the possible infectious disease impacts of global climate change and extreme weather events on human, animal, and plant health, as well as their expected implications for global and national security.