A Turing Award-winning computer scientist and statistician shows how understanding causality has revolutionized science and will revolutionize artificial intelligence "Correlation is not causation." This mantra, chanted by scientists for more than a century, has led to a virtual prohibition on causal talk. Today, that taboo is dead. The causal revolution, instigated by Judea Pearl and his colleagues, has cut through a century of confusion and established causality--the study of cause and effect--on a firm scientific basis. His work explains how we can know easy things, like whether it was rain or a sprinkler that made a sidewalk wet; and how to answer hard questions, like whether a drug cured an illness. Pearl's work enables us to know not just whether one thing causes another: it lets us explore the world that is and the worlds that could have been. It shows us the essence of human thought and key to artificial intelligence. Anyone who wants to understand either needs The Book of Why.
In philosophy as in ordinary life, cause and effect are twin pillars on which much of our thought seems based. But almost a century ago, Bertrand Russell declared that modern physics leaves these pillars without foundations. Russell's revolutionary conclusion was that 'the law of causality is a relic of a bygone age, surviving, like the monarchy, only because it is erroneously supposed to do no harm'. Russell's famous challenge remains unanswered. Despite dramatic advances in physics,the intervening century has taken us no closer to an explanation of how to find a place for causation in a world of the kind that physics reveals. In particular, we still have no satisfactory account of the directionality of causation - the difference between cause and effect, and the fact that causes typically precede their effects. In this important collection of new essays, 13 leading scholars revisit Russell's revolution, in search of reconciliation. The connecting theme in these essays is that to reconcile causation with physics, we need to put ourselves in the picture: we need to think about why creatures in our situation should present their world in causal terms.
The Freakonomics of the sociology world. This book shows how deeply irrational we humans are, and what we can do about it When we try to understand our world, we ask "why?" a specific event occured. But this profoundly human question often leads us astray. In Cause, sociologist Gregory Smithsimon brings us a much sharper understanding of cause and effect, and shows how we can use it to approach some of our most daunting collective problems. Smithsimon begins by explaining the misguided cause and effect explanations that have given us tragically little insight on issues such as racial discrimination, climate change, and the cycle of poverty. He then shows unseen causes behind these issues, and shows how we are hard-wired to overlook them. Armed with these insights, Smithsimon explains how we can avoid these mistakes, and begin to make effective change. Combining philosophy, the science of perception, and deeply researched social factors, Cause offers us a new way to ask "why?" and a hope that we may improve our society and ourselves.
Why was there a meltdown at the Fukushima power plant? Why do some people get cancer and not others? Why is global warming happening? Why does one person get depressed in the face of life's vicissitudes while another finds resilience? Questions like these—questions of causality—form the basis of modern scientific inquiry, posing profound intellectual and methodological challenges for researchers in the physical, natural, biomedical, and social sciences. In this groundbreaking book, noted psychiatrist and author Peter Rabins offers a conceptual framework for analyzing daunting questions of causality. Navigating a lively intellectual voyage between the shoals of strict reductionism and relativism, Rabins maps a three-facet model of causality and applies it to a variety of questions in science, medicine, economics, and more. Throughout this book, Rabins situates his argument within relevant scientific contexts, such as quantum mechanics, cybernetics, chaos theory, and epigenetics. A renowned communicator of complex concepts and scientific ideas, Rabins helps readers stretch their minds beyond the realm of popular literary tipping points, blinks, and freakonomic explanations of the world.
Teaching a new science of health and natural healing in 26 wonderful lessons. This course covers in simple language the subjects of animation, psychology, biology, pathology, pathoformology, pathogeny, pathonomy, threpsology (law of nutrition), orthotrop.
Cladistics—the science of comparison—is transforming the way paleontologists view evolution. In Search of Deep Time strips away conventional assumptions about the evolution of life to reveal a world that may be far stranger and more humbling than had been previously imagined. The concept of deep time was first used by John McPhee to describe intervals of time incomprehensibly greater than our daily experience. Henry Gee explains the rise of cladistics as the best technique for making sense of the organic changes that unfold within deep time.
In recent years, the contemporary social sciences have again turned their attention to space and places. The hypothesis is that these are not accidental episodes but a full-blown revolution in the way of viewing economic processes and their links with social and cultural structures. In other words, this new sensitivity to places offers the possibility of rethinking issues typical of economics in a different perspective that might be defined as local development, one of the terms most (ab)used in the contemporary scientific and political debate. In this book the authors will thus try to support more strongly, although in a necessarily simplified manner, the possibility of constructing a theory of local development. The key idea is that there is no single development model operating at a given time and valid for all places, but that it is more correct to talk of multiple development paths that co-exist in the same place at the same time (multiplicity of development paths). The central point is not to identify the succession of distinct hegemonic models (Fordism versus post-Fordism, mass production versus lean production and so on), but to show how the complexity of the contemporary economy demands new concepts to explain its apparent contradictions. In the authors' view, the conception of a theory of local development implies radical rethinking in institutionalist terms of the way of viewing the economy and production, recognising that behind economic development lies a wealth of institutional assets that make the encounter between local and global more open and varied than ever before (institutional biodiversity).
Moving away from the usual medical-modeled framework of mental health focused on problems, Strengths-Based Supervision in Clinical Practice by Jeffrey K. Edwards takes a postmodern, social construction approach, looking for and amplifying strengths and encouraging stakeholders to use them. Based on research in brain science, as well as from the Information Age/Connectivity Age thinking, the book reframes the focus of supervision, management, and leadership to one that collaborates and builds on strengths with supervisees as competent stakeholders in their work with their clients.
"Aldwin and Gilmer have supplied an interesting textual model for examining health, illness, and aging. Their homogenized approach to aging research is refreshing and insightful."--Anthropology and Aging Quarterly "Clearly written at a level for college students, this is an excellent resource on aging...Highly recommended.--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries Spanning the biological and psychosocial aspects of aging, this upper-level undergraduate and graduate text integrates current findings in biology, psychology, and the social sciences to provide comprehensive, multidisciplinary coverage of the aging process. This new edition incorporates the tremendous amount of research that has come to light since the first edition was published. From a physical perspective, the text examines age-related changes and disease-related processes, the demography of the aging population, aging theories, and how to promote optimal aging. Coverage of the psychosocial aspects of aging encompasses mental health, stress and coping, spirituality, and caregiving in later years. The authors address demographic, theoretical, and methodological issues on aging, including a worldwide overview of aging demographics. The book reviews biological and psychosocial theories and offers much-needed information on longitudinal design and statistics as they relate to aging research. It discusses the aging of the major organ systems, the brain and sensory systems, and the endocrine and immune systems; basic anatomy and physiology; normal, impaired, and optimal aging; and functional health. Psychosocial factors that affect health are addressed, including the interplay between physical health and mental health, stress, coping, and social support. The text also covers current issues in social gerontology, including such promising new trends as gerontechnology and Green Houses, and provides information on health promotion programs. New to the Second Edition: Information involving retirement, volunteer opportunities, housing, and adaptation to health changes Coverage of economics and aging, including information on social security and other retirement income and the future of Medicare and Medicaid Significant new information about the regulatory systems Revised and updated chapters on death and dying and optimal aging Discussions on two models of optimal aging and valuable tips for its promotion URLs to relevant websites for additional information
The book covers areas of cellular physiology and metabolism that are of interest to scientists involved in research in diabetes and metabolic diseases. Some chapters of the book are specifically research-oriented, as all the authors are actively practicing either bench or clinical research in the area. Nonetheless, since the work is fully comprehensive of the discipline, it is also suitable for university classes of graduate and undergraduate students. In particular, the book discusses classical aspects of cellular physiology and the metabolism of physical exercise, as well as novel topics like exercise in transplantation and exercise in beta-cell failure, which mark the frontiers of research in sport-related sciences and research. Exercise physiologists, biologists and physicians are the specific professional and academic targets of this work. The team of authors together with the editor are world-renowned experts in the field of physiology and metabolism applied to sport sciences.