The Archaeology of Disease shows how the latest scientific and archaeological techniques can be used to identify the common illnesses and injuries from which humans suffered in antiquity. Charlotte Roberts and Keith Manchester offer a vivid picture of ancient disease and trauma by combining the results of scientific research with information gathered from documents, other areas of archaeology, art, and ethnography. The book contains information on congenital, infectious, dental, joint, endocrine, and metabolic diseases. The authors provide a clinical context for specific ailments and accidents and consider the relevance of ancient demography, basic bone biology, funerary practices, and prehistoric medicine. This fully revised third edition has been updated to and encompasses rapidly developing research methods of in this fascinating field.
The analysis of animal bone assemblages from archaeological sites provides much valuable data concerning economic and husbandry practices in the past, as well as insights into cultural and symbolic or ritual activity. Animal palaeopathology can identify diseases in archaeozoological assemblages but little interest has been expressed in investigating and understanding the cultural aspects of the diseases identified. Such assemblages represent the cumulative effects of human attitudes, decisions and influences regarding the keeping, care, treatment, neglect and exploitation of animals which result in a range of conditions, non-infectious diseases and injuries that can be recognised on ancient skeletal material. Additionally, ever since the domestication of a handful of animal species around 10,000 years ago, close physical proximity has been a mutual source of infectious disease and traumatic injury for humans and animals alike. Shuffling Nags, Lame Ducks provides an invaluable guide to the investigation of trauma and disease in archaeozoological assemblages. It provides a clear methodological approach, and describes and explains the wide range of traumatic lesions, infections, diseases, inherited disorders and other pathological changes and anomalies that can be identified. In so doing, it explores the impact that “man-made” decisions have had on animals, including special aspects of culture that may be reflected in the treatment of diseased or injured animals often incorporating powerful symbolic or religious roles, and seeks to enhance our understanding of the relationship between man and beast in the past. Chapters include: · History of studying pathological animal remains · Differences between human and animal palaeopathology · Methodology · Growth, development and ageing · Traumatic lesions · Inflammatory diseases and bone · Pathological lesions in working animals · Diseases connected to the environment
The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.
The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.
Animal ecologists can observe the present and reconstruct the last one or two centuries from historical sources, but the study of animal bones adds valuable insight into the peoples and landscapes of the past while telling much about the evolution of human-animal relationships. In this standard work, now available in paperback, O’Connor offers a detailed overview of the study of animal bones. He analyzes bone composition and structure and the archaeological evidence left by the processes of life, death, and decomposition. He goes on to look at how bone is excavated, examined, described, identified, measured, and reassembled into skeletons. The bulk of the book is devoted to the interpretation of bone fragments, which tell much about the animals themselves—their health, growth, diet, injuries, and age at death.
Using archaeological materials recovered from a housesite in Mobile, Alabama, Laurie Wilkie explores how one extended African-American family engaged with competing and conflicting mothering ideologies in the post-Emancipation South.
This book teaches students and scholars of Greco-Roman medical history how to use and critically assess archaeological materials. Ancient medicine is a subject dominated by textual sources, yet there is a wealth of archaeological remains that can be used to broaden our understanding of medicine in the past. In order to use the information properly, this book explains how to ask questions of an archaeological nature, how to access different types of archaeological materials, and how to overcome problems the researcher might face. It also acts as an introduction to the archaeology of medicine for archaeologists interested in this aspect of their subject. Although the focus is on the Greco-Roman period, the methods and theories explained within the text can be applied to other periods in history. The areas covered include text as material culture, images, artifacts, spaces of medicine, and science and archaeology.
Eine unbekannte Zivilisation, ein mysteriöser Fluch, eine wahre Geschichte
Author: Douglas Preston
Eine wahre Indiana-Jones-Geschichte - eine archäologische Sensation Schon seit dem 16. Jahrhundert gab es Gerüchte über eine Provinz im Regenwald von Honduras, deren Städte reich und prachtvoll seien, ganz besonders die Weiße Stadt, auch Stadt des Affengottes genannt. Immer wieder machten sich Abenteurer und Archäologen auf die Suche nach den Zeugnissen dieser Zivilisation, die offenbar nicht zu den Mayas gehörte. Manchmal stießen sie tatsächlich auf Ruinen, aber eine wirkliche Erforschung war in dem von giftigen Schlangen und tödlichen Krankheitserregern verseuchten und vom Dschungel überwucherten Gelände unmöglich. Erst die moderne Lasertechnik, mit deren Hilfe das Gelände aus der Luft gescannt wird, ermöglichte genauere Hinweise, wo sich größere Ansiedlungen befinden. Um sie vor Ort zu untersuchen muss man sich allerdings auch heute noch auf den beschwerlichen Weg durch den Dschungel machen. Der Schriftsteller und Journalist Douglas Preston schloss sich kürzlich einer archäologischen Expedition an. Sie fand tatsächlich die eindrucksvollen Ruinen einer untergegangenen Stadt, aber sie zahlte am Ende auch einen hohen Preis.
This student-friendly introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt guides readers from the Paleolithic to the Greco-Roman periods, and has now been updated to include recent discoveries and new illustrations. • Superbly illustrated with photographs, maps, and site plans, with additional illustrations in this new edition • Organized into 11 chapters, covering: the history of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology; prehistoric and pharaonic chronology and the ancient Egyptian language; geography, resources, and environment; and seven chapters organized chronologically and devoted to specific archaeological sites and evidence • Includes sections on salient topics such as the constructing the Great Pyramid at Giza and the process of mummification
The first text to address the contentious issues raised by the pursuit of anthropology and archaeology in the world today. Calls into question the traditional, sometimes difficult relationship between western scholars and the contemporary cultures and peoples they study and can easily disturb.
In this innovative 2007 study, Sarah Tarlow shows how the archaeology of this period manifests a widespread and cross-cutting ethic of improvement. Theoretically informed and drawn from primary and secondary sources in a range of disciplines, the author considers agriculture and the rural environment, towns, and buildings such as working-class housing and institutions of reform. From bleach baths to window glass, rubbish pits to tea wares, the material culture of the period reflects a particular set of values and aspirations. Tarlow examines the philosophical and historical background to the notion of improvement and demonstrates how this concept is a useful lens through which to examine the material culture of later historical Britain.
With reburial and repatriation very much a current focus of debate, this new handbook presents a hugely useful and stimulating overview of just how much we can learn from the study of human remains. The book kicks off with a balanced summary of the legal framework and ethical concerns regarding the excavation and display of human remains, which emphasises public interest in skeletal remains, as well as the need for their respectful treatment. Sections follow on the context of skeletal remains and their excavation - past funerary beliefs and traditions, and best practice in excavating recording and conserving remains. The bulk of the book however is given over to analysis - the techniques for identifying age and sex, dating, the examination of health diet and disease, and the compilation of data to analyse past populations and create demographic surveys. A concluding section on the future of bioarchaeology calls for greater dialogue with archaeologists on reburial issues, but remains overwhelmingly upbeat - "[Bioarchaeology] has emerged phoenix-like from the ashes over the last twenty years and looks set to become a major part of both academic and contract archaeology".
The Archaeology, Ecology, and Evolution of Infectious Disease
Author: Charles L. Greenblatt,Mark Spigelman
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Emerging infectious diseases such as AIDS and Ebola have frightening implications for our future survival. Many ancient diseases with a long history of afflicting mankind such as Tuberculosis and Malaria are also re-emerging. New techniques allow us to detect ancient pathogen DNA and other biomarkers, which may help us develop strategies to combat modern emerging diseases. This book is the first to bring together paleopathologists and infectious disease practitioners, with the hope being that a better understanding of past diseases can help us combat the threat of future pathogens.