Few English books are as widely known, underread, and underappreciated as Robert Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy. Stephanie Shirilan laments that modern scholars often treat the Anatomy as an unmediated repository of early modern views on melancholy, overlooking the fact that Burton is writing a cento - an ancient form of satire that quotes and misquotes authoritative texts in often subversive ways - and that his express intent in so doing is to offer his readers literary therapy for melancholy. This book explores the ways in which the Anatomy dispenses both direct physic and more systemic medicine by encouraging readers to think of melancholy as a privileged mental and spiritual acuity that requires cultivation and management rather than cure. Refuting the prevailing historiography of anxious early modern embodiment that cites Burton as a key witness, Shirilan submits that the Anatomy rejects contemporary Neostoic and Puritan approaches to melancholy. She reads Burton’s erraticism, opacity, and theatricality as modes of resistance against demands for constancy, transparency, and plainness in the popular literature of spiritual and moral hygiene of his day. She shows how Burton draws on rhetorical, theological, and philosophical traditions that privilege the transformative powers of the imagination in order to celebrate melancholic impressionability for its capacity to inspire and engender empathy, charity, and faith.
The NYRB Classics series is designedly and determinedly exploratory and eclectic, a mix of fiction and non-fiction from different eras and times and of various sorts. The series includes nineteenth century novels and experimental novels, reportage and belles lettres, tell-all memoirs and learned studies, established classics and cult favorites, literature high, low, unsuspected, and unheard of. NYRB Classics are, to a large degree, discoveries, the kind of books that people typically run into outside of the classroom and then remember for life. Inevitably literature in translation constitutes a major part of the NYRB Classics series, simply because so much great literature has been left untranslated into English, or translated poorly, or deserves to be translated again, much as any outstanding book asks to be read again. The series started in 1999 with the publication of Richard Hughes's A High Wind in Jamaica. NYRB Classics includes new translations of canonical figures such as Euripides, Dante, Balzac, and Chekhov; fiction by modern and contemporary masters such as Vasily Grossman, Mavis Gallant, Daphne du Maurier, Stefan Zweig, and Upamanyu Chatterjee; tales of crime and punishment by George Simenon and Kenneth Fearing; masterpieces of narrative history and literary criticism, poetry, travel writing, biography, cookbooks, and memoirs from such writers as Norman Mailer, Lionel Trilling, and Patrick Leigh Fermor; and unclassifiable classics on the order of J. R. Ackerley's My Dog Tulip and Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy. Fall 2009 sees the publication of the series' first graphic novel, Poem Strip by Dino Buzzati, translated into English for the first time. Published in handsome uniform trade paperback editions, almost all the 250 NYRB Classics included in this collection feature an introduction by an outstanding writer, scholar, or critic of our day. Taken as a whole, NYRB Classics may be considered a series of books of unrivaled variety and quality for discerning and adventurous readers. This collection includes one each of the following titles: A High Wind in Jamaica by Richard Hughes Jakob von Gunten by Robert Walser The Living Thoughts of Kierkegaard by Soren Kierkegaard Lolly Willowes by Sylvia Townsend Warner My Dog Tulip by J.R. Ackerley My Father and Myself by J.R. Ackerley The Other House by Henry James Peasants and Other Stories by Anton Chekhov Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist by Alexander Berkman A Handbook on Hanging by Charles Duff Hindoo Holiday by J.R. Ackerley Memoirs of My Nervous Illness by Daniel Paul Schreber The Wooden Shepherdess by Richard Hughes The Stories of J.F. Powers by J.F. Powers Memoirs of Lorenzo Da Ponte by Lorenzo Da Ponte Morte D'Urban by J.F. Powers Records of Shelley, Byron, and the Author by Edward John Trelawny Wheat that Springeth Green by J.F. Powers Classic Crimes by William Roughead The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren by Iona Opie The Unknown Masterpiece by Honore de Balzac Virgin Soil by Ivan Turgenev The Glass Bees by Ernst Junger The Pure and the Impure by Colette The Waste Books by Georg Christoph Lichtenberg A Month in the Country by J.L. Carr Seven Men by Max Beerbohm To Each His Own by Leonardo Sciascia The Wine-Dark Sea by Leonardo Sciascia Alfred and Guinevere by James Schuyler The Pilgrim Hawk by Glenway Wescott The Fox in the Attic by Richard Hughes The Haunted Looking Glass by Edward Gorey A House and Its Head by Ivy Compton-Burnett Manservant and Maidservant by Ivy Compton-Burnett Hadrian the Seventh by Fr. Rolfe Madame de Pompadour by Nancy Mitford The Quest for Corvo by A.J.A. Symons The Root and the Flower by L.H. Myers The Anatomy of Melancholy by Robert Burton Exploits and Adventures of Brigadier Gerard by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Letty Fox by Christina Stead The Golovlyov Family by Shchedrin The Radiance of the King by Camara Laye Eustace and Hilda by L.P. Hartley Seduction and Betrayal by Elizabeth Hardwick Sleepless Nights by Elizabeth Hardwick A Way of Life, Like Any Other by Darcy O'Brien As a Man Grows Older by Italo Svevo Autobiography of an Unknown Indian by Nirad C. Chaudhuri Renoir, My Father by Jean Renoir An African in Greenland by Tete-Michel Kpomassie Letters: Summer 1926 by Boris Pasternak Mr. Fortune' s Maggot by Sylvia Townsend Warner Selected Works of Cesare Pavese by Cesare Pavese The Life of Henry Brulard by Stendhal On the Yard by Malcolm Braly Selected Stories of Robert Walser by Robert Walser The Adventures and Misadventures of Maqroll by Alvaro Mutis Mawrdew Czgowchwz by James McCourt The Go-Between by L.P. Hartley The Outcry by Henry James A Book of Mediterranean Food by Elizabeth David Letters from Russia by Astolphe De Custine Miserable Miracle by Henri Michaux Riders in the Chariot by Patrick White Summer Cooking by Elizabeth David Corrigan by Caroline Blackwood Great Granny Webster by Caroline Blackwood Mary Olivier by May Sinclair Randall Jarrell's Book of Stories by Randall Jarrell The New Life by Dante Alighieri The Ten Thousand Things by Maria Dermout The Unpossessed by Tess Slesinger The Middle of the Journey by Lionel Trilling The World of Odysseus by M.I. Finley The Book of My Life by Girolamo Cardano The Moon and the Bonfires by Cesare Pavese Paris Stories by Mavis Gallant Troubles by J.G. Farrell In the Freud Archives by Janet Malcolm The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner by James Hogg A Sorrow Beyond Dreams by Peter Handke The Fountain Overflows by Rebecca West Prisoner of Love by Jean Genet We Always Treat Women Too Well by Raymond Queneau Witch Grass by Raymond Queneau The Stuffed Owl by D.B. Wyndham Lewis To the Finland Station by Edmund Wilson The Vet's Daughter by Barbara Comyns Walter Benjamin by Gershom Scholem Fancies and Goodnights by John Collier Shelley: The Pursuit by Richard Holmes In Parenthesis by David Jones Peking Story by David Kidd Rene Leys by Victor Segalen Black Sun by Geoffrey Wolff Dirty Snow by Georges Simenon The Invention of Morel by Adolfo Bioy Casares The Day of the Owl by Leonardo Sciascia Equal Danger by Leonardo Sciascia Monsieur Proust by Celeste Albaret Three Bedrooms in Manhattan by Georges Simenon The Tenants of Moonbloom by Edward Lewis Wallant The Towers of Trebizond by Rose MacAulay Varieties of Exile by Mavis Gallant My Century by Aleksander Wat The World I Live In by Helen Keller American Humor by Constance Rourke The Ivory Tower by Henry James The Gallery by John Horne Burns Paris and Elsewhere by Richard Cobb Apartment in Athens by Glenway Wescott Envy by Yuri Olesha The Moro Affair by Leonardo Sciascia Nights in the Gardens of Brooklyn by Harvey Swados Part of Our Time by Murray Kempton The Case of Comrade Tulayev by Victor Serge Boredom by Alberto Moravia Contempt by Alberto Moravia The Diary of a Rapist by Evan S. Connell Monsieur Monde Vanishes by Georges Simenon The Siege of Krishnapur by J.G. Farrell W. H. Auden's Book of Light Verse by W. H. Auden Asleep in the Sun by Adolfo Bioy Casares The Bog People by P.V. Glob Moravagine by Blaise Cendrars The Selected Poems of Osip Mandelstam by Osip Mandelstam Cassandra at the Wedding by Dorothy Baker The Furies by Janet Hobhouse Hons and Rebels by Jessica Mitford Indian Summer by William Dean Howells Memoirs of Hecate County by Edmund Wilson The Inferno of Dante Alighieri by Dante Alighieri The Year of the French by Thomas Flanagan Flaubert and Madame Bovary by Francis Steegmuller The Late Mattia Pascal by Luigi Pirandello The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes by W.S. Merwin The Peregrine by J.A. Baker Blood on the Forge by William Attaway The Child by Jules Valles The Lord Chandos Letter by Hugo Von Hofmannsthal The Singapore Grip by J.G. Farrell Count D'Orgel's Ball by Raymond Radiguet War and the Iliad by Simone Weil Anglo-Saxon Attitudes by Angus Wilson The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual by Harold Cruse Kaputt by Curzio Malaparte Memed, My Hawk by Yashar Kemal The Notebooks of Joseph Joubert by Joseph Joubert The Thirty Years War by C.V. Wedgwood Shakespeare by Mark Van Doren The Stalin Front by Gert Ledig Tropic Moon by Georges Simenon Between the Woods and the Water by Patrick Leigh Fermor A Time of Gifts by Patrick Leigh Fermor Jejuri by Arun Kolatkar The Man Who Watched Trains Go By by Georges Simenon Mouchette by Georges Bernanos Warlock by Oakley Hall The New York Stories of Henry James by Henry James Chess Story by Stefan Zweig What's for Dinner? by James Schuyler English, August by Upamanyu Chatterjee Conundrum by Jan Morris Life and Fate by Vasily Grossman Mani by Patrick Leigh Fermor Roumeli by Patrick Leigh Fermor Beware of Pity by Stefan Zweig Stoner by John Williams The Big Clock by Kenneth Fearing Red Lights by Georges Simenon The Jeffersonian Transformation by Henry Adams Love in a Fallen City by Eileen Chang A Savage War of Peace by Alistair Horne Clark Gifford's Body by Kenneth Fearing The Strangers in the House by Georges Simenon Pages from the Goncourt Journals by Edmond and Jules de Goncourt They Burn the Thistles by Yashar Kemal Born Under Saturn by Rudolf and Margot Wittkower The Stray Dog Cabaret by Edited by Honor Moore and Catherine Ciepiela Butcher's Crossing by John Williams Dante by Erich Auerbach The Slaves of Solitude by Patrick Hamilton That Awful Mess on the Via Merulana by Carlo Emilio Gadda The Engagement by Georges Simenon The Enchanted April by Elizabeth von Arnim The Slynx by Tatyana Tolstaya White Walls by Tatyana Tolstaya Memoirs of Montparnasse by John Glassco The Dud Avocado by Elaine Dundy The Education Of A Gardener by Russell Page The Book of Ebenezer Le Page by G. B. Edwards Sunflower by Gyula Krudy Novels in Three Lines by Felix Feneon The Goshawk by T. H. White The New York Stories of Edith Wharton by Edith Wharton A Time to Keep Silence by Patrick Leigh Fermor All About H. Hatterr by G. V. Desani Rogue Male by Geoffrey Household Memoirs of an Anti-Semite by Gregor von Rezzori Soul by Andrey Platonov Sheppard Lee, Written by Himself by Robert Montgomery Bird Poems of the Late T'ang by A. C. Graham Twenty Thousand Streets Under the Sky by Patrick Hamilton Unforgiving Years by Victor Serge Belchamber by Howard Sturgis A Journey Round My Skull by Frigyes Karinthy The Widow by Georges Simenon The Post-Office Girl by Stefan Zweig Afloat by Guy de Maupassant The Family Mashber by Der Nister The Summer Book by Tove Jansson Names on the Land by George R. Stewart Miami and the Siege of Chicago by Norman Mailer Inverted World by Christopher Priest My Fantoms by Theophile Gautier Stones of Aran: Pilgrimage by Tim Robinson In Hazard by Richard Hughes Victorine by Maude Hutchins Grief Lessons by Euripides Rock Crystal by Adalbert Stifter The Liberal Imagination by Lionel Trilling The Queue by Vladimir Sorokin Ringolevio by Emmett Grogan Defeat: Napoleon’s Russian Campaign by Philippe-Paul de Segur Don't Look Now by Daphne Du Maurier The Chrysalids by John Wyndham Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi The Snows of Yesteryear by Gregor von Rezzori The Rider on the White Horse by Theodor Storm School for Love by Olivia Manning Chaos and Night by Henry de Montherlant A Meaningful Life by L. J. Davis Short Letter, Long Farewell by Peter Handke Slow Homecoming by Peter Handke Season of Migration to the North by Tayeb Salih The Foundation Pit by Andrey Platonov The Complete Fiction by Francis Wyndham The One-Straw Revolution by Masanobu Fukuoka The Old Man and Me by Elaine Dundy Summer Will Show by Syliva Townsend Warner Niki by Tibor Dery Hard Rain Falling by Don Carpenter Stones of Aran: Labyrinth by Tim Robinson The Cost of Living by Mavis Gallant Memories of the Future by Sigizmund Krzhizhanovsky Poem Strip by Dino Buzzati No Tomorrow by Vivant Denon The Way of the World by Nicolas Bouvier
Psychiatry's Transformation of Natural Anxieties into Mental Disorders
Author: Allan V. Horwitz, PhD
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Health & Fitness
Thirty years ago, it was estimated that less than five percent of the population had an anxiety disorder. Today, some estimates are over fifty percent, a tenfold increase. Is this dramatic rise evidence of a real medical epidemic? In All We Have to Fear, Allan Horwitz and Jerome Wakefield argue that psychiatry itself has largely generated this "epidemic" by inflating many natural fears into psychiatric disorders, leading to the over-diagnosis of anxiety disorders and the over-prescription of anxiety-reducing drugs. American psychiatry currently identifies disordered anxiety as irrational anxiety disproportionate to a real threat. Horwitz and Wakefield argue, to the contrary, that it can be a perfectly normal part of our nature to fear things that are not at all dangerous--from heights to negative judgments by others to scenes that remind us of past threats (as in some forms of PTSD). Indeed, this book argues strongly against the tendency to call any distressing condition a "mental disorder." To counter this trend, the authors provide an innovative and nuanced way to distinguish between anxiety conditions that are psychiatric disorders and likely require medical treatment and those that are not--the latter including anxieties that seem irrational but are the natural products of evolution. The authors show that many commonly diagnosed "irrational" fears--such as a fear of snakes, strangers, or social evaluation--have evolved over time in response to situations that posed serious risks to humans in the past, but are no longer dangerous today. Drawing on a wide range of disciplines including psychiatry, evolutionary psychology, sociology, anthropology, and history, the book illuminates the nature of anxiety in America, making a major contribution to our understanding of mental health.
"Critique on the Heights of Despair: Politics, Philosophy, and the Persistence of Hope" considers the philosophical sources of despair in the critical imagination. It aims to refresh the landscape of radical political theory through a revaluation of critique and the despair that critique ineluctably suffers. Resisting the prevailing assumption that critique must be rescued from its negative moods, this study aims to dignify despair as an ambivalent and potentially productive orientation to oneself and the world. The dissertation takes up the philosophical writings of G.W.F. Hegel, Soren Kierkegaard, Simone de Beauvoir, Walter Benjamin, and Theodor W. Adorno to trace the "wounds of negativity" carried by the movements of critique. What this tradition of critical philosophy provides is neither the secure confidence of rational foundations nor the buoyancy of affirmative irrationalism, but an avowal of despair as the irreducible condition from which critique proceeds.
Political and social commentators regularly bemoan the decline of morality in the modern world. They claim that the norms and values that held society together in the past are rapidly eroding, to be replaced by permissiveness and empty hedonism. But as Edward Rubin demonstrates in this powerful account of moral transformations, these prophets of doom are missing the point. Morality is not diminishing; instead, a new morality, centered on an ethos of human self-fulfillment, is arising to replace the old one. As Rubin explains, changes in morality have gone hand in hand with changes in the prevailing mode of governance throughout the course of Western history. During the Early Middle Ages, a moral system based on honor gradually developed. In a dangerous world where state power was declining, people relied on bonds of personal loyalty that were secured by generosity to their followers and violence against their enemies. That moral order, exemplified in the early feudal system and in sagas like The Song of Roland, The Song of the Cid, and the Arthurian legends has faded, but its remnants exist today in criminal organizations like the Mafia and in the rap music of the urban ghettos. When state power began to revive in the High Middle Ages through the efforts of the European monarchies, and Christianity became more institutionally effective and more spiritually intense, a new morality emerged. Described by Rubin as the morality of higher purposes, it demanded that people devote their personal efforts to achieving salvation and their social efforts to serving the emerging nation-states. It insisted on social hierarchy, confined women to subordinate roles, restricted sex to procreation, centered child-rearing on moral inculcation, and countenanced slavery and the marriage of pre-teenage girls to older men. Our modern era, which began in the late 18th century, has seen the gradual erosion of this morality of higher purposes and the rise of a new morality of self-fulfillment, one that encourages individuals to pursue the most meaningful and rewarding life-path. Far from being permissive or a moral abdication, it demands that people respect each other's choices, that sex be mutually enjoyable, that public positions be allocated according to merit, and that society provide all its members with their minimum needs so that they have the opportunity to fulfill themselves. Where people once served the state, the state now functions to serve the people. The clash between this ascending morality and the declining morality of higher purposes is the primary driver of contemporary political and cultural conflict. A sweeping, big-idea book in the vein of Francis Fukuyama's The End of History, Charles Taylor's The Secular Age, and Richard Sennett's The Fall of Public Man, Edward Rubin's new volume promises to reshape our understanding of morality, its relationship to government, and its role in shaping the emerging world of High Modernity.
The Conception, Presentation and Functions of Witches in English Renaissance Drama
Author: Dietmar Tatzl
Category: English drama
The present dissertation analyses the conception, depiction and functions of witch figures in English Elizabethan and Jacobean drama including their relevant predecessors and successors until the closing of the theatres in 1642. The focus is on malevolent female figures who are linked to black magic and partly prove their supernatural powers on the stage. The applied methodology of analysis has been developed from Manfred Pfister's set of criteria in Das Drama. In the first part of the investigation, the field of witchcraft is essentially described in its cultural and historical context. After a close examination of the witch figures in the main part it becomes evident that figures based on real-life models are generally conceived as more individual, complex and dynamic than those who are partly derived from classical and literary sources. Figures in drama without any connection with real-life trials generally represent the archetypal and universally valid idea of evil that could have never been communicated with the same intensity by old, lonely and isolated women in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England. In conclusion it should be noted that witch figures in less-known plays deserve more critical attention than they received in the past, and the majority of figures in well-known plays merit reconsideration and reveal new approaches to their interpretation.