Cultural property and its stewardship have long been concerns of museums, archaeologists, art historians, and nations, but recently the legal and political consequences of collecting antiquities have also attracted broad media attention. This has been the result, in part, of several high-profile trials, as well as demands by various governments for the return of antiquities to their countries of origin. These circumstances call out for public discussion that moves beyond the rather clear-cut moral response to looting, to consider the implications of buying, selling, and exhibiting antiquities. To whom should they belong? What constitutes legal ownership of antiquities? What laws govern their importation into the United States, for instance? What circumstances, if any, demand the return of those antiquities to their countries of origin? Is there a consensus among archaeologists and museum directors about these issues? These and other pertinent issues are addressed in the essays and responses collected in this volume. Delivered at a 2007 symposium by eminent museum directors and curators, legal scholars, archaeologists, and historians and practitioners of art and architecture, these papers comprise a rich and nuanced reference work. "Robin Rhodes' new volume presents a rich collection of essays with multiple perspectives on ethical questions surrounding the ownership of cultural property and the acquisition of antiquities. Directors of large and small museums, lawyers specialized in U.S. and international law, art historians, curators, and field archaeologists address these topics from their own points of view. The result is as rewarding as it is timely." --Mary Sturgeon, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ". . . One simple unseemly truth: collecting antiquities promotes the destruction of world heritage. I was fascinated by these chapters, and Rhodes has done archaeology a service in publishing this book. The elegant arguments of the archaeologists deserve a wide readership, particularly among Americancollectors. Until they understand what devastation they unwittingly promote, we can only weep for our stolen history." --Jack Davis, Director, American School of Classical Studies at Athens ". . . A welcome addition to an ever burgeoning bibliography on the ethics and legal issues in the antiquities trade. There are many essays here that are up-to-date and easily accessible to any interested reader, because they are largely written in the conversational style with which they were delivered. Many viewpoints are expressed and several essays show how the ground is shifting as museums re-write policies to take into account new legal realities, especially internationally, while archaeologists, anthropologists, art historians, and legal professionals show an increasingly more sophisticated understanding of the many dimensions of illicit excavation and the acquisition of illicit property." --James C. Wright, Bryn Mawr College
Whether antiquities should be returned to the countries where they were found is one of the most urgent and controversial issues in the art world today, and it has pitted museums, private collectors, and dealers against source countries, archaeologists, and academics. Maintaining that the acquisition of undocumented antiquities by museums encourages the looting of archaeological sites, countries such as Italy, Greece, Egypt, Turkey, and China have claimed ancient artifacts as state property, called for their return from museums around the world, and passed laws against their future export. But in Who Owns Antiquity?, one of the world's leading museum directors vigorously challenges this nationalistic position, arguing that it is damaging and often disingenuous. "Antiquities," James Cuno argues, "are the cultural property of all humankind," "evidence of the world's ancient past and not that of a particular modern nation. They comprise antiquity, and antiquity knows no borders." Cuno argues that nationalistic retention and reclamation policies impede common access to this common heritage and encourage a dubious and dangerous politicization of antiquities--and of culture itself. Antiquities need to be protected from looting but also from nationalistic identity politics. To do this, Cuno calls for measures to broaden rather than restrict international access to antiquities. He advocates restoration of the system under which source countries would share newly discovered artifacts in exchange for archaeological help, and he argues that museums should again be allowed reasonable ways to acquire undocumented antiquities. Cuno explains how partage broadened access to our ancient heritage and helped create national museums in Cairo, Baghdad, and Kabul. The first extended defense of the side of museums in the struggle over antiquities, Who Owns Antiquity? is sure to be as important as it is controversial. Some images inside the book are unavailable due to digital copyright restrictions.
Antiquities have been pawns in empire-building and global rivalries; power struggles; assertions of national and cultural identities; and cross-cultural exchanges, cooperation, abuses, and misunderstandings—all with the underlying element of financial gain. Indeed, “who owns antiquity?” is a contentious question in many of today’s international conflicts. About Antiquities offers an interdisciplinary study of the relationship between archaeology and empire-building around the turn of the twentieth century. Starting at Istanbul and focusing on antiquities from the Ottoman territories, Zeynep Çelik examines the popular discourse surrounding claims to the past in London, Paris, Berlin, and New York. She compares and contrasts the experiences of two museums—Istanbul’s Imperial Museum and the Metropolitan Museum of Art—that aspired to emulate European collections and gain the prestige and power of owning the material fragments of ancient history. Going beyond institutions, Çelik also unravels the complicated interactions among individuals—Westerners, Ottoman decision makers and officials, and local laborers—and their competing stakes in antiquities from such legendary sites as Ephesus, Pergamon, and Babylon. Recovering perspectives that have been lost in histories of archaeology, particularly those of the excavation laborers whose voices have never been heard, About Antiquities provides important historical context for current controversies surrounding nation-building and the ownership of the past.
The Promise of Museums and the Debate over Antiquities
Author: James Cuno
Publisher: Princeton University Press
The international controversy over who "owns" antiquities has pitted museums against archaeologists and source countries where ancient artifacts are found. In his book Who Owns Antiquity?, James Cuno argued that antiquities are the cultural property of humankind, not of the countries that lay exclusive claim to them. Now in Whose Culture?, Cuno assembles preeminent museum directors, curators, and scholars to explain for themselves what's at stake in this struggle--and why the museums' critics couldn't be more wrong. Source countries and archaeologists favor tough cultural property laws restricting the export of antiquities, have fought for the return of artifacts from museums worldwide, and claim the acquisition of undocumented antiquities encourages looting of archaeological sites. In Whose Culture?, leading figures from universities and museums in the United States and Britain argue that modern nation-states have at best a dubious connection with the ancient cultures they claim to represent, and that archaeology has been misused by nationalistic identity politics. They explain why exhibition is essential to responsible acquisitions, why our shared art heritage trumps nationalist agendas, why restrictive cultural property laws put antiquities at risk from unstable governments--and more. Defending the principles of art as the legacy of all humankind and museums as instruments of inquiry and tolerance, Whose Culture? brings reasoned argument to an issue that for too long has been distorted by politics and emotionalism. In addition to the editor, the contributors are Kwame Anthony Appiah, Sir John Boardman, Michael F. Brown, Derek Gillman, Neil MacGregor, John Henry Merryman, Philippe de Montebello, David I. Owen, and James C. Y. Watt.
Questo volume raccoglie gli atti del workshop internazionale Quale futuro per l'archeologia? che si è svolto a Roma nel dicembre 2008. Promosso dal Dipartimento Patrimonio Culturale del CNR in conformità ai suoi obiettivi istituzionali, esso ha inteso riavviare la discussione sul ruolo di una disciplina la cui importanza strategica sia per la salvaguardia di valori identitari fondanti sia per lo sviluppo sostenibile del territorio è universalmente riconosciuta. Il workshop ha aggiornato un dibattito che in Italia mostrava di essersi affievolito invitando alla riflessione su una serie ampia di temi: dai percorsi formativi degli archeologi all'archeologia preventiva, dai rapporti tra le istituzioni preposte alla pratica dell'archeologia al traffico illecito di antichità, fino al ruolo fondamentale da assegnare alla corretta comunicazione e divulgazione dei risultati della ricerca archeologica. Contributi di: Irene Berlingò, Gert-Jan Burgers, Anna Lucia D'Agata, Cinzia Dal Maso, Francesco D'Andria, Patrizia von Eles, Michel Gras, Pier Giovanni Guzzo, Fabio Isman, Maurizio Maggi, Daniele Manacorda, Paola Moscati, Paolo Paolini e Nicoletta Di Blas, Salvatore Piro, Colin Renfrew, Francesco Roncalli, Lucrezia Ungaro, Willem J.H. Willems, Fikret K. Yegül. Anna Lucia D'Agata è Primo Ricercatore presso l'Istituto di studi sulle civiltà dell'Egeo e del Vicino Oriente del CNR (Roma). Dirige ricerche sul campo a Creta e in Turchia, e tra le sue pubblicazioni si annoverano Statuine minoiche e post-minoiche dai vecchi scavi di Haghia Triada, (Creta) (Padova 1999), e la cura dei volumi Ariadne's Threads. Connections between Crete and the Greek Mainland (Atene 2005) e Archaeologies of Cult. Essays on Ritual and Cult in Crete (Princeton 2009). Silvia Alaura è Ricercatore presso l'Istituto di studi sulle civiltà dell'Egeo e del Vicino Oriente del CNR (Roma) e si occupa della civiltà degli Ittiti. È stata borsista del DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) e della Gerda- Henkel-Stiftung. Ha pubblicato vari contributi di storia dell'archeologia, tra cui il volume "Nach Boghasköy!" Zur Vorgeschichte der Ausgrabungen in Boghazköy-Hattuša und zu den archäologischen Forschungen bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Darstellung und Dokumente (Berlin 2006).
Author: Horst Woldemar Janson,Penelope J. E. Davies,Walter B. Denny
Publisher: Pearson College Division
For courses in the History of Art. Rewritten and reorganized, this new edition weaves together the most recent scholarship, the most current thinking in art history, and the most innovative online supplements, including digital art library. Experience the new Janson and re-experience the history of art. Long established as the classic and seminal introduction to art of the Western world, the Eighth Edition of Janson's History of Art is groundbreaking. When Harry Abrams first published the History of Art in 1962, John F. Kennedy occupied the White House, and Andy Warhol was an emerging artist. Janson offered his readers a strong focus on Western art, an important consideration of technique and style, and a clear point of view. The History of Art, said Janson, was not just a stringing together of historically significant objects, but the writing of a story about their interconnections, a history of styles and of stylistic change. Janson's text focused on the visual and technical characteristics of the objects he discussed, often in extraordinarily eloquent language. Janson's History of Art helped to establish the canon of art history for many generations of scholars. The new Eighth Edition, although revised to remain current with new discoveries and scholarship, continues to follow Janson's lead in important ways: It is limited to the Western tradition, with a chapter on Islamic art and its relationship to Western art. It keeps the focus of the discussion on the object, its manufacture, and its visual character. It considers the contribution of the artist as an important part of the analysis. This edition maintains an organization along the lines established by Janson, with separate chapters on the Northern European Renaissance, the Italian Renaissance, the High Renaissance, and Baroque art, with stylistic divisions for key periods of the modern era. Also embedded in this edition is the narrative of how art has changed over time in the cultures that Europe has claimed as its patrimony.
Mit seiner 1892 in der endgültigen Fassung veröffentlichten Schrift zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der menschlichen Gesellschaft gilt Friedrich Engels als unmittelbarer Vorläufer der modernen Wirtschafts- und Staatssoziologie. Zunächst betrachtet der Autor die schrittweise Entwicklung von der barbarischen Urgesellschaft bis zur Durchsetzung der Zivilisation in Gestalt des römischen Reichs. In einem zweiten Schritt parallelisiert Engels diesen Prozess dann mit der Entstehung der verschiedenen Familienformen und der daraus hervorgehenden Vorstellung des Privateigentums.
Walter Benjamin beschreibt in dem Aufsatz Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit die geschichtlichen, sozialen und ästhetischen Prozesse, die mit der technischen Reproduzierbarkeit des Kunstwerkes zusammenhängen. In die Reihe der kunstsoziologischen Arbeiten Benjamins gehören auch die beiden hier zum ersten Mal in Buchform veröffentlichten Texte: Kleine Geschichte der Photographie (1931) und Eduard Fuchs, der Sammler und der Historiker (1937). Sie erhärten Benjamins Einsichten am Einzelfall.
"This collection of writings by Conrad M. Stibbe appears in honor of the octogenarian, to the benefit of the research and to the delight of lovers of Greek culture, as the editors hope and expect. These twelve essays (and a book review), all contribute, each in Zeiner specific objective, a substantial contribution to the understanding of art period. This era, the archaic features that appear on long drives yet unexplored and sometimes as a playground opposite opinions in the research, hence this already exciting prospects."--Publisher's website.
Warum wir alle von sieben Frauen abstammen - revolutionäre Erkenntnisse der Gen-Forschung
Author: Bryan Sykes
Publisher: BASTEI LÜBBE
650 Millionen Europäer sollen von nur sieben Urmüttern abstammen? Sie meinen, das kann nicht sein? Bryan Sykes, Professor für Genetik an der Universität Oxford, hat die Mitochondrien-DNA Tausender Europäer analysiert und konnte dabei sieben Bausteine entdeckten, die sich auf sieben Töchter der Urmutter Eva zurückführen lassen. Darüber hinaus lässt sich sagen, wann unsere Vorfahren erstmals auftraten, wo und wie sie lebten und wohin sie gingen ═ somit kann jeder von uns herausfinden, von welchem der sieben Stämme er abstammt: Folgen Sie Bryan Sykes auf seiner sensationellen Reise in unsere Vergangenheit!