The Effects of a Rising Sea Level on Coastal Environments
Author: Eric C. F. Bird
Publisher: John Wiley & Son Limited
Submerging Coasts The Effects of a Rising Sea Level on Coastal Environments Eric C. F. Bird Geostudies (UK), Sevenoaks, Kent, England Submerging Coasts deals with the changes that take place on coastal landforms during a rising sea level and the responses to these changes by people living in coastal areas. Evidence from subsiding coasts (where a relative rise of sea level is already occurring), from theoretical models, and from geological evidence of changes during marine transgressions is assembled to indicate the kinds of change that will occur globally as a result of climatic warming and sea level rise due to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Examination of actual and potential human responses to these changes provides a background for coastal planners, developers, conservationists and managers, and for all concerned with the prospect of submerging coasts into the 21 st century.
Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,National Research Council,America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change,Division on Earth and Life Studies
Author: Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,National Research Council,America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change,Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher: National Academies Press
Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for--and in many cases is already affecting--a broad range of human and natural systems. The compelling case for these conclusions is provided in Advancing the Science of Climate Change, part of a congressionally requested suite of studies known as America's Climate Choices. While noting that there is always more to learn and that the scientific process is never closed, the book shows that hypotheses about climate change are supported by multiple lines of evidence and have stood firm in the face of serious debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations. As decision makers respond to these risks, the nation's scientific enterprise can contribute through research that improves understanding of the causes and consequences of climate change and also is useful to decision makers at the local, regional, national, and international levels. The book identifies decisions being made in 12 sectors, ranging from agriculture to transportation, to identify decisions being made in response to climate change. Advancing the Science of Climate Change calls for a single federal entity or program to coordinate a national, multidisciplinary research effort aimed at improving both understanding and responses to climate change. Seven cross-cutting research themes are identified to support this scientific enterprise. In addition, leaders of federal climate research should redouble efforts to deploy a comprehensive climate observing system, improve climate models and other analytical tools, invest in human capital, and improve linkages between research and decisions by forming partnerships with action-oriented programs.
For as long as humans have been inhabiting coastal areas and recording what occurs in their environments, coastal zones have been defined through dynamic interactions. And this is further underlined by a more recent development: observed sea level rise. In a thorough but not overly technical approach, Adapting to Sea Level Rise in the Coastal Zone: Law and Policy Considerations provides a legal-policy framework for facing the challenges of sea level rise. The book includes an analysis of sea level rise adaptation strategies that examines the legal impacts of coastal land use decisions based on the current interpretation of private property rights in relation to public control over those rights. The author discusses the science behind sea level rise and highlights policy complexities and options. He then presents an overview of related legalities, and bringing it all together, applies the principles offered in the book, concluding with strategies and solutions and a perspective on the future. If we accept the premise that sea level rise is occurring and will continue for the foreseeable future, then we must begin to consider policy responses to this risk in coastal regions. Part of any pragmatic policy response must include a review of the options available to public institutions when developing and implementing rational adaptation policies. This book offers practical legal/policy approaches to sea level rise adaptation that promotes sound planning in the face of climate change and rising seas.
The world's coastlines represent a myriad of dynamic and constantly changing environments. Heavily settled and intensely used areas, they are of enormous importance to humans and understanding how they are shaped and change is crucial to our future. Introduction to Coastal Processes and Geomorphologybegins by discussing coastal systems and shows how these systems link to the processes examined in detail throughout the book. These include the morphodynamic paradigm, tides, waves and sediment transport. Later chapters explore fluvial deltas, estuaries, beaches and barriers, coastal sand dunes and geologically-influenced coasts such as cliffs, coral reefs and atolls. A new chapter addresses the forward-facing aspect of coastal morphodynamics, including the ways in which coasts respond to rapid climate changes such as present day global warming. Also new to this second edition is a chapter on future coasts which considers the wider effects of coastal change on other important aspects of coastal systems, including ecology, management, socio-cultural activities, built and natural heritage, and archaeology. Case studies using examples from around the world illustrate theory in practice and bring the subject to life. Each chapter starts by outlining the 'aims' and questions at the end allow you to track your progress. This book is accompanied by additional resources online at www.hodderplus.com/geography including: Answers to the questions available to download as MP3 files Expanded case studies with colour photos, links to relevant websites and a map link to pinpoint the case study location Interactive multiple choice questions and worked examples The ebook edition is in VitalBookTM Bookshelf - an ebook reader which allows you to: download the ebook to your computer or access it anywhere with an internet browser search the full text of all of the ebooks that you hold on your bookshelf for instant access to the information you need make and share notes and highlights on your ebooks copy and print text and figures customize your view by changing font size and layout.
Glaciated Coasts is a collection of articles that deals with shoreline morphologies of glaciated coasts and the processes that formed these coastlines in North America. This book examines nonsandy shorelines and covers a range of geologic and geographic coastal settings in a northern-southern order. This text investigates and compares the glaciated northern shorelines. These shorelines north of the glacial limit are mostly of the primary form in different stages of modification by marine agents. Shorelines are associated with embayments; baymouth barriers in turn enclose embayments. This book describes beaches as having coarse or mixed sediment populations. Most beaches worldwide have gravel clasts that have been rounded and sorted by marine processes. In the southeastern coast of Alaska, active tectonics on a mountainous shoreline is evident. The region also shows emergent and submerging shorelines with a glacial imprint undergoing formation by modern processes. This book also gives examples of gravel beach environments in various coastal settings. This book can prove useful for students of meteorology, oceanography as well as to marine ecologists and biologists. It can also benefit readers whose interest lie with coastal environment or with the general earth sciences.
This new Encyclopedia of Coastal Science stands as the latest authoritative source in the field of coastal studies, making it the standard reference work for specialists and the interested lay person. Unique in its interdisciplinary approach. This Encyclopedia features contributions by 245 well-known international specialists in their respective fields and is abundantly illustrated with line-drawings and photographs. Not only does this volume offer an extensive number of entries, it also includes various appendices, an illustrated glossary of coastal morphology and extensive bibliographic listings.
Christopher J. Crossland,Hartwig H. Kremer,Han Lindeboom,Janet I. Marshall Crossland,Martin D. A. Le Tissier
The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
Author: Christopher J. Crossland,Hartwig H. Kremer,Han Lindeboom,Janet I. Marshall Crossland,Martin D. A. Le Tissier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book synthesizes knowledge of coastal and riverine material fluxes, biogeochemical processes and indications of change, both natural, and increasingly human-initiated. Here, the authors assess coastal flux in the past and present, and in future under the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) and the LOICZ II (Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone) Project.
Greenhouse-induced climate warming increasingly appears to be a reality, and the warming climate will be accompanied by an accelerated sea level rise - as much as 60-100 cm over the next century. What is commonly absent in the discussion of rising sea level, however, is the role played by the subsidence of low-lying coastal areas, which can have a far greater local effect than the eustatic rise of the sea. The combined sea-level rise and land subsidence will almost certainly make the greatest impact on coastal societies in the densely populated regions of southern Asia, but its effects will be felt globally. This volume explores the concepts of sea-level rise and coastal subsidence, both natural and anthropogenically accelerated, in the form of a series of case studies in such diverse locations as Bangkok, Bangladesh, Venice, and the Niger and Mississippi deltas, as well as a discussion of the economic, engineering and policy responses that must be considered if the effects of local sea-level rise are to be mitigated.
This book is an update of the first BACC assessment, published in 2008. It offers new and updated scientific findings in regional climate research for the Baltic Sea basin. These include climate changes since the last glaciation (approx. 12,000 years ago), changes in the recent past (the last 200 years), climate projections up until 2100 using state-of-the-art regional climate models and an assessment of climate-change impacts on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. There are dedicated new chapters on sea-level rise, coastal erosion and impacts on urban areas. A new set of chapters deals with possible causes of regional climate change along with the global effects of increased greenhouse gas concentrations, namely atmospheric aerosols and land-cover change. The evidence collected and presented in this book shows that the regional climate has already started to change and this is expected to continue. Projections of potential future climates show that the region will probably become considerably warmer and wetter in some parts, but dryer in others. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have already shown adjustments to increased temperatures and are expected to undergo further changes in the near future. The BACC II Author Team consists of 141 scientists from 12 countries, covering various disciplines related to climate research and related impacts. BACC II is a project of the Baltic Earth research network and contributes to the World Climate Research Programme.
Describes and analyses the advance and retreat patterns of the world's coastlines in recent decades. Based on a twelve-year investigation by the I.G.U. Commission on the Coastal Environment, this book examines the multiple factors responsible for coastline change and emphasizes the importance of monitoring these changes. It provides a basis for comparisons between changing coastline sections in various environments around the world.
James G. Titus,K. Eric Anderson,Climate Change Science Program (U.S.),National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Global Change Research,United States. Environmental Protection Agency,Geological Survey (U.S.),United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,United States. Dept. of Transportation
Author: James G. Titus,K. Eric Anderson,Climate Change Science Program (U.S.),National Science and Technology Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Global Change Research,United States. Environmental Protection Agency,Geological Survey (U.S.),United States. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,United States. Dept. of Transportation
Publisher: Government Printing Office
Laurence A. Boorman,John Goss-Custard,Selwyn McGrorty,Institute of Terrestrial Ecology
Author: Committee on Mitigating Shore Erosion along Sheltered Coasts,Ocean Studies Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Like ocean beaches, sheltered coastal areas experience land loss from erosion and sea level rise. In response, property owners often install hard structures such as bulkheads as a way to prevent further erosion, but these structures cause changes in the coastal environment that alter landscapes, reduce public access and recreational opportunities, diminish natural habitats, and harm species that depend on these habitats for shelter and food. Mitigating Shore Erosion Along Sheltered Coasts recommends coastal planning efforts and permitting policies to encourage landowners to use erosion control alternatives that help retain the natural features of coastal shorelines.
This is a compilation of papers presented at the 6th International Conference on Asian and Pacific Coasts (APAC2011) held on December 14?16, 2011 in Hong Kong, China. It contains more than 200 articles addressing a wide spectrum of issues, ranging from conventional coastal engineering problems (such as wave hydrodynamics and sediment transport) to issues of contemporary interest (such as tsunami, coastal development, climate change and seawater level rise, shoreline protection, marine energy, nearshore ecology, oil spill, etc.). Authors present their experiences in tackling these problems, by means of theoretical modeling, numerical simulation, laboratory and field observations, with an aim to advance fundamental understanding of the controlling mechanisms, as well as to develop solutions for practical designs. This volume serves to promote technological progress and activities, technical knowledge transfer and cooperation on an international scale. Contents:Beach Erosion and Sediment TransportClimate Change and Sea Level RiseCoastal Infrastructure DevelopmentsHydrodynamics of Offshore StructuresLowland Development and ReclamationMarine Ecology and EnvironmentsMarine and Offshore Wind EnergyOil Spill and Environmental HazardsPort Works (Dredging, Seawall Design, etc.)Sea Water IntrusionTsunami, Waves and TidesWastewater DisposalWetlands Readership: Scientists, engineers, researchers, and management professionals in the fields of coastal, ocean, port and marine engineering. Keywords:Coastal Engineering;Tsunami;Waves;Hydrodynamics;Marine Energy;Wetlands
Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on America's Climate Choices,National Research Council
Author: Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on America's Climate Choices,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Climate change is occurring. It is very likely caused by the emission of greenhouse gases from human activities, and poses significant risks for a range of human and natural systems. And these emissions continue to increase, which will result in further change and greater risks. America's Climate Choices makes the case that the environmental, economic, and humanitarian risks posed by climate change indicate a pressing need for substantial action now to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare for adapting to its impacts. Although there is some uncertainty about future risk, acting now will reduce the risks posed by climate change and the pressure to make larger, more rapid, and potentially more expensive reductions later. Most actions taken to reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts are common sense investments that will offer protection against natural climate variations and extreme events. In addition, crucial investment decisions made now about equipment and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gas emissions for decades to come. Finally, while it may be possible to scale back or reverse many responses to climate change, it is difficult or impossible to "undo" climate change, once manifested. Current efforts of local, state, and private-sector actors are important, but not likely to yield progress comparable to what could be achieved with the addition of strong federal policies that establish coherent national goals and incentives, and that promote strong U.S. engagement in international-level response efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of climate change are best met by applying an iterative risk management framework and making efforts to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions; prepare for adapting to impacts; invest in scientific research, technology development, and information systems; and facilitate engagement between scientific and technical experts and the many types of stakeholders making America's climate choices.
Marine Board,Committee on Engineering Implications of Changes in Relative Mean Sea Level,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Author: Marine Board,Committee on Engineering Implications of Changes in Relative Mean Sea Level,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
Over the last 100 years, sea level has risen approximately 12 centimeters and is expected to continue rising at an even faster rate. This situation has serious implications for human activity along our coasts. In this book, geological and coastal engineering experts examine recent sea level trends and project changes over the next 100 years, anticipating shoreline response to changing sea level and the consequences for coastal development and uses. Scenarios for future sea level rise and several case studies are presented.