Through its scope and depth of coverage, this book addresses the needs of the vibrant and rapidly growing engineering fields, bioengineering and biomedical engineering, while implementing software that engineers are familiar with. The author integrates introductory statistics for engineers and introductory biostatistics as a single textbook heavily oriented to computation and hands on approaches. For example, topics ranging from the aspects of disease and device testing, Sensitivity, Specificity and ROC curves, Epidemiological Risk Theory, Survival Analysis, or Logistic and Poisson Regressions are covered. In addition to the synergy of engineering and biostatistical approaches, the novelty of this book is in the substantial coverage of Bayesian approaches to statistical inference. Many examples in this text are solved using both the traditional and Bayesian methods, and the results are compared and commented.
There are many books written about statistics, some brief, some detailed, some humorous, some colorful, and some quite dry. Each of these texts is designed for a specific audience. Too often, texts about statistics have been rather theoretical and intimidating for those not practicing statistical analysis on a routine basis. Thus, many engineers and scientists, who need to use statistics much more frequently than calculus or differential equations, lack sufficient knowledge of the use of statistics. The audience that is addressed in this text is the university-level biomedical engineering student who needs a bare-bones coverage of the most basic statistical analysis frequently used in biomedical engineering practice. The text introduces students to the essential vocabulary and basic concepts of probability and statistics that are required to perform the numerical summary and statistical analysis used in the biomedical field. This text is considered a starting point for important issues to consider when designing experiments, summarizing data, assuming a probability model for the data, testing hypotheses, and drawing conclusions from sampled data.A student who has completed this text should have sufficient vocabulary to read more advanced texts on statistics and further their knowledge about additional numerical analyses that are used in the biomedical engineering field but are beyond the scope of this text. This book is designed to supplement an undergraduate-level course in applied statistics, specifically in biomedical engineering. Practicing engineers who have not had formal instruction in statistics may also use this text as a simple, brief introduction to statistics used in biomedical engineering. The emphasis is on the application of statistics, the assumptions made in applying the statistical tests, the limitations of these elementary statistical methods, and the errors often committed in using statistical analysis. A number of examples from biomedical engineering research and industry practice are provided to assist the reader in understanding concepts and application. It is beneficial for the reader to have some background in the life sciences and physiology and to be familiar with basic biomedical instrumentation used in the clinical environment.Contents: Introduction / Collecting Data and Experimental Design / Data Summary and Descriptive Statistics / Assuming a Probability Model from the Sample Data / Statistical Inference / Linear Regression and Correlation Analysis / Power Analysis and Sample Size / Just the Beginning / Bibliography
Provides a one-stop resource for engineers learning biostatistics using MATLAB® and WinBUGS Through its scope and depth of coverage, this book addresses the needs of the vibrant and rapidly growing bio-oriented engineering fields while implementing software packages that are familiar to engineers. The book is heavily oriented to computation and hands-on approaches so readers understand each step of the programming. Another dimension of this book is in parallel coverage of both Bayesian and frequentist approaches to statistical inference. It avoids taking sides on the classical vs. Bayesian paradigms, and many examples in this book are solved using both methods. The results are then compared and commented upon. Readers have the choice of MATLAB® for classical data analysis and WinBUGS/OpenBUGS for Bayesian data analysis. Every chapter starts with a box highlighting what is covered in that chapter and ends with exercises, a list of software scripts, datasets, and references. Engineering Biostatistics: An Introduction using MATLAB® and WinBUGS also includes: parallel coverage of classical and Bayesian approaches, where appropriate substantial coverage of Bayesian approaches to statistical inference material that has been classroom-tested in an introductory statistics course in bioengineering over several years exercises at the end of each chapter and an accompanying website with full solutions and hints to some exercises, as well as additional materials and examples Engineering Biostatistics: An Introduction using MATLAB® and WinBUGS can serve as a textbook for introductory-to-intermediate applied statistics courses, as well as a useful reference for engineers interested in biostatistical approaches.
This book celebrates the 100th birthday of Jerome S. Bruner, one of the most relevant scholars in contemporary psychology. It shows how Bruner’s oeuvre and contributions to psychology, education and law are still applicable today and full of unexplored possibilities. The volume brings together contributions from Bruner’s students and colleagues, all of whom use his legacy to explore the future of psychology in in Bruner’s spirit of interpretation. Rather than being a mere celebration, the volume shows a “genuine interest for the emergence of the novelty” and examines the potentialities of Bruner’s work in cultural psychology, discussing such concepts as ambivalence, intersubjectivity, purpose, possibilities, and wonderment. Combining international and interdisciplinary perspectives, this volume tells the tale of Jerome Bruner’s academic life and beyond.
The aim of this book is to give the reader a detailed introduction to the different approaches to generating multiply imputed synthetic datasets. It describes all approaches that have been developed so far, provides a brief history of synthetic datasets, and gives useful hints on how to deal with real data problems like nonresponse, skip patterns, or logical constraints. Each chapter is dedicated to one approach, first describing the general concept followed by a detailed application to a real dataset providing useful guidelines on how to implement the theory in practice. The discussed multiple imputation approaches include imputation for nonresponse, generating fully synthetic datasets, generating partially synthetic datasets, generating synthetic datasets when the original data is subject to nonresponse, and a two-stage imputation approach that helps to better address the omnipresent trade-off between analytical validity and the risk of disclosure. The book concludes with a glimpse into the future of synthetic datasets, discussing the potential benefits and possible obstacles of the approach and ways to address the concerns of data users and their understandable discomfort with using data that doesn’t consist only of the originally collected values. The book is intended for researchers and practitioners alike. It helps the researcher to find the state of the art in synthetic data summarized in one book with full reference to all relevant papers on the topic. But it is also useful for the practitioner at the statistical agency who is considering the synthetic data approach for data dissemination in the future and wants to get familiar with the topic.
The first Bayesian Young Statisticians Meeting, BAYSM 2013, has provided a unique opportunity for young researchers, M.S. students, Ph.D. students, and post-docs dealing with Bayesian statistics to connect with the Bayesian community at large, exchange ideas, and network with scholars working in their field. The Workshop, which took place June 5th and 6th 2013 at CNR-IMATI, Milan, has promoted further research in all the fields where Bayesian statistics may be employed under the guidance of renowned plenary lecturers and senior discussants. A selection of the contributions to the meeting and the summary of one of the plenary lectures compose this volume.
There has been dramatic growth in the development and application of Bayesian inference in statistics. Berger (2000) documents the increase in Bayesian activity by the number of published research articles, the number of books,andtheextensivenumberofapplicationsofBayesianarticlesinapplied disciplines such as science and engineering. One reason for the dramatic growth in Bayesian modeling is the availab- ity of computational algorithms to compute the range of integrals that are necessary in a Bayesian posterior analysis. Due to the speed of modern c- puters, it is now possible to use the Bayesian paradigm to ?t very complex models that cannot be ?t by alternative frequentist methods. To ?t Bayesian models, one needs a statistical computing environment. This environment should be such that one can: write short scripts to de?ne a Bayesian model use or write functions to summarize a posterior distribution use functions to simulate from the posterior distribution construct graphs to illustrate the posterior inference An environment that meets these requirements is the R system. R provides a wide range of functions for data manipulation, calculation, and graphical d- plays. Moreover, it includes a well-developed, simple programming language that users can extend by adding new functions. Many such extensions of the language in the form of packages are easily downloadable from the Comp- hensive R Archive Network (CRAN).
Contingency tables arise in diverse fields, including life sciences, education, social and political sciences, notably market research and opinion surveys. Their analysis plays an essential role in gaining insight into structures of the quantities under consideration and in supporting decision making. Combining both theory and applications, this book presents models and methods for the analysis of two- and multidimensional-contingency tables. An excellent reference for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and practitioners in statistics as well as biosciences, social sciences, education, and economics, the work may also be used as a textbook for a course on categorical data analysis. Prerequisites include basic background on statistical inference and knowledge of statistical software packages.
A comprehensive, step-by-step introduction to wavelets in statistics. What are wavelets? What makes them increasingly indispensable in statistical nonparametrics? Why are they suitable for "time-scale" applications? How are they used to solve such problems as denoising, regression, or density estimation? Where can one find up-to-date information on these newly "discovered" mathematical objects? These are some of the questions Brani Vidakovic answers in Statistical Modeling by Wavelets. Providing a much-needed introduction to the latest tools afforded statisticians by wavelet theory, Vidakovic compiles, organizes, and explains in depth research data previously available only in disparate journal articles. He carefully balances both statistical and mathematical techniques, supplementing the material with a wealth of examples, more than 100 illustrations, and extensive references-with data sets and S-Plus wavelet overviews made available for downloading over the Internet. Both introductory and data-oriented modeling topics are featured, including: * Continuous and discrete wavelet transformations. * Statistical optimality properties of wavelet shrinkage. * Theoretical aspects of wavelet density estimation. * Bayesian modeling in the wavelet domain. * Properties of wavelet-based random functions and densities. * Several novel and important wavelet applications in statistics. * Wavelet methods in time series. Accessible to anyone with a background in advanced calculus and algebra, Statistical Modeling by Wavelets promises to become the standard reference for statisticians and engineers seeking a comprehensive introduction to an emerging field.
A Practical Interactive Guide to Epidemiology and Statistics
Author: Nigel Bruce,Daniel Pope,Debbi Stanistreet
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Quantitative Research Methods for Health Professionals: A Practical Interactive Course is a superb introduction to epidemiology, biostatistics, and research methodology for the whole health care community. Drawing examples from a wide range of health research, this practical handbook covers important contemporary health research methods such as survival analysis, Cox regression, and meta-analysis, the understanding of which go beyond introductory concepts. The book includes self-assessment exercises throughout to help students explore and reflect on their understanding and a clear distinction is made between a) knowledge and concepts that all students should ensure they understand and b) those that can be pursued by students who wish to do so. The authors incorporate a program of practical exercises in SPSS using a prepared data set that helps to consolidate the theory and develop skills and confidence in data handling, analysis and interpretation.
A thorough and definitive book that fully addresses traditional and modern-day topics of nonparametric statistics This book presents a practical approach to nonparametric statistical analysis and provides comprehensive coverage of both established and newly developed methods. With the use of MATLAB, the authors present information on theorems and rank tests in an applied fashion, with an emphasis on modern methods in regression and curve fitting, bootstrap confidence intervals, splines, wavelets, empirical likelihood, and goodness-of-fit testing. Nonparametric Statistics with Applications to Science and Engineering begins with succinct coverage of basic results for order statistics, methods of categorical data analysis, nonparametric regression, and curve fitting methods. The authors then focus on nonparametric procedures that are becoming more relevant to engineering researchers and practitioners. The important fundamental materials needed to effectively learn and apply the discussed methods are also provided throughout the book. Complete with exercise sets, chapter reviews, and a related Web site that features downloadable MATLAB applications, this book is an essential textbook for graduate courses in engineering and the physical sciences and also serves as a valuable reference for researchers who seek a more comprehensive understanding of modern nonparametric statistical methods.
This is a second edition to the original published by Springer in 2006. The comprehensive volume takes a textbook approach systematically developing the field by starting from linear models and then moving up to generalized linear and non-linear mixed effects models. Since the first edition was published the field has grown considerably in terms of maturity and technicality. The second edition of the book therefore considerably expands with the addition of three new chapters relating to Bayesian models, Generalized linear and nonlinear mixed effects models, and Principles of simulation. In addition, many of the other chapters have been expanded and updated.
The increasing cost of research means that scientists are in more urgent need of optimal design theory to increase the efficiency of parameter estimators and the statistical power of their tests. The objectives of a good design are to provide interpretable and accurate inference at minimal costs. Optimal design theory can help to identify a design with maximum power and maximum information for a statistical model and, at the same time, enable researchers to check on the model assumptions. This Book: Introduces optimal experimental design in an accessible format. Provides guidelines for practitioners to increase the efficiency of their designs, and demonstrates how optimal designs can reduce a study’s costs. Discusses the merits of optimal designs and compares them with commonly used designs. Takes the reader from simple linear regression models to advanced designs for multiple linear regression and nonlinear models in a systematic manner. Illustrates design techniques with practical examples from social and biomedical research to enhance the reader’s understanding. Researchers and students studying social, behavioural and biomedical sciences will find this book useful for understanding design issues and in putting optimal design ideas to practice.
Financial Risk Modelling and Portfolio Optimization with R, 2nd Edition Bernhard Pfaff, Invesco Global Asset Allocation, Germany A must have text for risk modelling and portfolio optimization using R. This book introduces the latest techniques advocated for measuring financial market risk and portfolio optimization, and provides a plethora of R code examples that enable the reader to replicate the results featured throughout the book. This edition has been extensively revised to include new topics on risk surfaces and probabilistic utility optimization as well as an extended introduction to R language. Financial Risk Modelling and Portfolio Optimization with R: Demonstrates techniques in modelling financial risks and applying portfolio optimization techniques as well as recent advances in the field. Introduces stylized facts, loss function and risk measures, conditional and unconditional modelling of risk; extreme value theory, generalized hyperbolic distribution, volatility modelling and concepts for capturing dependencies. Explores portfolio risk concepts and optimization with risk constraints. Is accompanied by a supporting website featuring examples and case studies in R. Includes updated list of R packages for enabling the reader to replicate the results in the book. Graduate and postgraduate students in finance, economics, risk management as well as practitioners in finance and portfolio optimization will find this book beneficial. It also serves well as an accompanying text in computer-lab classes and is therefore suitable for self-study.
The use of Bayesian methods for the analysis of data has grown substantially in areas as diverse as applied statistics, psychology, economics and medical science. Bayesian Methods for Categorical Data sets out to demystify modern Bayesian methods, making them accessible to students and researchers alike. Emphasizing the use of statistical computing and applied data analysis, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to Bayesian methods of categorical outcomes. * Reviews recent Bayesian methodology for categorical outcomes (binary, count and multinomial data). * Considers missing data models techniques and non-standard models (ZIP and negative binomial). * Evaluates time series and spatio-temporal models for discrete data. * Features discussion of univariate and multivariate techniques. * Provides a set of downloadable worked examples with documented WinBUGS code, available from an ftp site. The author's previous 2 bestselling titles provided a comprehensive introduction to the theory and application of Bayesian models. Bayesian Models for Categorical Data continues to build upon this foundation by developing their application to categorical, or discrete data - one of the most common types of data available. The author's clear and logical approach makes the book accessible to a wide range of students and practitioners, including those dealing with categorical data in medicine, sociology, psychology and epidemiology.
Asthma is a chronic relapsing airways disease that represents a major public health problem worldwide. Intermittent exacerbations are provoked by airway mucosal exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli, with RNA viral infections or inhaled allergens representing the two most common precipitants. In this setting, inducible signaling pathways the airway mucosa play a central role in the initiation of airway inflammation through production of antimicrobial peptides (defensins), cytokines, chemokines and arachidonic acid metabolites that coordinate the complex processes of vascular permeability, cellular recruitment, mucous hyper-secretion, bronchial constriction and tissue remodeling. These signals also are responsible for leukocytic infiltration into the submucosa, T helper-lymphocyte skewing, and allergic sensitization. Currently, it is well appreciated that asthma is a heterogeneous in terms of onset, exacerbants, severity, and treatment response. Current asthma classification methods are largely descriptive and focus on a single aspect or dimension of the disease. An active area of investigation on how to collect, use and visualize multidimensional profiling in asthma. This book will overview multidimensional profiling strategies and visualization approaches for phenotyping asthma. As an outcome, this work will facilitate the understanding of disease etiology, prognosis and/or therapeutic intervention.
Statistics in Psychology covers all statistical methods needed in education and research in psychology. This book looks at research questions when planning data sampling, that is to design the intended study and to calculate the sample sizes in advance. In other words, no analysis applies if the minimum size is not determined in order to fulfil certain precision requirements. The book looks at the process of empirical research into the following seven stages: Formulation of the problem Stipulation of the precision requirements Selecting the statistical model for the planning and analysis The (optimal) design of the experiment or survey Performing the experiment or the survey Statistical analysis of the observed results Interpretation of the results.
R is a powerful and free software system for data analysis and graphics, with over 5,000 add-on packages available. This book introduces R using SAS and SPSS terms with which you are already familiar. It demonstrates which of the add-on packages are most like SAS and SPSS and compares them to R's built-in functions. It steps through over 30 programs written in all three packages, comparing and contrasting the packages' differing approaches. The programs and practice datasets are available for download. The glossary defines over 50 R terms using SAS/SPSS jargon and again using R jargon. The table of contents and the index allow you to find equivalent R functions by looking up both SAS statements and SPSS commands. When finished, you will be able to import data, manage and transform it, create publication quality graphics, and perform basic statistical analyses. This new edition has updated programming, an expanded index, and even more statistical methods covered in over 25 new sections.
Muhammad b. ‘Umar al-Waqidi was a Muslim scholar, born in Medina in the 1st Century. Of his several writings the most significant is the Kitab al-Maghazi, one of the earliest standard histories of the life of the Prophet. Translated into English for the first time, Rizwi Faizer makes available this key text to a new, English-speaking audience. It includes an "Introduction" authored jointly by Rizwi Faizer and Andrew Rippin and a carefully prepared index. The book deals with the events of the Prophet’s life from the time of his emigration from Mecca to his death, and is generally considered to be biographical. Bringing together events in the Prophet’s life with appropriate passages of Qur’an in a considered sequence, the author presents an interpretation of Islam that existed in his times. It includes citations from the Qur’ān, as well as poetry that appears to have been inspired by activities during his life. This English translation of a seminal text on the life of Muhammad is an invaluable addition to the existing literature, and will be of great significance to students and scholars in the field of Islamic studies, Islamic history, Medieval history and Arabic literature.