Racism has never been simple. It wasn't more obvious in the past, and it isn't less potent now. From the birth of the United States to the contemporary police shooting death of an unarmed Black youth, Beneath the Surface of White Supremacy investigates ingrained practices of racism, as well as unquestioned assumptions in the study of racism, to upend and deepen our understanding. In Moon-Kie Jung's unsettling book, Dred Scott v. Sandford, the notorious 1857 Supreme Court case, casts a shadow over current immigration debates and the "war on terror." The story of a 1924 massacre of Filipino sugar workers in Hawai'i pairs with statistical relentlessness of Black economic suffering to shed light on hidden dimensions of mass ignorance and indifference. The histories of Asians, Blacks, Latina/os, and Natives relate in knotty ways. State violence and colonialism come to the fore in taking measure of the United States, past and present, while the undue importance of assimilation and colorblindness recedes. Ultimately, Jung challenges the dominant racial common sense and develops new concepts and theory for radically rethinking and resisting racisms.
A Dialogue with Noam Chomsky and Other Leading Scholars
Author: Pierre Wilbert Orelus
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
The author explores with the leading scholars of today the way and extent to which many forms of oppression, such as racism, classism, capitalism, sexism, and linguicis, have affected the women, poor working-class people, queer people, students of color, female faculty and faculty of color. The leading scholars are following: Richard Delgado, David Gillborn , Zeus Leonardo, Antonia Darder, Howard Winant, Christine Sleeter, Sonia Nieto, Carl Grant, Peter McLaren, Noam Chomsky, Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Pedro Noguera, Dave Stovall. Sometimes immensely personal, the interviews unveil the how far America has come, and just how far we have to go, in the quest for equality for all its citizens.
Winner of the 2013 American Educational Studies Association's Critics Choice Award! Recent efforts to reform urban high schools have been marked by the pursuit of ever-increasing accountability policies, most notably through the use of high-stakes standardized testing, mayoral control, and secondary school exit exams. Urban Youth and School Pushout excavates the unintended consequences of such policies on secondary school completion by focusing specifically on the use and over-use of the GED credential. Building on a tradition of critical theory and political economy of education, author Eve Tuck offers a provocative analysis of how accountability tacitly and explicitly pushes out under-performing students from the system. By drawing on participatory action research, as well as the work of indigenous scholars and theories, this theoretically and empirically rich book illustrates urban public schooling as a dialectic of humiliating ironies and dangerous dignities. Focusing on the experiences of youth who have been pushed out of their schools under the auspices of obtaining a GED, Tuck reveals new insights on how urban youth view accountability schooling, value the GED, and yearn for multiple, meaningful routes to graduation.
How have research agendas on race and ethnic relations changed over the past two decades and what new developments have emerged? Theories of Race and Ethnicity provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge collection of theoretically grounded and empirically informed essays. It covers a range of key issues in race and ethnicity studies, such as genetics and race, post-race debates, racial eliminativism and the legacy of Barack Obama, and mixed race identities. The contributions are by leading writers on a range of perspectives employed in studying ethnicity and race, including critical race feminism, critical rationalism, psychoanalysis, performativity, whiteness studies and sexuality. Written in an authoritative yet accessible style, this volume is suitable for researchers and advanced students, offering scholars a survey of the state of the art in the literature, and students an overview of the field.
The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their 'first civil right-physical safety-eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America.
Bridging the multiple histories and present-day iterations of U.S. settler colonialism in North America and its overseas imperialism in the Caribbean and the Pacific, the essays in this groundbreaking volume underscore the United States as a fluctuating constellation of geopolitical entities marked by overlapping and variable practices of colonization. By rethinking the intertwined experiences of Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, Chamorros, Filipinos, Hawaiians, Samoans, and others subjected to U.S. imperial rule, the contributors consider how the diversity of settler claims, territorial annexations, overseas occupations, and circuits of slavery and labor—along with their attendant forms of jurisprudence, racialization, and militarism—both facilitate and delimit the conditions of colonial dispossession. Drawing on the insights of critical indigenous and ethnic studies, postcolonial theory, critical geography, ethnography, and social history, this volume emphasizes the significance of U.S. colonialisms as a vital analytic framework for understanding how and why the United States is what it is today. Contributors. Julian Aguon, Joanne Barker, Berenika Byszewski, Jennifer Nez Denetdale, Augusto Espiritu, Alyosha Goldstein, J. K?haulani Kauanui, Barbara Krauthamer, Lorena Oropeza, Vicente L. Rafael, Dean Itsuji Saranillio, Lanny Thompson, Fa'anofo Lisaclaire Uperesa, Manu Vimalassery
In vielen westlichen Ländern sind rechte, nationalistische Bewegungen auf dem Vormarsch. Wie ist es dazu gekommen? Arlie Russell Hochschild reiste ins Herz der amerikanischen Rechten, nach Louisiana, und suchte fünf Jahre lang das Gespräch mit ihren Landsleuten. Sie traf auf frustrierte Menschen, deren "Amerikanischer Traum" geplatzt ist; Menschen, die sich abgehängt fühlen, den Staat hassen und sich der rechtspopulistischen Tea-Party-Bewegung angeschlossen haben. Hochschild zeigt eine beunruhigende Entwicklung auf, die auch in Europa längst begonnen hat. Hochschilds Reportage ist nicht nur eine erhellende Deutung einer gespaltenen Gesellschaft, sondern auch ein bewegendes Stück Literatur. "Jeder, der das moderne Amerika verstehen möchte, sollte dieses faszinierende Buch lesen." Robert Reich "Ein kluges, respektvolles und fesselndes Buch." New York Times Book Review "Eine anrührende, warmherzige und souverän geschriebene, ungemein gut lesbare teilnehmende Beobachtung. ... Wer ihr Buch liest, versteht die Wähler Trumps, weil sie auf Augenhöhe mit ihnen und nicht über sie spricht." FAZ
Government Workers and the Color Line in Woodrow Wilson's America
Author: Eric S. Yellin
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Category: Social Science
Between the 1880s and 1910s, thousands of African Americans passed civil service exams and became employed in the executive offices of the federal government. However, by 1920, promotions to well-paying federal jobs had nearly vanished for black workers. Eric S. Yellin argues that the Wilson administration's successful 1913 drive to segregate the federal government was a pivotal episode in the age of progressive politics. Yellin investigates how the enactment of this policy, based on Progressives' demands for whiteness in government, imposed a color line on American opportunity and implicated Washington in the economic limitation of African Americans for decades to come. Using vivid accounts of the struggles and protests of African American government employees, Yellin reveals the racism at the heart of the era's reform politics. He illuminates the nineteenth-century world of black professional labor and social mobility in Washington, D.C., and uncovers the Wilson administration's progressive justifications for unraveling that world. From the hopeful days following emancipation to the white-supremacist "normalcy" of the 1920s, Yellin traces the competing political ideas, politicians, and ordinary government workers who created "federal segregation."
Wenn in den USA schwarze Teenager von Polizisten ermordet werden, ist das nur ein Problem von individueller Verfehlung? Nein, denn rassistische Gewalt ist fest eingewebt in die amerikanische Identität – sie ist das, worauf das Land gebaut ist. Afroamerikaner besorgten als Sklaven seinen Reichtum und sterben als freie Bürger auf seinen Straßen. In seinem schmerzhaften, leidenschaftlichen Manifest verdichtet Ta-Nehisi Coates amerikanische und persönliche Geschichte zu einem Appell an sein Land, sich endlich seiner Vergangenheit zu stellen. Sein Buch wurde in den USA zum Nr.-1-Bestseller und ist schon jetzt ein Klassiker, auf den sich zukünftig alle Debatten um Rassismus beziehen werden.
Baumans Buch ist ein überzeugendes Plädoyer für eine tolerante Ambivalenz und damit ein wichtiger Beitrag zur aktuellen Diskussion um Fremdenfeindlichkeit, Rassismus und Nationalismus. Der Anspruch der Moderne, den Menschen Klarheit, Transparenz und Ordnung zu bringen – eine durchschaubare Welt zu schaffen –, war von vornherein zum Scheitern verurteilt, weil mit ihm die grundsätzliche Ambivalenz der Welt und die Zufälligkeit unserer Existenz, unserer Gesellschaft und Kultur geleugnet wurde. Erst die Postmoderne verabschiedete sich von diesem Versprechen. War der Schlachtruf der Moderne "Freiheit, Gleichheit, Brüderlichkeit", so war "Freiheit, Verschiedenheit, Toleranz" die Waffenstillstandsformel der Postmoderne. Und wenn Toleranz in Solidarität umgewandelt wird, kann aus dem Waffenstillstand sogar Frieden werden.
Latino Migrant Politics and the Homeland Security State
Author: Alfonso Gonzales
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
Placed within the context of the past decade's war on terror and emergent Latino migrant movement, Reform without Justice addresses the issue of state violence against migrants in the United States. It questions what forces are driving draconian migration control policies and why it is that, despite its success in mobilizing millions, the Latino migrant movement and its allies have not been able to more successfully defend the rights of migrants. Gonzales argues that the contemporary Latino migrant movement and its allies face a dynamic form of political power that he terms "anti-migrant hegemony". This type of political power is exerted in multiple sites of power from Congress, to think tanks, talk shows and local government institutions, through which a rhetorically race neutral and common sense public policy discourse is deployed to criminalize migrants. Most insidiously anti-migrant hegemony allows for large sectors of "pro-immigrant" groups to concede to coercive immigration enforcement measures such as a militarized border wall and the expansion of immigration policing in local communities in exchange for so-called Comprehensive Immigration Reform. Given this reality, Gonzales sustains that most efforts to advance immigration reform will fail to provide justice for migrants. This is because proposed reform measures ignore the neoliberal policies driving migration and reinforce the structures of state violence used against migrants to the detriment of democracy for all. Reform without Justice concludes by discussing how Latino migrant activists - especially youth - and their allies can change this reality and help democratize the United States.
On the History of Racism, Nationalism, and Social Movements
Author: George M. Fredrickson
Publisher: Univ of California Press
In this collection of essays, an eminent American historian of race relations discusses issues central to our understanding of the history of racism, the role of racism, and the possibilites for justice in contemporary society. George M. Fredrickson provides an eloquent and vigorous examination of race relations in the United States and South Africa and at the same time illuminates the emerging field of comparative history—history that is explicitly cross-cultural in its comparisons of nations, eras, or social structures. Taken together, these thought-provoking, accessible essays—several never before published—bring new precision and depth to our understanding of racism and justice, both historically and for society today. The first group of essays in The Comparative Imagination summarizes and evaluates the cross-national comparative history written in the past fifty years. These essays pay particular attention to comparative work on slavery and race relations, frontiers, nation-building and the growth of modern welfare states, and class and gender relations. The second group of essays represents some of Fredrickson's own explorations into the cross-cultural study of race and racism. Included are new essays covering such topics as the theoretical and cross-cultural meaning of racism, the problem of race in liberal thought, and the complex relationship between racism and state-based nationalism. The third group contains Fredrickson's recent work on anti-racist and black liberation movements in the United States and South Africa, especially in the period since World War II. In addition, Fredrickson's provocative introduction breaks significant new intellectual ground, outlining a justification for the methods of comparative history in light of such contemporary intellectual trends as the revival of narrative history and the predominance of postmodern thought.
The Long Reconstruction of Popular Politics in the South, 1861-1908
Author: Gregory Downs
Publisher: UNC Press Books
In this highly original study, Gregory Downs argues that the most American of wars, the Civil War, created a seemingly un-American popular politics, rooted not in independence but in voluntary claims of dependence. Through an examination of the pleas and petitions of ordinary North Carolinians, Declarations of Dependence contends that the Civil War redirected, not destroyed, claims of dependence by exposing North Carolinians to the expansive but unsystematic power of Union and Confederate governments, and by loosening the legal ties that bound them to husbands, fathers, and masters. Faced with anarchy during the long reconstruction of government authority, people turned fervently to the government for protection and sustenance, pleading in fantastic, intimate ways for attention. This personalistic, or what Downs calls patronal, politics allowed for appeals from subordinate groups like freed blacks and poor whites, and also bound people emotionally to newly expanding postwar states. Downs's argument rewrites the history of the relationship between Americans and their governments, showing the deep roots of dependence, the complex impact of the Civil War upon popular politics, and the powerful role of Progressivism and segregation in submerging a politics of dependence that--in new form--rose again in the New Deal and persists today.
The Politics of Race is an excellent resource for students and general readers seeking to learn about race policies and legislation. Arguing that 'states make race,' it provides a unique comparison of the development and construction of race in three white settler societies — Canada, the United States, and Australia. This timely new edition focuses on the politics of race after 9/11 and Barack Obama's election as president of the United States. Jill Vickers and Annette Isaac explore how state-sanctioned race discrimination has intensified in the wake of heightened security. It also explains the new race formation of Islamophobia in all three countries, and the shifts in how Hispanics and Asian Americans are being treated in the United States. As race and politics become increasingly intertwined in both academic and popular discourse, The Politics of Race aids readers in evaluating different approaches for promoting racial justice and transforming states.