Understanding and controlling the physics of space charge effects in linear and circular proton and ion accelerators are essential to their operation, and to future high-intensity facilities. This book presents the status quo of this field from a theoretical perspective, compares analytical approaches with multi-particle computer simulations and – where available – with experiments. It discusses fundamental concepts of phase space motion, matched beams and modes of perturbation, along with mathematical models of analysis – from envelope to Vlasov-Poisson equations. The main emphasis is on providing a systematic description of incoherent and coherent resonance phenomena; parametric instabilities and sum modes; mismatch and halo; error driven resonances; and emittance exchange due to anisotropy, as well as the role of Landau damping. Their distinctive features are elaborated in the context of numerous sample simulations, and their potential impacts on beam quality degradation and beam loss are discussed. The book is intended for advanced beginners in accelerator research, and for experts interested in the mechanisms of direct space charge interaction and their modeling.
A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.
From the reviews: "This book is a very welcome and valuable addition to the accelerator literature. As noted by the authors, there is relatively little material in the book specifically for low-energy machines, but industrial users may still find it useful to read." Cern Courier
This book presents the developments in accelerator physics and technology implemented at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, the world’s most powerful accelerator for almost twenty years prior to the completion of the Large Hadron Collider. The book covers the history of collider operation and upgrades, novel arrangements of beam optics and methods of orbit control, antiproton production and cooling, beam instabilities and feedback systems, halo collimation, and advanced beam instrumentation. The topics discussed show the complexity and breadth of the issues associated with modern hadron accelerators, while providing a systematic approach needed in the design and construction of next generation colliders. This book is a valuable resource for researchers in high energy physics and can serve as an introduction for students studying the beam physics of colliders.
How did electrons in the high atmosphere and space around the Earth come to acquire their speeds and energies? This intriguing question lies at the heart of understanding how high-energy electrons create the spectacular displays of the ^IAurora Borealis and ^IAurora Australis. Electron Acceleration in the Aurora and Beyond explores the mysteries of these phenomena and others involving the acceleration of electrons in the magnetosphere, in the solar wind, at the Sun and in the Cosmos. This book presents a new approach to understanding this fascinating subject by treating the acceleration medium as a plasma. Using this new insight we can see that electron acceleration may well be caused by waves rather than steady potential differences. This unique approach is clearly explained in a lively and engaging style. Quantitative formulae, experiments, practical demonstrations and computer programs enable us to investigate for ourselves how the model works. The theory is further illustrated by comparing acceleration in space with particle accelerators in the nuclear physics laboratory (and even on the sports field!) Questions and exercises with answers are supplied to stimulate further thinking. ^IElectron Acceleration in the Aurora and Beyond is a thought-provoking book for graduate and post-doctoral space scientists.
This indispensable work offers a broad synoptic description of beams, applicable to a wide range of other devices, such as low-energy focusing and transport systems and high-power microwave sources. The monograph develops the material from the basic principles in a systematic way and discusses the underlying physics and validity of theoretical relationships, design formulas and scaling laws. Assumptions and approximations are clearly indicated throughout. This new, revised and updated edition has 10% additional content, and features, among others, a new chapter on beam physics research from 1993 to 2007, significant enhancement of chapter 6 on emittance variation, updated references and color image plates.
Meeting the need for a coherently written and comprehensive compendium combining field theory and particle physics for advanced students and researchers, this book directly links the theory to the experiments. It is clearly divided into two sections covering approaches to field theory and the standard model, and rounded off with numerous useful appendices. A timely volume for high energy and theoretical physicists, as well as astronomers, graduate students and lecturers in physics. Volume 2 concentrates on the main aspects of the Standard Model by addressing its recent developments and future prospects. Furthermore, it gives some thought to intriguing ideas beyond the Standard Model, including the Higgs boson, the neutrino, the concepts of the Grand Unified Theory and supersymmetry, axions, and cosmological developments.
Erik Gregersen Associate Editor, Astronomy and Space Exploration
The first edition of Engines of Discovery celebrated in words, images and anecdotes the accelerators and their constructors that culminated in the discovery of the Higgs boson. But even before the Higgs was discovered, before the champagne corks popped and while the television producers brushed up their quantum mechanics, a new wave of enthusiasm for accelerators to be applied for more practical purposes was gaining momentum. Almost all fields of human endeavour will be enhanced by this trend: energy conservation, medical diagnostics and treatment, national security, as well as industrial processing. Accelerators have been used most spectacularly to reveal the structure of the complex molecules that determine our metabolism and life. For every accelerator chasing the Higgs, there are now ten thousand serving other purposes. It is high time to move from abstract mathematics and philosophy to the practical needs of humankind. It is the aim of this revised and expanded edition to describe this revolution in a manner which will attract the young, not only to apply their curiosity to the building blocks of matter but to help them contribute to the improvement of the quality of life itself on this planet. As always, the authors have tried to avoid lengthy mathematical description. In describing a field which reaches out to almost all of today's cutting edge technology, some detailed explanation cannot be avoided but this has been confined to sidebars. References guide experts to move on to the journal Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology and other publications for more information. But first we would urge every young physicist, teacher, journalist and politician to read this book. Contents:Electrostatic AcceleratorsCyclotronsLinear AcceleratorsBetatronsSynchrotronsCollidersNeutrino Super Beams, Neutrino Factories and Muon CollidersDetectorsHigh-Energy and Nuclear PhysicsSynchrotron Radiation SourcesIsotope Production and Cancer Therapy AcceleratorsSpallation Neutron SourcesAccelerators in Industry and ElsewhereNational SecurityEnergy and the EnvironmentA Final Word — Mainly to the Young Readership: Scientists, research physicists, engineers and administrators at accelerator laboratories; general readers; undergraduates and graduates in physics, electrical engineering and the history of science. Keywords:Particle Accelerators;Physics;Engineering;History;International;Synchrotron;Collider;Linac;Radiation TreatmentReviews: “This updated edition of Engines of Discovery convincingly demonstrates that ‘a century of particle accelerators’ is still progressing, and the history of these ingenious machines will span centuries. A fascinating story of inventions and breakthroughs, presented to us by two prominent scientists, takes the reader through a mesmerising gallery of revolutionary developments in accelerator science and technology. The book is a wonderful source of inspiration and will be a great companion to the young and curious who, undoubtedly, will be the ones to make new breakthroughs and new discoveries in the future.” Professor Andrei A Seryi Director, John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science University of Oxford, Royal Holloway University of London and Imperial College London “Andrew Sessler's and Edmund Wilson's history of accelerators is a rich tapestry illustrating an intellectual adventure story with its own heroes, dramas, competitions, and even missteps and a few villains. They explain the imaginative physical and engineering insights that accelerator pioneers have employed to make modern accelerators engines of commerce and engines of well being as well as the quintessential engines of discovery. They describe this human enterprise in language that is easily accessible to the layman. Their book is lavishly illustrated with photographs of ground-breaking machines and their applications from the dawn of the accelerator age to the present.” William A Barletta USPAS Director Adjunct Professor of Physics, MIT & UCLA Visiting Professor of Economics, Univ. of Ljubljana “Accelerators have become essential tools in many areas of research, ranging from medicine through biology, chemistry and physics to archaeology. They also play vital roles in medicine and industry. Sessler and Wilson's wide-ranging history of the development of accelerators and their uses will appeal to everyone with an interest in how science and technology progress. They provide an insiders' perspective, illustrated by a wealth of anecdotes and sketches of engineers and scientists who have advanced the state of the art. Their book will enlighten and entertain experts as well as general readers.” Professor Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith FRS Director of Energy Research Oxford University President of the Council of SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East), and Director General of CERN (1994–98) “In this revised edition of Engines of Discovery, the authors have substantially expanded their text on accelerators. From principles to applications reaching deep into the specialized fields involving dedicated accelerators, the book describes the history and the state of the art of accelerator-based facilities used by experimental scientists worldwide. In particular the applications of accelerators in research and industry, medicine and security systems highlight the important role of accelerators and their vast impact on our daily life.” Norbert Holtkamp Associate Laboratory Director, Accelerator Directorate SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford “This book will stand as part of Andrew Sessler's legacy to future generations. The hope is that it will inspire budding young scientists and engineers today, for they are the future of the field.” Christine Sutton CERN “In conclusion, the book offers a very pleasant trip in the world of accelerators and applications, putting particular emphasis on the facilities designed and realized to give answers to common life questions.” Il Nuovo Saggiatore
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the operating principles and technology of electron lenses in supercolliders. Electron lenses are a novel instrument for high energy particle accelerators, particularly for the energy-frontier superconducting hadron colliders, including the Tevatron, RHIC, LHC and future very large hadron colliders. After reviewing the issues surrounding beam dynamics in supercolliders, the book offers an introduction to the electron lens method and its application. Further chapters describe the technology behind the electron lenses which have recently been proposed, built and employed for compensation of beam-beam effects and for collimation of high-energy high-intensity beams, for compensation of space-charge effects and several other applications in accelerators. The book will be an invaluable resource for those involved in the design, construction and operation of the next generation of hadron colliders.
Focusing of Charged Particles, Volume II presents the aspects of particle optics, including the electron, the ion optical domains, and the accelerator field. This book provides a detailed analysis of the principles of the laws of propagation of beams. Comprised of three parts encompassing three chapters, this volume starts with an overview of how a beam of charged particles traverses a region that is at a uniform, constant, electrostatic potential. This book then discusses the principle of charge repulsion effect by which the space charge of the beam modifies the potential in the region that it traverses. Other chapters examine the general design techniques and performances obtainable for electron guns applicable for use in initiating a beam for linear beam tubes that is given in a condensed form. The last chapter deals with the two stable charged particles that can be accelerated, namely, protons and electrons. This book is a valuable resource to physicists, accelerator experts, and experimenters in search of interactions in the detector target.
Proceedings of the 9th Conference : Villa Olmo, Como, Italy, 17-21 October 2005
Author: Michele Barone
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Electronic books
The exploration of the subnuclear world is done through increasingly complex experiments covering a wide range of energies and in a large variety of environments OCo from particle accelerators, underground detectors to satellites and space laboratories. For these research programs to succeed, novel techniques, new materials and new instrumentation need to be used in detectors, often on a large scale. Hence, particle physics is at the forefront of technological advancement and leads to numerous applications. Among these, medical applications have a particular importance due to the health and social benefits they bring. This volume reviews the advances made in all technological aspects of current experiments in the field. Contents: Advanced, Miniaturized Detectors and Particle Identification; Astroparticle Experiments; Calorimetry; GEANT4 and Software Applications; High Energy Physics; Medical Applications and Instrumentations; Radiation Damage; Space Experiments; Tracking Devices. Readership: Graduate students, academics, researchers and practitioners in high energy physics/particle physics, experimental physics, astrophysics and medical imaging."
Der Leser erhält einen umfassenden Überblick über Aufbau und Funktionsweise von Teilchendetektoren. In der 4. Auflage werden neuere Entwicklungen wie Silizium-Streifendetektoren, Pixeldetektoren, szintillierende Fasern, neue elektromagnetische Kalorimeter und kompensierende Hadronkalorimeter behandelt. Vertiefend wird nun auch auf aktuelle Forschungsgebiete wie Astroteilchenphysik, kosmische Strahlung, Neutrinophysik und die dunkle Materie im Kosmos eingegangen.
In this textbook, all known fundamental interactions are considered and the main directions of their unification are reviewed. The basic theoretical ideas and experiments, which permit establishing a quark-lepton level of matter structure are discussed. A general scheme for the theory of interacting fields with the help of the local gauge invariance principle is given. This scheme is used for presentation of the basic aspects of the quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory of Weinberg-Salam-Glashow. Principles of operation and designs of accelerators, neutrino telescopes, and elementary particle detectors are considered. The modern theory of the Universe evolution is described.
Fernando Ferroni,Leonida Antonio Gizzi,Riccardo Faccini,Società italiana di fisica
Author: Fernando Ferroni,Leonida Antonio Gizzi,Riccardo Faccini,Società italiana di fisica
Publisher: IOS Press
Impressive progress has been made in the field of laser-plasma acceleration in the last decade, with outstanding achievements from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Closely exploiting the development of ultra-intense, ultrashort pulse lasers, laser-plasma acceleration has developed rapidly, achieving accelerating gradients of the order of tens of GeV/m, and making the prospect of miniature accelerators a more realistic possibility.This book presents the lectures delivered at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics and summer school: 'Laser-Plasma Acceleration', held in Varenna, Italy, in June 2011.