Single-case and Small-n Experimental Designs

A Practical Guide To Randomization Tests, Second Edition

Author: Pat Dugard,Portia File,Jonathan Todman

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136588477

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

View: 9312

This practical guide explains the use of randomization tests and provides example designs and macros for implementation in IBM SPSS and Excel. It reviews the theory and practice of single-case and small-n designs so readers can draw valid causal inferences from small-scale clinical studies. The macros and example data are provided on the book’s website so that users can run analyses of the text data as well as data from their own studies. The new edition features: More explanation as to why randomization tests are useful and how to apply them. More varied and expanded examples that demonstrate the use of these tests in education, clinical work and psychology. A website with the macros and datasets for all of the text examples in IBM SPSS and Excel. Exercises at the end of most chapters that help readers test their understanding of the material. A new glossary that defines the key words that appear in italics when they are first introduced. A new appendix that reviews the basic skills needed to do randomization tests. New appendices that provide annotated SPSS and Excel macros to help readers write their own or tinker with the ones provided in the book. The book opens with an overview of single case and small n designs -- why they are needed and how they differ from descriptive case studies. Chapter 2 focuses on the basic concepts of randoization tests. Next how to choose and implement a randomization design is reviewed including material on how to perform the randomizations, how to select the number of observations, and how to record the data. Chapter 5 focuses on how to analyze the data including how to use the macros and understand the results. Chapter 6 shows how randomization tests fit into the body of statistical inference. Chapter 7 discusses size and power. The book concludes with a demonstration of how to edit or modify the macros or use parts of them to write your own. Ideal as a text for courses on single-case, small n design, and/or randomization tests taught at the graduate level in psychology (especially clinical, counseling, educational, and school), education, human development, nursing, and other social and health sciences, this inexpensive book also serves as a supplement in statistics or research methods courses. Practitioners and researchers with an applied clinical focus also appreciate this book’s accessible approach. An introduction to basic statistics, SPSS, and Excel is assumed.

Single-case and Small-n Experimental Designs

A Practical Guide to Randomization Tests, Second Edition

Author: Pat Dugard,Portia File,Jonathan Todman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415886937

Category: Education

Page: 290

View: 3097

"Randomization tests are not a new idea, but they only became really useful after the advent of fast computing. Making randomization tests accessible to many more potential users by providing the means to use them within familiar statistical software, this book serves as an introduction and provides macros to perform in the familiar environments of SPSS and Excel. Though we expect that the book will still appeal to researchers, we believe the changes in the new edition will make the book an essential aidfor graduate and senior undergraduate courses in statistics, data analysis, and/or research methods, taught in departments of psychology (especially clinical or counseling psychology), medicine, nursing, and other health and social sciences"--

Single-case and Small-n Experimental Designs

A Practical Guide To Randomization Tests

Author: John B. Todman,Pat Dugard

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135659354

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 4766

This book is a practical guide to help researchers draw valid causal inferences from small-scale clinical intervention studies. It should be of interest to teachers of, and students in, courses with an experimental clinical component, as well as clinical researchers. Inferential statistics used in the analysis of group data are frequently invalid for use with data from single-case experimental designs. Even non-parametric rank tests provide, at best, approximate solutions for only some single-case (and small-n ) designs. Randomization (Exact) tests, on the other hand, can provide valid statistical analyses for all designs that incorporate a random procedure for assigning treatments to subjects or observation periods, including single-case designs. These Randomization tests require large numbers of data rearrangements and have been seldom used, partly because desktop computers have only recently become powerful enough to complete the analyses in a reasonable time. Now that the necessary computational power is available, they continue to be under-used because they receive scant attention in standard statistical texts for behavioral researchers and because available programs for running the analyses are relatively inaccessible to researchers with limited statistical or computing interest. This book is first and foremost a practical guide, although it also presents the theoretical basis for Randomization tests. Its most important aim is to make these tests accessible to researchers for a wide range of designs. It does this by providing programs on CD-ROM that allow users to run analyses of their data within a standard package (Minitab, Excel, or SPSS) with which they are already familiar. No statistical or computing expertise is required to use these programs. This is the "new stats" for single-case and small-n intervention studies, and anyone interested in this research approach will benefit.

Randomization tests

Author: Eugene S. Edgington

Publisher: Marcel Dekker Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 341

View: 9160

Experimental Design and Statistics for Psychology

A First Course

Author: Fabio Sani,John Todman

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 1405150386

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 825

Experimental Design and Statistics for Psychology: A First Course is a concise, straighforward and accessible introduction to the design of psychology experiments and the statistical tests used to make sense of their results. Makes abundant use of charts, diagrams and figures. Assumes no prior knowledge of statistics. Invaluable to all psychology students needing a firm grasp of the basics, but tackling of some of the topic’s more complex, controversial issues will also fire the imagination of more ambitious students. Covers different aspects of experimental design, including dependent versus independent variables, levels of treatment, experimental control, random versus systematic errors, and within versus between subjects design. Provides detailed instructions on how to perform statistical tests with SPSS. Downloadable instructor resources to supplement and support your lectures can be found at www.blackwellpublishing.com/sani and include sample chapters, test questions, SPSS data sets, and figures and tables from the book.

Single Case Experimental Designs

Strategies for Studying Behavior for Change

Author: David H. Barlow,Matthew Nock,Michel Hersen

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

ISBN: 9780205474554

Category: Psychology

Page: 393

View: 9828

Single Case Experimental Designs provides a clear and comprehensive introduction to the use of single case experimental designs. The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive sourcebook on single case experimental designs with practical guidelines for their use in a range of research and clinical settings. It is suitable for use as a textbook for a course on research methodology or clinical assessment and treatment, or as a desk reference for seasoned researchers and practicing clinicians.

Single-case Research Designs

Methods for Clinical and Applied Settings

Author: Alan E. Kazdin

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195341881

Category: Psychology

Page: 452

View: 6929

Kazdin's text is a notable contrast to the quantitative methodology approach that pervades the biological and social sciences. The methodology in Single-Case Reasearch Designs focuses on a widely applicable methodology for evaluating interventions, such as treatment, or psychotherapy, using applied behavior anlaysis. However, this revision aims to encompass a broader range of research areas that utilize single-case designs. The text will convey the pertinence of this research methodology to disciplines ranging from psychology and medicine to business and industry. The first edition of this book, which was published in 1982, still sells a steady amount of copies today. The fact that professors continue to use the first edition of this book more than twenty years after it was published is a testament to the quality of information, organization, and narrative throughout the text. The possibility of a revision has professors excited that they can expose their students toa well-written, clear, and updated text that will reflect the current status of single-case research.

Single-Case Research Methods for the Behavioral and Health Sciences

Author: David L. Morgan,Robin K. Morgan

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483317099

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 338

This text ntroduces readers to the history, epistemology, and strategies of single-case research design. The authors offer concrete information on how to observe, measure, and interpret change in relevant outcome variables and how to design strategies that promote causal inferences. Key Features Includes case vignettes on specific single-case designs Describes clinical and applied case studies Draws on multiple examples of single-case designs from published journals across a wide range of disciplines Covers recent developments in applied research, including meta-analysis and the distinction between statistical and clinical significance Provides pedagogical tools to help readers master the material, including a glossary, interim summaries, end-of-chapter review questions, and activities that encourage active processing of material. Intended Audience This text is intended for students and practitioners in a variety of disciplines—including psychology, nursing, physical therapy, and occupational therapy—who are increasingly called upon to document the effectiveness of interventions.

Single Subject Designs in Biomedicine

Author: Janine E. Janosky,Shelley L. Leininger,Michael P. Hoerger,Terry M. Libkuman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048124442

Category: Medical

Page: 124

View: 4218

Single Subject Designs in Biomedicine draws upon the rich history of single case research within the educational and behavioral research settings and extends the application to the field of biomedicine. Biomedical illustrations are used to demonstrate the processes of designing, implementing, and evaluating a single subject design. Strengths and limitations of various methodologies are presented, along with specific clinical areas of application in which these applications would be appropriate. Statistical and visual techniques for data analysis are also discussed. The breadth and depth of information provided is suitable for medical students in research oriented courses, primary care practitioners and medical specialists seeking to apply methods of evidence practice to improve patient care, and medical researchers who are expanding their methodological expertise to include single subject designs. Increasing awareness of the utility in the single subject design could enhance treatment approach and evaluation both in biomedical research and medical care settings.

Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research

Author: Donald T. Campbell,Julian C. Stanley

Publisher: Ravenio Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 84

View: 5432

We shall examine the validity of 16 experimental designs against 12 common threats to valid inference. By experiment we refer to that portion of research in which variables are manipulated and their effects upon other variables observed. It is well to distinguish the particular role of this chapter. It is not a chapter on experimental design in the Fisher (1925, 1935) tradition, in which an experimenter having complete mastery can schedule treatments and measurements for optimal statistical efficiency, with complexity of design emerging only from that goal of efficiency. Insofar as the designs discussed in the present chapter become complex, it is because of the intransigency of the environment: because, that is, of the experimenter’s lack of complete control.

Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology

Author: Jay C. Thomas,Michel Hersen

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136831193

Category: Psychology

Page: 514

View: 2152

Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology, Second Edition is designed and written for graduate students aspiring to careers in practice and presents research as an indispensable tool for practice.

Single-Case Intervention Research

Methodological and Statistical Advances

Author: Thomas R. Kratochwill,Joel R. Levin

Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)

ISBN: 9781433817519

Category: Psychology

Page: 366

View: 8056

Thanks to remarkable advances in recent years, single-case design (SCD) reseach has become a viableùand often essentialùoption for researchers across a variety of settings. SCD is a highly flexible method of conducting applied intervention research, in which the subject of an experimentally controlled intervention is a single group or individual. This methodology is especially useful when it is not feasible or practice to collect data from multiple groups of participants, as is often the case in applied psychology, education, and related fields. This text presents a wealth of information and tools for researchers considering SCD including in-depth descriptions of large-scale SCD research projects being undertaken at key institutions; practical suggestions from journal editors on how to get SCD research published; and detailed instructions for free, user-friendly, web-based randomization software. Book jacket.

Case Study Research

Design and Methods

Author: Robert K. Yin

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412960991

Category: Social Science

Page: 219

View: 774

Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin’s bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case studies (approximately 25% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative analyses, discusses more fully the use of mixed methods research designs, and includes new methodological insights. The book’s coverage of case study research and how it is applied in practice gives readers access to exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic and applied fields. Key Features of the Fourth Edition Highlights each specific research feature through 44 boxed vignettes that feature previously published case studies Provides methodological insights to show the similarities between case studies and other social science methods Suggests a three-stage approach to help readers define the initial questions they will consider in their own case study research Covers new material on human subjects protection, the role of Institutional Review Boards, and the interplay between obtaining IRB approval and the final development of the case study protocol and conduct of a pilot case Includes an overall graphic of the entire case study research process at the beginning of the book, then highlights the steps in the process through graphics that appear at the outset of all the chapters that follow Offers in-text learning aids including “tips” that pose key questions and answers at the beginning of each chapter, practical exercises, endnotes, and a new cross-referencing table Case Study Research, Fourth Edition is ideal for courses in departments of Education, Business and Management, Nursing and Public Health, Public Administration, Anthropology, Sociology, and Political Science.

Methods of Randomization in Experimental Design

Author: Valentim R. Alferes

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1452202923

Category: Psychology

Page: 183

View: 2415

This book provides a conceptual systematization and a practical tool for the randomization of between-subjects and within-subjects experimental designs in social, behavioural, and health sciences. The author adopts a pedagogical strategy that allows the reader to implement all randomization methods by relying on the materials given in the appendices and using the common features included in any word processor software. In the companion website (www.fpce.uc.pt/niips/randmethods), along with other supplementary materials, the reader can freely download IBM SPSS and R versions of SCRAED, a package that performs simple and complex random assignment in experimental design, including the 18 randomization methods presented in Chapters 2 and 3.

Behavioral Economics

The Basics

Author: Philip Corr,Anke Plagnol

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315391201

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 250

View: 7497

Behavioral economics is everywhere – whether used by governments to shape our judgement and decision making, advertisers and marketers to sell products, or even politicians to sell policies, its insights are important and far-reaching. Behavioral Economics: The Basics is the first book to provide a rigorous yet accessible overview of the growing field that attempts to uncover the psychological processes which mediate all the economic judgements and decisions we make. In seven accessible chapters, the book answers questions like: What is behavioral economics? How does it help us to understand economic behavior? What does it tell us about how people form judgements and make decisions in their private and public lives? What does it tell us about the psychological nature of financial catastrophes that afflict our economic system? With recommended further readings throughout, Behavioral Economics: The Basics is essential for all students taking courses in behavioral economics, economic psychology, consumer psychology, microeconomics and game theory, and also for professionals looking for an accessible introduction to the topic. Further online resources may be found at www.behaviouraleconomicsbasics.net

Research Methods: A Modular Approach

Author: Sherri Jackson

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 0495098906

Category: Psychology

Page: 360

View: 4004

Sherri Jackson's RESEARCH METHODS: A MODULAR APPROACH combines a lively writing style with a novel approach to offer a refreshing alternative for the research methods course. Topics are treated in relatively compact units that, though logically sequenced, can be used in any order. The critical thinking theme that threads through the book engages your thinking by asking you to continually evaluate evidence. .Brief, yet comprehensive, this text will help you master the material in an engaging way. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Social and Behavioral Research and the Internet

Advances in Applied Methods and Research Strategies

Author: Marcel Das,Peter Ester,Lars Kaczmirek

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781848728172

Category: Education

Page: 435

View: 9773

"An absolutely delightful journey through the history and present of Internet surveys, this fascinating book explains how probability sampling can be implemented to produce a representative panel of respondents and describes the range of fascinating data that can then be collected from these participants. Eye tracking, biomarkers, visual layout, paradata, and measurement on sensitive topics are just a few of the themes examined by some of the world's leading survey methodologists. This book is must-have for anyone interested in one of the most important innovations in the research world."- Jon Krosnick, Stanford University, USA "The frequency with which Web surveys are used is in sharp contrast with the quality of the studies. Without a proper sampling design one cannot say anything about the population. Social and Behavioral Research and the Internet illustrates and discusses in a very clear way how Web surveys can be used in a scientific way. We hope that the described approach will be taken over by many other research institutions. This would...considerably improve social and behavioral science research." - Willem Saris, President of the European Survey Research Association Highlighting the progress made by research in using Web-based surveys for data collection, this timely volume summarizes the experiences of leading American and European behavioral and social scientists who collect data using the Internet. Some chapters present theory, methodology, design, and implementation, while others focus on best practice examples or issues such as data quality and the understanding of paradata. A number of contributors applied innovative Web-based research methods to the LISS panel of CentERdata collected from over 5,000 Dutch households. Their findings are presented in the book. The book addresses practical issues such as data quality, how to reach difficult target groups, how to design a survey to maximize response, and ethical issues that need to be considered. Innovative applications such as the use of biomarkers and eye-tracking techniques are also explored. Part I provides an overview of Internet survey research, including its methodologies, strengths, challenges, and best practices. Innovative ways to minimize sources of error are provided along with a review of mixed-mode designs, how to design a scientifically sound longitudinal panel and avoid sampling problems, and how to address ethical requirements in Web surveys. Part II focuses on advanced applications, including the impact of visual design on the interpretability of survey questions, the impact survey usability has on respondents' answers, design features that increase interaction, and how Internet surveys can be effectively used to study sensitive issues. Part III addresses data quality, sample selection, measurement and nonresponse error, and new applications for collecting online data. The issue of underrepresentation of certain groups in Internet research and the measures most effective at reducing it are also addressed. The book concludes with a discussion of the importance of paradata and the Web data collection process in general, followed by chapters with innovative experiments using eye-tracking techniques and biomarker data. This practical book will appeal to practitioners from market survey research institutes and researchers in disciplines such as psychology, education, sociology, political science, health studies, marketing, economics, and business who use the Internet for data collection, but is also an ideal supplement for graduate or upper-level undergraduate courses on (Internet) research methods or data collection taught in these fields.

Single-Case Research Design and Analysis (Psychology Revivals)

New Directions for Psychology and Education

Author: Thomas R. Kratochwill,Joel R. Levin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317535642

Category: Psychology

Page: 246

View: 4404

Originally published in 1992, the editors of this volume fulfill three main goals: to take stock of progress in the development of data-analysis procedures for single-subject research; to clearly explain errors of application and consider them within the context of new theoretical and empirical information of the time; and to closely examine new developments in the analysis of data from single-subject or small n experiments. To meet these goals, this book provides examples of applicable single-subject research data analysis. It presents a wide variety of topics and perspectives and hopes that readers will select the data-analysis strategies that best reflect their methodological approaches, statistical sophistication, and philosophical beliefs. These strategies include visual analysis, nonparametric tests, time-series experiments, applications of statistical procedures for multiple behaviors, applications of meta-analysis in single-subject research, and discussions of issues related to the application and misapplication of selected techniques.

Research Methods in Crime and Justice

Author: Brian L. Withrow

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317300661

Category: Social Science

Page: 588

View: 8663

Research Methods in Crime and Justice, 2nd Edition, is an innovative text/online hybrid for undergraduate Criminal Justice Research Methods courses. This material uniquely addresses the fundamental teaching issue for this course: how to show students that success as criminal justice practitioners is linked to their acquisition of research skills. Brian Withrow, a widely published academic researcher and former Texas State Trooper, developed this approach for his own undergraduate Research Methods class. He persuasively demonstrates that research skills aren’t just essential to university academic researchers but to successful criminal justice practitioners as well. More than 80 short, sharply focused examples throughout the text rely on research that is conducted by, on behalf of, or relevant to criminal justice practitioners to engage students’ interest like no other text of its kind. Extensive web materials all written by the author provide an array of instructor support material, including a Researcher’s Notebook that provides students (and their instructors) with a series of structured exercises leading to the development of a valid research project. Withrow systematically walks students through defining a question, conducting a literature review, and designing a research method that provides the data necessary to answer the research question—all online, with minimal instructor supervision. The second edition features expanded coverage of measurement, qualitative research methods, and evaluation research methods, as well as additional downloadable journal articles to ensure students begin to think critically about research and can read scholarly literature.