In this pioneering book, Eve Levin explores sexual behavior among the peoples of Serbia, Bulgaria, and Russia from their conversion to Christianity in the ninth and tenth centuries until the end of the seventeenth century. By ranging across all these societies, Levin is able to fulfill three basic aims: to delineate the general character of sexuality among the Orthodox Slavs, to enrich that account by drawing our attention to regional variations in the sexual mores of these peoples, and to draw suggestive comparisons between the world of the medieval Orthodox Slavs and their contemporaries in the Latin West. Levin begins with a study of the ecclesiastical image of sexuality as expressed in didactic and literary texts, showing that the Orthodox Church was deeply suspicious of sexuality. Her second chapter, on canon law and marfiage, examines the conditions for marriage, divorce, and remarriage, the obligation of the conjugal relationship, and the impact of these rules on social order. Levin looks at church regulations concerning sexual relations among relatives by blood, marriage, spiritual kinship, and adoption in Chapter Three, and she devotes Chapter Four to prohibited sexual practices, both inside and outside of marriage. In the fifth chapter she studies Russian and South Slavic responses to rape, and demonstrates that these societies simultaneously censured violence against women and sanctioned the attitudes and social structures that justified it. Chapter Six deals with the rules on sexual conduct for the clergy, whose job it was to enforce sexual precepts. Throughout her work, Levin argues that, despite its conviction that sexual expression was diabolical, the medieval Orthodox Church approached sexual matters in a surprisingly practical way; its official sexual ethic corresponded to a great degree with popular views. Historians of the Slavic world, both medieval and modern, will welcome this accessible study. It should also attract comparativists who work in such fields as church history, the history of women and the family, and the history of sexuality.
In this book, Dr Stoller describes patients with marked abberrations in their masculinity and feminity--primarily transsexuals, transvestites and patients with marked biological abnormalities of their sex - in order to find clues to gender development in more normal people.
Explores the complex history of human sexuality from ancient Greece to modern Sweden and contends that, although sexual drives and orientations are biological in nature, much of individual sexuality is determined through self-interested choices.
Sex talk and the post-Algerian history of France -- The far right and the reinvigoration of sexual orientalism in post-decolonization France -- May '68, "Arab perversion," and anti-Arab racism -- The Algerian revolution and Arab men in the fight for sexual revolution -- Homosociality, "human contact," and the specter of the Arab man in the post-'68 French gay world -- Prostitution and the Arab man, 1945-1975: Algerian pimps and the "takeover" of the "whores of France" -- Prostitution and the Arab man, 1962-1979: prostitutes, Arab clients, and "the traffic in white women" -- Power, resistance, and sodomy in post-Algerian France -- Rape as metaphor in the 1970s -- Rape as act in the 1970s -- The erotics of Algerian difference, 1979-2016
Heterosexuality and the Third Gender in Enlightenment London
Author: Randolph Trumbach
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Category: Social Science
A revolution in gender relations occurred in London around 1700, resulting in a sexual system that endured in many aspects until the sexual revolution of the 1960s. For the first time in European history, there emerged three genders: men, women, and a third gender of adult effeminate sodomites, or homosexuals. This third gender had radical consequences for the sexual lives of most men and women since it promoted an opposing ideal of exclusive heterosexuality. In Sex and the Gender Revolution, Randolph Trumbach reconstructs the worlds of eighteenth-century prostitution, illegitimacy, sexual violence, and adultery. In those worlds the majority of men became heterosexuals by avoiding sodomy and sodomite behavior. As men defined themselves more and more as heterosexuals, women generally experienced the new male heterosexuality as its victims. But women—as prostitutes, seduced servants, remarrying widows, and adulterous wives— also pursued passion. The seamy sexual underworld of extramarital behavior was central not only to the sexual lives of men and women, but to the very existence of marriage, the family, domesticity, and romantic love. London emerges as not only a geographical site but as an actor in its own right, mapping out domains where patriarchy, heterosexuality, domesticity, and female resistance take vivid form in our imaginations and senses. As comprehensive and authoritative as it is eloquent and provocative, this book will become an indispensable study for social and cultural historians and delightful reading for anyone interested in taking a close look at sex and gender in eighteenth-century London.
This book explores the relationship between various types of reproduction and the evolutionary process. Starting with the concept of meiosis, George C. Williams states the conditions under which an organism with both sexual and asexual reproductive capacities will employ each mode. He argues that in low-fecundity higher organisms, sexual reproduction is generally maladaptive, and persists because there is no ready means of developing an asexual alternative. The book then considers the evolutionary development of diverse forms of sexuality, such as anisogamy, hermaphroditism. and the evolution of differences between males and females in reproductive strategy. The final two chapters examine the effect of genetic recombination on the evolutionary process itself.
"A rare pleasure. Rooting gender and consumption in the actions of people making their own history, these brilliant essays move from nineteenth-century pinups to the formation of gendered modernity. Once you've savored this volume, you'll never think of modern life in the same way again."--Temma Kaplan, author of "Red City, Blue Period"
For some time sex has been defined as the biological difference between men and women, and gender as the manner in which culture defines and constrains these differences. Feminine/masculine, male/female, women/men, boy/girl - terms of sexual and gender division like these permeate the way we think and talk about ourselves and each other. On most occasions we find their use non-problematic and people employ them easily, at other times, however, particularly if we are interested in psychology, we may wonder whether this ease is illusory.; One may speculate whether being a woman necessarily implies being "feminine". One may question why young women are often referred to as girls, while men are seldom referred to as boys. Is dressing in a stereotypically feminine manner a reliable indication that a woman is heterosexual? What about cross dressing? Why do these topics hold so much fascination for the media?; "Gender, Sex and Sexuality" examines the effects that the inequalities experienced between men and women have had on the psychologies of both sexes, and the battle to remove them. It aims to introduce the reader to current research and theories, drawing on novels, theatre, soap operas, as well as research for case histories.
This book is an examination of the methods used by social researchers to produce knowledge. Focussing chiefly on research into sexuality and madness, it assesses survey methods and opens up broader philiosophical debates on the nature of knowledge.
"The seven essays in Sex and Russian Society, by Russians and Western scholars, graphically describe the consequences of decades of sexual neglect, illiteracy and repression.... Sex and Russian Society... reveals that beneath the repressive model of official morality an evolution in sexual mores was taking place, particularly among the young.... The book’s most alarming, though not unexpected, message is that homosexuals and women are bearing the brunt of a disintegrating health care system and repressive sexual attitudes and stereotypes." —Katrina vanden Heuvel, The Nation Here is the first serious study of the main aspects of sexuality in Russian society today, with contributors from both inside and outside the former Soviet Union. From the 1930s, sex was kept out of the public eye in the former USSR. Low contraceptive use, high abortion rates, intolerance toward homosexuals, and inadequate measures to combat AIDS are some of the consequences of the long neglect and repression of sexual culture.
Exploring Gender and Sexuality in the Ancient World
Author: Mark Masterson,Nancy Sorkin Rabinowitz,James Robson
Looking at sex and sexuality from a variety of historical, sociological and theoretical perspectives, as represented in a variety of media, Sex in Antiquity represents a vibrant picture of the discipline of ancient gender and sexuality studies, showcasing the work of leading international scholars as well as that of emerging talents and new voices. Sexuality and gender in the ancient world is an area of research that has grown quickly with often sudden shifts in focus and theoretical standpoints. This volume contextualises these shifts while putting in place new ideas and avenues of exploration that further develop this lively field or set of disciplines. This broad study also includes studies of gender and sexuality in the Ancient Near East which not only provide rich consideration of those areas but also provide a comparative perspective not often found in such collections. Sex in Antiquity is a major contribution to the field of ancient gender and sexuality studies.