What are the differences between the sexes? That is the question that Ann Oakley set out to answer in this pioneering study, now established as a classic in the field. To answer it she draws on the evidence of biology, anthropology, sociology and the study of animal behaviour to cut through popular myths and reach the underlying truth. She demonstrates conclusively that men and women are not two separate groups: rather each individual takes his or her place on a continuous scale. She shows how different societies define masculinity and femininity in different and even opposite ways, and discusses how far observable differences are based on biology and psychology and how far on cultural conditioning. Many books have discussed these vital issues. None, however, have drawn on such an impressively wide range of evidence or discussed it with such clarity and authority. Now newly reissued with a substantial introduction which highlights its continuing relevance, this work will continue to inform and shape dialogues around sex and gender for a new generation of scholars and students.
What are the differences between the sexes? That is the question that Ann Oakley set out to answer in this pioneering study, now established as a classic in the field. Now newly reissued with a substantial introduction which highlights its continuing relevance, this work will continue to inform and shape dialogues around sex and gender for a new generation of scholars and students.
Edited and selected by the author, this reader starts with work first published in the early 1970s. Ann Oakley's research and writing on sex and gender, housework, motherhood, women's health, and social science have influenced many inside and beyond social science, helping to shape the academic study of women and gender up to the present day.
Essays Based on Herbert Spencer Lectures Given in the University of Oxford
Author: Colin Blakemore
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Category: Social Science
In this eclectic collection of essays, distinguished scholars from different and specialized disciplines discuss aspects of sex, gender, and gender and society. In his contribution to this series of essays on Gender and Society, Peter Goodfellow states, 'sex, the biological separation intomale and female, is controlled by DNA and is determined by DNA. Gender, the arbitrary social division between masculine and feminine, is a social construct that involves interaction between an individual and society.' The definition of gender offered by Goodfellow is cogently developed by GermaineGreer in her essay on women as victims of rapeDSone of the newest and most controversial aspects of modern criminology. Susan Watkins suggests that the understanding of gender has influenced the analysis of population change, the efforts by activists to ensure reductions in fertility internationally,and the acceptance of birth control in local communities in Kenya. This analysis is complimented by Michele Le Doeuff in a discussion of the complex interplay between reduced fertility, increased literacy, and the function of work in the 'everyday life of every woman whatever her social class orlevel of education.' The question of how the sexes differ in their perception and processing of information about their external world is tackled by Lucia Jacobs within a biological and evolutionary context. She proposes that sexual selection should be given credit for the rapid evolution of ourunique abilities and complex culture concluding that 'it is the female that is the smaller, the "ecological" sex, best adapted to survive in the ecological niche of the species, and it is the male who carries the heavier burden or handicap of sexual selection, his fitness dependent on arbitrarytraits that reduce his competitive ability as a human being, although they are all too necessary for his competitive ability as a man.' The contribution of the sociobiologist Sarah Hrdy focussed on sexual selection, drawing on a wide range of research on the physiological and behavioural responsesof subhuman primates but, appropriately, drawing her inspiration from Spencer's own writings on physical beauty and its consequences for posterity. The chapters in this book were originally delivered as The Herbert Spencer Lectures in 1995 at Oxford University.
This book is an important introductory textbook on sexual politics and an original contribution to the reformulation of social and political theory. In a discussion of, among other issues, psychoanalysis, Marxism and feminist theories, the structure of gender relations, and working class feminism, Connell has produced a major work of synthesis and scholarship which will be of unique value to students and professionals in sociology, politics, women's studies and to anyone interested in the field of sexual politics. Visit www.raewynconnell.net
Drawing upon a wide range of recent scholarship and previously unpublished archival research, "Sex, Gender and Social Change in Britain Since 1880" describes the complex processes of change which have taken place in British sexual culture since the late 19th century, as well as significant continuities. Topics dealt with include changes in gender relations, the altering meanings and forms of marriage and heterosexual relationships, the growing separation of sex from reproduction, changing perceptions of attitudes towards same-sex relationships, sex education, alterations in the law, censorship and perceptions of obscenity, sexual crime, prostitution, and sexually-transmitted diseases and their impact.
In 1987, more than a decade before the dawn of queer theory, Ifi Amadiume wrote Male Daughters, Female Husbands, to critical acclaim. This compelling and highly original book frees the subject position of 'husband' from its affiliation with men, and goes on to do the same for other masculine attributes, dislocating sex, gender and sexual orientation. Boldly arguing that the notion of gender, as constructed in Western feminist discourse, did not exist in Africa before the colonial imposition of a dichotomous understanding of sexual difference, Male Daughters, Female Husbands examines the structures in African society that enabled people to achieve power, showing that roles were not rigidly masculinized nor feminized. At a time when gender and queer theory are viewed by some as being stuck in an identity-politics rut, this outstanding study not only warns against the danger of projecting a very specific, Western notion of difference onto other cultures, but calls us to question the very concept of gender itself.
Extrait de la couverture : "Sexual politics - from economic equality to anti-gay violence - is a vast area of debate. This exceptional book seeks to integrate gender and sexuality into the mainstream of social and political theory with the aim of challenging and transforming traditional assumptions in these areas. a synthesis of theories of gender from feminism to psychoanalysis, sex rle theory and sociobiology, the book offers a wide-ranging analysis of sexual politics and the dynamics of change, from working-class feminism to the dilemma of the "men's movement". It will be of unique value to students and professionals in sociology, politics, psychology, women's studies, gay studies and to anyone interested in sexual politics."
This 1996 collection of essays deals with the ways in which sex and gender are socially organized and conceptually construed in various cultures. Its scope is not limited to a series of cross-cultural issues of sex roles and sexual status but rather encompasses a wide range of sex-related practices and beliefs. Ceremonial virginity in Polynesian ritual androgynism in New Guinea, the valorization of young African bachelors, and fantasies of male self-sufficiency in South American myth are among the subjects discussed. Taken in their totality, these essays demonstrate that cultural notions sexuality and gender are seldom straightforward extrapolations of biological facts but are the outcome of social and cultural processes. The book is not only a compendium of symbolic approaches to gender but is also an important statement of the theoretical directions in anthropological research in this field.
This edited collection attempts to revive a unified anthropological approach to the study of sex and gender hierarchies. Seventeen distinguished contributors - from cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, archaeology, and anthropological linguistics - have produced a wealth of fascinating data on human and primate, ancient and contemporary, and 'primitive' and developed societies, covering topics such as mothering and child care, work, health, intrafamily relationships, and public power. The interdisciplinary approach successfully contributes to the development of better theory and methodology in anthropology.