What if structures could build themselves or adapt to fluctuating environments? Skylar Tibbits, Director of the Self-Assembly Lab in the Department of Architecture at MIT, Cambridge, MA, crosses the boundaries between architecture, biology, materials science and the arts, to envision a world where material components can self-assemble to provide adapting structures and optimized fabrication solutions. The book examines the three main ingredients for self-assembly, includes interviews with practitioners involved in the work and presents research projects related to these topics to provide a complete first look at exciting future technologies in construction and self-transforming material products.
Buildings are increasingly ‘dynamic’: equipped with sensors, actuators and controllers, they ‘self-adjust’ in response to changes in the external and internal environments and patterns of use. Building Dynamics asks how this change manifests itself and what it means for architecture as buildings weather, programs change, envelopes adapt, interiors are reconfigured, systems replaced. Contributors including Chuck Hoberman, Robert Kronenburg, David Leatherbarrow, Kas Oosterhuis, Enric Ruiz-Geli, and many others explore the changes buildings undergo – and the scale and speed at which these occur – examining which changes are necessary, useful, desirable, and possible. The first book to offer a coherent, comprehensive approach to this topic, it draws together arguments previously only available in scattered form. Featuring the latest technologies and design approaches used in contemporary practice, the editors provide numerous examples of cutting-edge work from leading designers and engineering firms working today. An essential text for students taking design studio classes or courses in theory or technology at any level, as well as professionals interested in the latest mechatronic technologies and design techniques.
Designing for a New Era of Collective Construction
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
We are now on the brink of a new era in construction – that of autonomous assembly. For some time, the widespread adoption of robotic and digital fabrication technologies has made it possible for architects and academic researchers to design non-standard, highly customised structures. These technologies have largely been limited by scalability, focusing mainly on top-down, bespoke fabrication projects, such as experimental pavilions and structures. Autonomous assembly and bottom-up construction techniques hold the promise of greater scalability, adaptability and potentially evolved design possibilities. By capitalising on the advances made in swarm robotics, the collective construction of the animal/insect kingdom, and advances in physical computational, programmable materials or self-assembly, architects and designers are now able to build from the bottom up. This issue presents future scenarios of autonomous assembly by highlighting the viability of decentralised, collective assembly systems, demonstrating the potential to deliver reconfigurable and adaptive solutions. Contributors include: Marcelo Coelho, Andong Liu, Robin Meier, Kieran Murphy and Heinrich Jaeger, Radhika Nagpal and Kirstin Petersen, and Zorana Zeravcic. Featured architects: Aranda\Lasch, Arup, Philippe Block, Gramazio Kohler Architects, Ibañez Kim, Achim Menges, Caitlin Mueller, Jose Sanchez, Athina Papadopoulou and Jared Laucks, and Skylar Tibbits.
A pioneering title, High Definition explores theonslaught of new and highly accurate digital metrology tools inlarge- and small-scale 3-D scanning and 3-D modelling. Capable ofmeasuring space to an accuracy of less than 1 mm, these tools offerunprecedented precision for the development and interrogation ofdesign before, during and post production. Over the last decade orso, the array of designers’ digital tools to propose and maketheir ideas have evolved significantly, but the absence ofhigh-accuracy, zero-tolerance design production has often remainedthe missing piece between design and fulfilment. Innovativetechnologies are thus substantially recalibrating the way thatdesigners operate in the world between the drawn and the made,having the power to transform the architect’s role from thatof visualiser to one that is intensely involved with therealisation of objects and buildings. High Definition willexamine the capabilities of advanced technologies in designproduction through their impact on design theory, practice andgreater levels of collaboration between design and manufacturing.It will permeate the entangled world between means and meaning andunravel a new understanding between the representation andproduction of architectural design. Contributors include: Philip Beesley, Centre for AdvancedSpatial Analysis, Gehry Technologies, Ruairi Glynn, Zaha HadidArchitects, ScanLAB Projects, Territorial Agency, Skylar Tibbits,Mike Webb.
Despite the exaggerated news of the untimely 'death of the detail'by Greg Lynn, the architectural detail is now more lifelike andactive than ever before. In this era of digital design andproduction technologies, new materials, parametrics, buildinginformation modeling (BIM), augmented realities and thenano-bio-information-computation consilience, the detail is now anincreasingly vital force in architecture. Though such digitallydesigned and produced details are diminishing in size to themolecular and nano levels, they are increasingly becoming morecomplex, multi-functional, high performance and self-replicating.Far from being a non-essential and final finish, this new type ofhighly evolved high-tech detail is rapidly becoming theindispensable and critical core, the (sometimes iconic) DNA of aninnovative new species of built environmental form that is spawningin scale and prominence, across product, interior, urban andlandscape design. This issue of AD re-examines the history,theories and design of the world’s most significant spatialdetails, and explores their innovative potentials and possibilitiesfor the future of architecture. Contributors include: Rachel Armstrong, Nic Clear, EdwardFord, Dennis Shelden, Skylar Tibbits. Featured architects: Ben van Berkel, Hernan Diaz Alonso,Peter Macapia, Carlo Ratti, Philippe Rahm, Patrik Schumacher, NeilSpiller.
Self-assembled nanostructures based on peptides and proteins have been investigated and presented as biomaterials with an impressive potential for a broad range of applications such as microfabrication, biosensing platforms, drug delivery systems, bioelectronics and tissue reparation. Through self-assembly peptides can give rise to a range of well-defined nanostructures such as nanotubes, nanofibers, nanoparticles, nanotapes, gels and nanorods. However, there are challenges when trying to integrate these biological nanostructures in the development of sensing devices or drug-delivery systems – challenges such as controlling the size during synthesis, the stability in liquid environments and manipulation. In "Micro and Nanofabrication Using Self-assembled Biological Nanostructures" the options and challenges when using self-assembled peptide nanostructures in micro and nanofabrication are discussed. The publication covers different ways to manipulate, deposit and immobilize on specific locations these biological nanostructures in order to use them in the fabrication of new structures or as part of biosensing platforms. Examples where researchers used biological nanostructures for those types of applications are provided. Finally, future applications are discussed as well as parameters to accelerate and expand the use of these biological building blocks in nano- and micro-fabrication processes by taking advantage of their impressive properties such as low-cost and short synthesis time.
The past few decades brought a revolution in computer software and hardware; today we are on the cusp of a materials revolution. If yesterday we programmed computers and other machines, today we program matter itself. This has created new capabilities in design, computing, and fabrication, which allow us to program proteins and bacteria, to generate self-transforming wood products and architectural details, and to create clothing from "intelligent textiles" that grow themselves. This book offers essays and sample projects from the front lines of the emerging field of active matter. Active matter and programmable materials are at the intersection of science, art, design, and engineering, with applications in fields from biology and computer science to architecture and fashion. These essays contextualize current work and explore recent research. Sample projects, generously illustrated in color, show the range of possibilities envisioned by their makers. Contributors explore the design of active material at scales from nano to micro, kilo, and even planetary. They investigate processes of self-assembly at a microscopic level; test new materials that can sense and actuate themselves; and examine the potential of active matter in the built environment and in living and artificial systems. Active Matter is an essential guide to a field that could shape the future of design.