This short, non-mathematical discussion of how the physical size of an animal affects its physiological functions can be read profitably by both students and professional scientists. Elegantly written, the book illuminates those physical laws controlling rates of diffusion and heat transfer, transfer of force and momentum, the strength of structures, the dynamics of locomotion, and so on. It shows how these laws have profound implications for animals of widely different size and scale and why the size of living things is of such fundamental importance.
Despite the obvious importance of measurement in any scientific endeavor, few students of the social sciences receive adequate training in the principles and problems of assigning numerical values to the subjects, objects, events, groups and operations they study, and still less in the process of translating theoretical ideas and concepts into variables. This kind of casualness with respect to measurement is often in marked contrast to their methodically designed research, which has grown out of subtle and sophisticated theoretical consideration.Scaling is intended to remedy this deficiency by providing a broad and detailed description of the major processes for developing measurement scales. The chapters, which include both classics in the field and the best of modern work, require no great mathematical sophistication, and go well beyond the conventional study of attitudes to the more general uses of scaling. They enable the student and researcher to examine the development of measures of scalability and the problems and weaknesses they present, to become familiar with the development of tests of significance for reproducibility and scalability and the need for them, and to examine the lively history of the subject and experience the excitement that can be secured from sharing with a creative author the first report of his insight.Part One presents a series of general articles that deal in philosophic terms with the problem of measurement, with what is meant by measurement and scaling as well as the notions underlying the process of measuring. Part Two deals with the scaling methods developed by L. L. Thurstone, including paired comparison scaling, equal-appearing interval scaling, and successive interval scaling. The third part focuses upon scalogram analysis, presenting the background, rationale and procedures for Guttman scaling. The fourth part is concerned with summated rating, or Likert scaling. Part Five is a consideration of unfold
Wall Street Journal Bestseller "The pick of 2014's management books." –Andrew Hill, Financial Times "One of the top business books of the year." –Harvey Schacter, The Globe and Mail Bestselling author, Robert Sutton and Stanford colleague, Huggy Rao tackle a challenge that determines every organization’s success: how to scale up farther, faster, and more effectively as an organization grows. Sutton and Rao have devoted much of the last decade to uncovering what it takes to build and uncover pockets of exemplary performance, to help spread them, and to keep recharging organizations with ever better work practices. Drawing on inside accounts and case studies and academic research from a wealth of industries-- including start-ups, pharmaceuticals, airlines, retail, financial services, high-tech, education, non-profits, government, and healthcare-- Sutton and Rao identify the key scaling challenges that confront every organization. They tackle the difficult trade-offs that organizations must make between whether to encourage individualized approaches tailored to local needs or to replicate the same practices and customs as an organization or program expands. They reveal how the best leaders and teams develop, spread, and instill the right mindsets in their people-- rather than ruining or watering down the very things that have fueled successful growth in the past. They unpack the principles that help to cascade excellence throughout an organization, as well as show how to eliminate destructive beliefs and behaviors that will hold them back. Scaling Up Excellence is the first major business book devoted to this universal and vexing challenge and it is destined to become the standard bearer in the field.
A thoroughly modern graduate-level introduction to the theory of critical behaviour. Covers phase transitions, mean field theory, phase diagrams, fixed points, cross-over behaviour, finite-size scaling, a simple approach to the epsilon expansion, low-dimensional systems, surface critical behaviour, random systems, percolation, polymer statistics, critical dynamics and conformal symmetry. Includes many problems.
James H. Brown,Santa Fe Institute (Santa Fe, N.M.)
Author: James H. Brown,Santa Fe Institute (Santa Fe, N.M.)
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Scaling relationships have been a persistent theme in biology at least since the time of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo. Because scaling relationships are among the most general empirical patterns in biology, they have stimulated research to develop mechanistic hypotheses and mathematical models. While there have been many excellent empirical and theoretical investigations, there has been little attempt to synthesize this diverse but interrelated area of biology. In an effort to fill this void, Scaling in Biology, the first general treatment of scaling in biology in over 15 years, covers a broad spectrum of the most relevant topics in a series of chapters written by experts in the field. Some of those topics discussed include allometry and fractal structure, branching of vascular systems of mammals and plants, biomechanical and life history of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, and species-area patterns of biological diversity. Many more examples are included within this text to complete the broader picture. Scaling in Biology conveys the diversity, promise, and excitement of current research in this area, in a format accessible to a wide audience of not only specialists in the various sub-disciplines, but also students and anyone with a serious interest in biology.
How a Few Companies Make It... and Why the Rest Don't
Author: Verne Harnish
It's been over a decade since Verne Harnish's best-selling book Mastering the Rockefeller Habits was first released. Scaling Up: How a Few Companies Make It...and Why the Rest Don't is the first major revision of this business classic. In Scaling Up, Harnish and his team share practical tools and techniques for building an industry-dominating business. These approaches have been honed from over three decades of advising tens of thousands of CEOs and executives and helping them navigate the increasing complexities (and weight) that come with scaling up a venture. This book is written so everyone -- from frontline employees to senior executives -- can get aligned in contributing to the growth of a firm. There's no reason to do it alone, yet many top leaders feel like they are the ones dragging the rest of the organization up the S-curve of growth. The goal of this book is to help you turn what feels like an anchor into wind at your back -- creating a company where the team is engaged; the customers are doing your marketing; and everyone is making money. To accomplish this, Scaling Up focuses on the four major decision areas every company must get right: People, Strategy, Execution, and Cash. The book includes a series of new one-page tools including the updated One-Page Strategic Plan and the Rockefeller Habits ChecklistTM, which more than 40,000 firms around the globe have used to scale their companies successfully -- many to $1 billion and beyond.Running a business is ultimately about freedom. Scaling Up shows business leaders how to get their organizations moving in sync to create something significant and enjoy the ride.
Scaling (power-type) laws reveal the fundamental property of the phenomena--self similarity. Self-similar (scaling) phenomena repeat themselves in time and/or space. The property of self-similarity simplifies substantially the mathematical modeling of phenomena and its analysis--experimental, analytical and computational. The book begins from a non-traditional exposition of dimensional analysis, physical similarity theory and general theory of scaling phenomena. Classical examples of scaling phenomena are presented. It is demonstrated that scaling comes on a stage when the influence of fine details of initial and/or boundary conditions disappeared but the system is still far from ultimate equilibrium state (intermediate asymptotics). It is explained why the dimensional analysis as a rule is insufficient for establishing self-similarity and constructing scaling variables. Important examples of scaling phenomena for which the dimensional analysis is insufficient (self-similarities of the second kind) are presented and discussed. A close connection of intermediate asymptotics and self-similarities of the second kind with a fundamental concept of theoretical physics, the renormalization group, is explained and discussed. Numerous examples from various fields--from theoretical biology to fracture mechanics, turbulence, flame propagation, flow in porous strata, atmospheric and oceanic phenomena are presented for which the ideas of scaling, intermediate asymptotics, self-similarity and renormalization group were of decisive value in modeling.
Richard G. Netemeyer,William O. Bearden,Subhash Sharma
Author: Richard G. Netemeyer,William O. Bearden,Subhash Sharma
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Category: Social Science
Scaling Procedures: Issues and Applications examines the issues involved in developing and validating multi-item self-report scales of latent constructs. Distinguished researchers and award-winning educators Richard G. Netemeyer, William O. Bearden, and Subhash Sharma present a four-step approach for multi-indicator scale development. With these steps, the authors include relevant empirical examples and a review of the concepts of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. Scaling Procedures: Issues and Applications supplies cutting-edge strategies for developing and refining measures. Providing concise chapter introductions and summaries, as well as numerous tables, figures, and exhibits, the authors present recommended steps and overlapping activities in a logical, sequential progression.
International Workshop and Collection of Articles Honoring Professor Antonio Coniglio on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday
Author: Fereydoon Family
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Technology & Engineering
Investigation of the fractal and scaling properties of disordered systems has recently become a focus of great interest in research. Disordered or amorphous materials, like glasses, polymers, gels, colloids, ceramic superconductors and random alloys or magnets, do not have a homogeneous microscopic structure. The microscopic environment varies randomly from site to site in the system and this randomness adds to the complexity and the richness of the properties of these materials. A particularly challenging aspect of random systems is their dynamical behavior. Relaxation in disordered systems generally follows an unusual time-dependent trajectory. Applications of scaling and fractal concepts in disordered systems have become a broad area of interdisciplinary research, involving studies of the physics, chemistry, mathematics, biology and engineering aspects of random systems. This book is intended for specialists as well as graduate and postdoctoral students working in condensed-matter or statistical physics. It provides state-of-the-art information on the latest developments in this important and timely topic. The book is divided into three parts: Part I deals with critical phenomena, Part II is devoted to discussion of slow dynamics and Part III involves the application of scaling concepts to random systems. The effects of disorder at the mesoscopic scale as well as the latest results on the dynamical properties of disordered systems are presented. In particular, recent developments in static and dynamic scaling theories and applications of fractal concepts to disordered systems are discussed.
This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals. In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably. Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology and statistics communities have contributed to the rapidly growing statistical and psychometric methodologies used in test equating, scaling and linking. In addition to the literature covered in previous editions, this new edition presents coverage of significant recent research. In order to assist researchers, advanced graduate students and testing professionals, examples are used frequently and conceptual issues are stressed. New material includes model determination in log-linear smoothing, in-depth presentation of chained linear and equipercentile equating, equating criteria, test scoring and a new section on scores for mixed-format tests. In the third edition, each chapter contains a reference list, rather than having a single reference list at the end of the volume The themes of the third edition include: * the purposes of equating, scaling and linking and their practical context * data collection designs * statistical methodology * designing reasonable and useful equating, scaling, and linking studies * importance of test development and quality control processes to equating * equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating
Provides an introduction to the fundamentals of scaling theory and construction, focusing on a variety of unidimensional scaling models. The authors present an overview and comparative analysis of such techniques as Thurstone scaling, Likert scaling, Guttman scaling, and unfolding theory, with emphasis on their varying conceptions of dimensionality.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Winter Meeting,Pradip Saha,N. M. Farukhi,American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Heat Transfer Division
The first edition was released in 1996 and has sold close to 2200 copies. Provides an up-to-date comprehensive treatment of MDS, a statistical technique used to analyze the structure of similarity or dissimilarity data in multidimensional space. The authors have added three chapters and exercise sets. The text is being moved from SSS to SSPP. The book is suitable for courses in statistics for the social or managerial sciences as well as for advanced courses on MDS. All the mathematics required for more advanced topics is developed systematically in the text.
Outlines a set of techniques that enable a researcher to discuss the "hidden structure" of large data bases. These techniques use proximities, measures which indicate how similar or different objects are, to find a configuration of points which reflects the structure in the data.
Author: Yakov Pachepsky,David E. Radcliffe,H. Magdi Selim
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The scaling issue remains one of the largest problems in soil science and hydrology. This book is a unique compendium of ideas, conceptual approaches, techniques, and methodologies for scaling soil physical properties. Scaling Methods in Soil Physics covers many methods of scaling that will be useful in helping scientists across a range of soil-related disciplines. The first single-source reference in this developing field, the text will help readers develop a greater understanding of how to interpret remote sensing data, delineate management zones in agricultural fields, and estimate water yield and geochemical fluxes in watersheds, among other applications. The authors present the state-of-the-art in addressing the fundamental scale-bridging problem and provide case studies crossing several levels of scale hierarchy. Scaling Methods in Soil Physics offers novel approaches based on geostatistics, artificial intelligence, wavelet transforms, fractal theory, soil-landscape relationships, computer simulations, and advances in theories of scale developed and tested to facilitate the use of soil physics data in a wide variety of soil/land/earth-related applications.
This book is concerned with a leading-edge topic of great interest and importance, exemplifying the relationship between experimental research, material modeling, structural analysis and design. It focuses on the effect of structure size on structural strength and failure behaviour. Bazant's theory has found wide application to all quasibrittle materials, including rocks, ice, modern fiber composites and tough ceramics. The topic of energetic scaling, considered controversial until recently, is finally getting the attention it deserves, mainly as a result of Bazant's pioneering work. In this new edition an extra section of data and new appendices covering twelve new application developments are included. The first book to show the 'size effect' theory of structure size on strength Presents the principles and applications of Bazant's pioneering work on structural strength Revised edition with new material on topics including asymptotic matching, flexural strength of fiber-composite laminates, polymeric foam fractures and the design of reinforced concrete beams