This short, non-mathematical discussion of how the physical size of an animal affects its physiological functions can be read profitably by both students and professional scientists. Elegantly written, the book illuminates those physical laws controlling rates of diffusion and heat transfer, transfer of force and momentum, the strength of structures, the dynamics of locomotion, and so on. It shows how these laws have profound implications for animals of widely different size and scale and why the size of living things is of such fundamental importance.
Despite the obvious importance of measurement in any scientific endeavor, few students of the social sciences receive adequate training in the principles and problems of assigning numerical values to the subjects, objects, events, groups and operations they study, and still less in the process of translating theoretical ideas and concepts into variables. This kind of casualness with respect to measurement is often in marked contrast to their methodically designed research, which has grown out of subtle and sophisticated theoretical consideration.Scaling is intended to remedy this deficiency by providing a broad and detailed description of the major processes for developing measurement scales. The chapters, which include both classics in the field and the best of modern work, require no great mathematical sophistication, and go well beyond the conventional study of attitudes to the more general uses of scaling. They enable the student and researcher to examine the development of measures of scalability and the problems and weaknesses they present, to become familiar with the development of tests of significance for reproducibility and scalability and the need for them, and to examine the lively history of the subject and experience the excitement that can be secured from sharing with a creative author the first report of his insight.Part One presents a series of general articles that deal in philosophic terms with the problem of measurement, with what is meant by measurement and scaling as well as the notions underlying the process of measuring. Part Two deals with the scaling methods developed by L. L. Thurstone, including paired comparison scaling, equal-appearing interval scaling, and successive interval scaling. The third part focuses upon scalogram analysis, presenting the background, rationale and procedures for Guttman scaling. The fourth part is concerned with summated rating, or Likert scaling. Part Five is a consideration of unfold
By providing an introduction to test equating which both discusses the most frequently used equating methodologies and covering many of the practical issues involved, this volume expands upon the coverage of the first edition by providing a new chapter on test scaling and a second on test linking.
The first edition was released in 1996 and has sold close to 2200 copies. Provides an up-to-date comprehensive treatment of MDS, a statistical technique used to analyze the structure of similarity or dissimilarity data in multidimensional space. The authors have added three chapters and exercise sets. The text is being moved from SSS to SSPP. The book is suitable for courses in statistics for the social or managerial sciences as well as for advanced courses on MDS. All the mathematics required for more advanced topics is developed systematically in the text.
The scaling issue remains one of the largest problems in soil science and hydrology. This book is a unique compendium of ideas, conceptual approaches, techniques, and methodologies for scaling soil physical properties. Scaling Methods in Soil Physics covers many methods of scaling that will be useful in helping scientists across a range of soil-related disciplines. The first single-source reference in this developing field, the text will help readers develop a greater understanding of how to interpret remote sensing data, delineate management zones in agricultural fields, and estimate water yield and geochemical fluxes in watersheds, among other applications. The authors present the state-of-the-art in addressing the fundamental scale-bridging problem and provide case studies crossing several levels of scale hierarchy. Scaling Methods in Soil Physics offers novel approaches based on geostatistics, artificial intelligence, wavelet transforms, fractal theory, soil-landscape relationships, computer simulations, and advances in theories of scale developed and tested to facilitate the use of soil physics data in a wide variety of soil/land/earth-related applications.
Outlines a set of techniques that enables a researcher to explore the hidden structure of large databases. These techniques use proximities to find a configuration of points that reflect the structure in the data. Learn more about "The Little Green Book" - QASS Series! Click Here
This book is concerned with a leading-edge topic of great interest and importance, exemplifying the relationship between experimental research, material modeling, structural analysis and design. It focuses on the effect of structure size on structural strength and failure behaviour. Bazant's theory has found wide application to all quasibrittle materials, including rocks, ice, modern fiber composites and tough ceramics. The topic of energetic scaling, considered controversial until recently, is finally getting the attention it deserves, mainly as a result of Bazant's pioneering work. In this new edition an extra section of data and new appendices covering twelve new application developments are included. The first book to show the 'size effect' theory of structure size on strength Presents the principles and applications of Bazant's pioneering work on structural strength Revised edition with new material on topics including asymptotic matching, flexural strength of fiber-composite laminates, polymeric foam fractures and the design of reinforced concrete beams