Roman Fortresses and their Legions had its origins in a conference held in 1992, and contains 11 papers by leading Roman military archaeologists on the fortresses of Roman legions from Britain, Germany and the Danube region to the eastern empire. It will appeal to both general and specialist readers interested in Roman military archaeology. Historians, including the pioneer antiquaries, have long realised that the study of the legions is fundamental to our understanding of the history of the Roman Empire. The essays in this volume, contributed by some of today's foremost scholars of Roman army studies, range across the whole of the Roman Empire - including Britain, the Danube lands and the eastern provinces - and cover a wide variety of themes. Authors effectively combine evidence derived from ancient sources and inscriptions with the rapidly growing amount of information and detail obtained from archaeological excavation. The volume covers the period from Augustus, when the plans of permanent legionary fortresses were beginning to evolve, to the Late Empire, when the legion was a very different body from that with which we are familiar in the early imperial period. The essays are dedicated to the late George C Boon FSA, FRHistS to mark his vast contribution to Roman scholarship.
Rome's rise to empire is often said to have owed much to the efficiency and military skill of her armies and their technological superiority over barbarian enemies. But just how 'advanced' was Roman military equipment? What were its origins and how did it evolve? The authors of this book have gathered a wealth of evidence from all over the Roman Empire's excavated examples as well as pictorial and documentary sources to present a picture of what range of equipment would be available at any given time, what it would look like and how it would function. They examine how certain pieces were adopted from Rome's enemies and adapted to particular conditions of warfare prevailing in different parts of the Empire. They also investigate in detail the technology of military equipment and the means by which it was produced, and discuss wider questions such as the status of the soldier in Roman society. Both the specially prepared illustrations and the text have been completely revised for the second edition of this detailed and authoritative handbook, bringing it up to date with the very latest research. It illustrates each element in the equipment of the Roman soldier, from his helmet to his boots, his insignia, his tools and his weapons. This book will appeal to archaeologists, ancient and military historians as well as the generally informed and inquisitive reader.
In Perceiving War and the Military, Laury Sarti highlights the significance of a permanently increasing contact with armed violence for the gradual transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, analysing contemporary ideas and concepts of war and the military.
S. Thomas Parker,Samuel Thomas Parker,John Wilson Betlyon
Final Report on the Limes Arabicus Project, 1980-1989
Author: S. Thomas Parker,Samuel Thomas Parker,John Wilson Betlyon
Publisher: Dumbarton Oaks
Until the 1980s, the Roman frontier in modern Jordan was among the least studied of the empire's far-flung border regions. From 1980 until 1989, excavation focused on the late Roman legionary fortress of el-Lejjun as well as four smaller but contemporaneous forts. This report presents detailed results from the excavated forts, a broad range of material evidence from animal bones to bedouin burials, and provides a synthesis of the history of this frontier, which witnessed the first confrontation between the Byzantine Empire and the forces of Islam.
This book completely re-evaluates the evidence for, and the interpretation of, the rule of the kings of Late Iron Age Britain: Cunobelin and Verica. Within a few generations of their reigns, after one died and the other had fled, Rome’s ceremonial centres had been transformed into the magnificence of Roman towns with monumental public buildings and Britannia examines these kings’ long-lasting legacy in the creation of Britannia. Among the topics considered are: the links between Iron Age king of Britain and Rome before the Claudian conquest the creation of the towns of Roman Britain the different natures of 'Roman identity' the long lasting influence of the kings on the development of the province the widely different ways that archaeologists have read the evidence. Examining the kings' legacy in the creation of the Roman province of Britannia, the book examines the interface of two worlds and how much each owed to the other.
Between 1968 and 1977, archaeological excavations were undertaken at the Roman legionary fortress of Carnuntum (Bad Deutsch-Altenburg, Lower Austria) by the former Limes Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Austrian Archaeological Institute. Carnuntum was built around AD 4050 and was finally abandoned in the fifth century AD, so the history of the site is quite representative for the development of the Roman limes in this part of the Pannonian frontier. The first section of this volume clearly presents an analysis of the complex building sequence of the fortress' eastern praetentura, which reflects the major lines of development of the entire site. The second section intends to give an overview of the finds from stratified contexts, as well as to present material that has until now remained unpublished. The final analysis deals with selected culture-historical questions of the Carnuntum area, such as aspects of continuity and discontinuity between Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages.
This book publishes the PhD thesis of the late Thomas Blagg, widely regarded as the foremost scholar of Roman architecture and architectural sculpture of recent times. Well-written, clearly presented and well-illustrated, his thesis is a survey of decorated stonework that was used in the construction and embellishment of Roman buildings in Britain. After a brief look at the tools and techniques used, he presents a classification scheme and discussion of the different elements, including decorated capitals, bases, shafts, pilasters and decorative mouldings. This invaluable collection of source material also provides a broader study of craft production, mason and techniques, and historical and social contexts.
Numismatic chronicle and journal of the Royal Numismatic Society
Final Report on the Limes Arabicus Project, 1980-1989
Author: Samuel Thomas Parker
Category: Excavations (Archaeology)
Until the 1980s, the Roman frontier in modern Jordan was among the least studied of the empire's far-flung border regions. From 1980 until 1989, the Limes Arabicus Project investigated the frontier east of the Dead Sea. Excavation focused on the late Roman legionary fortress of el-Lejjun as well as soundings of four smaller but contemporaneous forts. The project's regional survey recorded over five hundred other archaeological sites in the area, dating from the Paleolithic to the Late Islamic periods. This report presents detailed results from the excavated forts, a broad range of material cultural evidence from animal bones to bedouin burials, and provides a synthesis of the history of this frontier, which witnessed the first confrontation between the Byzantine Empire and the forces of Islam.
So much has been written about the Roman army in Britain that the vital role of the navy - both in support of the army and in the defence of this distant Roman province - has been largely overlooked. In providing the first comprehensive account of the Roman navy's importance in the conquest and defence of Britain, David Mason has redressed the balance. Combining archaeological evidence from recently excavated ships and harbour works with information from ancient sources, the author demonstrates the fleet's vital importance to the success of the Roman military conquest. He also provides new insights into the logistics and tactics of the Roman naval forces and their close cooperation with the Roman army.
A Study of Roman Face Pots from Italy and the Western Provinces of the Roman Empire
Author: Gillian Braithwaite
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
Category: Social Science
In a world where pottery studies have tended to become increasingly insular as the volume of excavated pottery grows ever greater, Roman face pots do in fact provide a discrete body of material that is clearly inter-related and stretches across many Roman provincial boundaries and modern national frontiers, offering a particular insight into the movement of ideas and traditions within the Roman world. Contents: Chapter 1: The pre-Roman face anthropomorphic pottery and masks of Greece, the Balkans and the East Mediterranean from the Neolithic to the Roman Period; Chapter 2: The pre-Roman anthropomorphic pottery and face masks of Western Europe from the Neolithic to the Roman period; Chapter 3: The face pots of Roman Italy; Chapter 4: The face pots of the Lower and Middle Rhineland; Chapter 5: The face pots of France, Belgium and Spain; Chapter 6: The face pots of the Rhine-Danube corner; Chapter 7: The face pots of the Upper Danube; Chapter 8: The face pots of Pannonia, Moesia and Dacia; Chapter 9: The face pots of Roman Britain; Chapter 10: Face jars and face beakers: one tradition or two; Chapter 11: The military Connection; Chapter 12: Whose were the faces?; Chapter 13: How were face pots used?; Appendix 1: Notes on Dionysus-Bacchus-Liber and other deities associated with him; Appendix 2: A rough guide to the movements of the legions stationed in the Rhineland, the Danubian provinces and in Britain; Appendices 3: The bust vases of north-east Gallia Belgica; Appendix 4: Roman head vases, balsamaria and steelyard weights; Appendix 5: Masks from the Roman period; Appendix 6: Roman snake pots.